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C/ ^ ’ -^nrSNj' - ^ - L — *• — — -j ~ 

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A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests 5, 



w 



3 



VOL. XIX. -No. I. » 
Established 1881. f 



PHILADELPHIA. JANUARY, 1899. 



J Fifty Cents Per Year. 
( Single Copies, 5 Cts. 



Henry Disston & Sons," keystone 

* PHILADELPHIA, PA., U.S. A. a* SAW, TOOL, STEEL AND FILE WORKS' 

SAWS, FILES AND TOOLS FOR THE MARKETS OF THE WORLD. 



No. ' nd Saw. 






5.4 iaro* 

* KM»«. VlMEIMl .* 



^ * v-ni % \ w%\ » »m nmui and 

Our Saws have all the Latest Improvements, anil are warranted superior to all others. • now 

i^Äj: s , tU"x ,l !!r , UfSÄ rf«*«* «•»>>«. th. ««*<*,. * «, >*..* ° f 

i vk! , t n* sul.l >v all ih. I if >m jn. > * Wholesale „ \ u 1 in tin uorl. I hey have gained a universal reputation among mechanic hour 

And we Guarantee a better Article, at the same Price, than any other Mouse in the World. »fcrce 

ALL (ROODS D LA HI. NO Ot’U KAMK AHE FULLY WARRANTED UatiyS 



irdnys 



TAINTOR 
POSITIVE 
SAW SET 

TIhhiiiumI« Ilf I 1 I s foul *' 
»I» il, uim! ! hn 
-i'« l»ik.l'l> ruin in t*ii)|*i| l»y 
* Mi is lio u«t* t hr in. 



If >our ll*nlu >irr |>e*U 
rr not liftinllr thrm. 

»h*ii‘t t.ikr mii liifrrh.r art 
" l«n «n«t ion« one 
•» if** fn«f I«. • ml.»» 

TAiNTur Mro. eo. 

o to 15 MURRAY ST. 

M vv \ nw h . 



\ • TO 



r t $ 

'T’T n --in 

Pi 






. 



PS 






!^oe o' 



mam 

SPRING 

f _ THE BEST._ 

l "PRACTICALLY 
\ UNBREAKABLE’, 

'Says the World':. Fan Award (f, 



1*5 is had 

^ public 
3 . eight- 
's! per dfiy. 
passed 

I y all city 
e to con- 
s doing city 



rj\ 



• I- 



I- J K 



^ | M The McCabe Hanger Manufacturing Co. 

* || 532 W 22d Street N. Y. City. 

( I “TRUE AS A DIE/» 

f~£] WROUGHT STEEL LOCKS 

; OKOIUI: PIMSH 

I I 

I - Strong, Durable, Inexpensive 

! l or 5ale by all Hardware Dealers 

M 0 I Carpcntt is will fippicdtU* the fact that the 

^ rrl 1 J uiriisurfiticiith of tlirsi- locks arc and Must be 

* exat t, as true as a «lie can. make them. No 

trouble and vexation in fitting .... 

I \J € nt.« lot, ii«* of Wrought M«m*I l«oriti »nil Lock 

* LIU Mm« on »|»|»ll« > Mtt«itB 

RUSSELL & ERWIN M’F’G CO. 

Britain, Conn. Chicago- Now York. 

Philadelphia. Baltimore. 



l£Q 

1 



THE ONLY ABSOLUTELY NOISELESS 
DOOR HANGER ON THE MARKET... 



UNION CARPENTERS ASK -«TTT ~ 

NEWBURGH, KEYSTONE, UNION-M^"^ 

Overolls« Coats^ Pants and Carpenters! ,t?^ n w;;; 

Your dealer will gladly r t for Sunday 

furnish you these ex- £ u »: . ^ 

cellcnt goods if you ask v .(lade, ^^^^‘eded 

for them. Sold, y for 

CLEVELAND & WHITEHILL CO. 



Cut. 

Made, 

Sold, 



For l ottoin Prices 
Mrnti n this P.tj*rr 



The M«*Cal»c Parlor 
1 »oor i langer, No. 2 



NEWEVROH, ST. Y. 

MOORE’S 

IMPROVED BROUGHT STEEL STORM 
[ , I WINDOW FASTENERS 




, the 
cd an 
iuetis 
rpen- 
d It. 



With these fasteners, stor windows can , ,t<-rs 
he adjusted moie easily, and held in place' 1 * 10 
more securely, than in anv other way yet ij? 1 '** 
Invented. s on 

NO LADDER REQUIRED, ^dl 

l*‘asteiied fron the inside, the only tool ? t* 1 ' 
necessary l>eing a small ha.mner. ’ >r 

Sriid for ( irculHr*. , iL ' y t-cy.o 

\ f 

W > 

The Stanley Works, 






Nl.W BRITAIN, CONN. £ 

7i) Chambers St. ‘rL ’ 

I If # 






THE CAR PEWTER 



High d^ADE machinery STANDARD WOOD WORKING MACHINERY 







No 1 Vaeiity W* i 4 Wcnct». 

A moat vatnqfcie roe chi for ( »rpenton, 

LiUde**, Smh, Door at i\ RLn«l Mukera, etc., 
• on ft fi»w mq perform * of work 

which would oth«i^u« r* Tt> the uee of 
«▼•Mil IDAchlttM. 



CARPENTERS, BUILDERS, SASH, _ 

DOOR, BLIND MAKERS, ETC. ^ 64 ) 

Batluiato* on Single Machlnae or RqalpuieuU 

Ask for “ Wood Worker ” Catalogue. 

J A F3.V SC Co.. No. 1 Plahh, Match«» k*v Mouu»««. 

* 1 W J VV * Plane., one elde, U loche, wide by « luohee 

thick. 

^te^Si4*S34 W. Front St., Matches» 11 Inch** wide; 

A n Invaluable machine for Miwll or mtxilua 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. •«*«"* ^°P 




OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

If In need of anything in our lino permit u< to 
figure with jou 9 M WO oon moat probably 
lav« you money. 

Illustrated 312 page oatalogue free If yeo 
base gaed aee far It. 

The Egan Company, 

406*406 W, Front Street, 

'^m^CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



FOOT $ HAND POWER MACHINERY 

00 a rF ere outfits. 

Carpenter « and ullders without steam power ^ 



can • »cvcv :u’ 

by u»;ng out 

Mao ais Sc . 

^SEWEC^ 

»a Wetter St 



.otnpete with the large shops 
v I ibor Savins /laihlnary. 

4 THAI. Catalogue Feci. 

* ALLS MFG. CO. 

encca Falls, N. Y., U. S A 




HE LATEST AND BEST. 






AIMING (h^TH 
.»'by 20 inches, ■* 
Simple, P^rneAL^p 

ValJasle. mV 

Price: #lg 






irl 



>>• ^ 



OUR NO. 141 
UPRI GHT MOU LDER 

Cutters can be kept low on 
spindles at all times. 

Spindles are of best cruci- 
ble steel, with taper bear- 
ings — top and bottom — and 
run iu phosphor bronze box- 
es, the upper boxes being of 
the “fountain’* type, supply- 
ing a continual flow of oil 
over all parts of the bearing. 

Write us for further infor- 
mation, also for new cata 
logue. 

S. A. WOODS MACHINE CO. 

South Boston. Mass. 



WM 

6 Y///.\ 



Post Paid 



THE SQUARE ROOT 
DELINEATOR 

CR KCY TO TMF. .STL CL 

BY A.W. WOODS. 

GfYCS ffi PLAIN nsuqc& / He L '*p*> 
* r/seti P< KH. xvtca. tins aho 
■* rr>(f even aho uneven prr . -04 

nurHL' ?. liOARO P.eA-ZUpt CTC. 
5t*r f-w-. paid. PRi<*t $1.00 

^THE CARPENTER. 




RThn iJOSCntR 



MANUFACTURER 



Sauoatuck, Conn. 



Carpenters' Bench and Moulding 

PLANES 



Hand Made. 






ikDLti, > 
MALLETS, &c. 



Aiir you* hardwara oralrr pop 

DOSCHER'S PLANES 



TOWER k LYON, 

H Mauufacturcra of 

(' - FINE TOOLS. 

Chaplin's Fat. Planes. 

Corrugated Face or Smooth Faee. 

Checkered Robber Handles or Eaameled 
Wood Handles. 

LEVER adjustment. 

( TOWER’S CHAMPION SCREW DRIVERS, 

^•paU) Mbl Twtai Teafk foupr, * Bolid Tended BoliUr. Heavy Kail Fmli. Flnud Handlet. 

f T R»WAW or IWTATIOMI. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING 

Ardhltdotar«; Mechanic«; Nsohiolosl Drawing 1 KlMtri«U?i St warn Xnfinwrioc- Stat- 
ionary, Locomotive or Murine j Civil Engineering 1 Railroad Lngm»enng ; Bridge 
Enflneeri if ; Municipal Engineering} Hydraullo Engineering j Plumbing and fleeting ( 
Coal and Metal Mining} Proe peeling, and the Euglleh Branehee. 

Th« onurvee emuinatu« w ttb a<JM». r, m Anthniotic. so the! to terwll 11 It only Msssaasry 
to kn»w how to re*>l ami write. Architekt, are «Wore si Undid export unites to w mss toili 
tious to bcr,,ni6 hclf-supportinf. Stmi«utl make ra| >4 t*r*»graaa la Uaralag I*» Draw an 1 it \ 5 rH 
letter. A (k*hularsh>p «ntiilvs the hilds r to tuition until )>• is <|u*hft* 4 tu rerelvt 1L« Di- 1 

plume, tio muirr )i«w I. .1,4 it mn is*« a *r li*»w oft*»» ll tuay I« n*r*aaarr tu ret lew, I| A ] I 

•peewllw ~ * •* '•* • -•* 4 •• »‘*|«rs. lwnl»!»Ml. Mmplltwt. 11MIJ 

.W/y**»’ * <■ tFtfalar L X »/ s,.u.a./ cA< $*Ljt n gue »rtsA to «tody, to IF 1 

Tie International Correspondence Schools, B2 069, Scranton, Fa |i|J| 



The largeetaad most 

— , cempJeta llna of Wood 

/T X working Mnohluary In 

Y the world for Carpea- 

[ I tors and Joiners and 

\vVvd Wood -workers goner- 

Amsrisan Wood Worklmg 
"3 Machlag Oo* 

V SI 7 (X'nBSOM TO 

^ F H .Clemen i Co.. (Den Cove 

■IpcBn Mch. CO . Ltd., Ooodrll <t 
Water«, lioyi A Bro. ( o., 
The Leri lloustou Co , 
|lh| 9 i Lehman Mch Co., MU*at>- 

\ SfEn / kee Hander Mfg Oo.. (X B. 

Rogers • Co , Rowley A 
Herman«» Co.. WUllaroa 
gort Mch. Oo., Young Broe. 

Address nearest aalee room and stale your require- 
ments : IQS Llbsrty HU. N**w York 46 B. Canal Ht , 
rhlcago. M P«nrl Ht , Boston Church and Basin 
HU /Williamsport Ps. 



ALLEN B. RORKE 
Builder 



Contractor 



Office» i — 

Philadelphia Bourn, 



...PHILADELPHIA 





snrr tbs trade mark CHAMPION Is oa ernih blade. 



1 I9,G8J COPIES MONTHLY 

I 4L « 

Acvnif iv u4f fedium for Tool Manufaoturera, Wood 
Fotmj. .nhoiry, Hardware, Lumber and Building 
■ *'V ^.L . 'to tif Special Advantage to Contractors, 

ha2k’$Q’* J'.‘- Hu lines» Men 




V Ifesign 



Satisfaction 

is given all around when the house is 
trimmed with Sargent’s Hardware. The 
Architect is pleased because he speci- 
fied it ; the owner is pleased each time 
he looks at the trimmings because they 
add so much to the beauty of the home, 
and everybody is pleased with the work- 
ing of Sargent's Easy Spring Locks. 

Sargent & Company, 

Maker« oi Artistic Hardware and Fiat 

New York ; and New Haven. Conn. 



4 * ^ 

>> % 




I 



} 






rosso 




mm 



TRI 













r T& ^ v ^ ^ 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 




VOL. XIX.— No. I. 
Established 1881. 

Report of the Hoard of Canvassers 



Phila , I’A , Dec. 23, 1X9X. 

This is to certify that we have can- 
vassed the returns on the proposed 
amendments and resolutions submit- 
ted by »he New York Convention, with 
the result as shown below. We find 
that all the questions have been car- 
riel by the necessary two thirds ma- 
jorities, with the exception of the two 
resdutions and amendments Nos six 
and fifteen. 

Canvassers, 



PHILADELPHIA, JANUARY, 1899. 



M 


A 


.. Maher, 






L 


U 109, 


, Brooklyn, 


N. Y., 


D 


F 


. 1 * KÄTHE RSTON, 






L 


U 7*5 


. New York, 




W 


F.St.KY C 


Hall, 






L 


U. s. I 


'hlladelphia 




R »olUttUi 




Fa« 




■ »all 


No. i 




3. 1 


3 938 


I/OSt. 


“ 2 




a . 423 


4 57/ 


* * 


Amendment 


Fot 


AgainM 


Krault 


No. 1 




6 |*5 


794 


Carried. 


•• 2 




5 So'» 


1.742 


II 


M J 




V <>* 


2.040 


4 • 


M 4 




5 82 ^ 


1.698 


• 1 


•• 5 




0 447 


953 


la 


•• 6 




j I 1 .S 


3.105 


Lost. 


• 1 — 

i 




5.8“* 


1.493 


Carried. 


•• 8 




5.7«' 


1.561 


• I 


** 9 




5*488 


1.462 


1 1 


*• TO 




6 00 2 


919 


• l 


•* II 




4.995 


1 660 


I« 


• < , 2 




5* 692 


1.062 


I « 


“ It 




4 94 b 


1,629 


• 1 


" 14 




4.947 


2.091 


4 4 


“ If 




3 914 


!. 35 3 


Lost. 


" 16 






2, 1 15 


Carried. 


“ 17 




6.03 1 


1,019 


«4 


“ iX 




5 9 <»l 


739 


1 1 


•• 19 




.S.H47 


707 


II 


" 20 




S 220 


*, 35 * 


II 


*• 21 




5.26X 


*.337 


II 


" 22 




5.419 


872 


<1 


“ *3 




5 743 


703 


• 1 


** 24 




=*.oy> 


1,366 


II 


’* as 




| I'*’-, 


1 ,946 


• I 


•• 3 b 




4 14 » 


2,046 


• • 


•* 27 




5 019 


*,477 


II 


“ 28 




5.U*7 


1.253 


1 1 


•• JO 




,S. 7"2 


910 


• 1 


" 30 




5 35 * 


*,039 


II 


" .V 




6 004 


65* 


II 


.. , a 




5.893 


694 


II 


** 33 




5.8X1 


69.3 


II 


“ 34 




5.278 


*,* 3 « 


II 


" 3 i 




5,61b 


787 


II 


** 3 * 




5.609 


996 


• 1 


“ 37 




5 > 7 oS 


726 


1 1 


“ 38 




5.86«) 


594 


• I 


“ 39 




55*8 


95 * 


II 


“ 40 




5655 


711 


II 


" 41 




5 9«9 


584 


II 


’ 




5.622 


7*7 


«I 


" 41 




5.534 


78X 


II 


“/ 4 




5.700 


550 


• • 


“is 




.S.751 


546 


II 


y\ 6 




5. 6 92 


52 * 


II 


• '*7 




5.8X0 


47 * 


1« 






5.789 


524 


II 


■. U: 1 . 

1 * i 




5.738 
5.* * * 

J 


s66 

*.i *7 


1 1 
• I 



General Secretary Treascrer 
P. J. McGuire was confined to bed 
several days this month very seriously 
ill with the prevalent malady, La 
Grippe, 

Important Notlca. 

^ Under the new constitution as 
amended, and now In effect since 
January ist, all appeals of members, 
Unions and District Councils, must 
be sent to the General President to be 
passed upon by him, also all By-Laws 
and Trade Rules of Local Unions, and 
amendments to same must be sub- 
mitted to him. None of this business 
should be sent the General Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

Hereafter send all appeals, by laws 
and trade rules to General President 
John Williams, Utica. N. Y. ■/ 



Official Items. 

The G. K. B. was in session this 
month for two weeks at the general 

office. 

J* 

New Constitutions are now ready. 
$5 per ioo. Send in your orders with 
the cash to the G. S.-T. 



Send in your list of local officers for 
the present term on the regular official 
postal if you have not done so. 

J* 

Password and blanks for present 
quarter were sent last month to all 
unions in good standing. If not 
received send word to the G. S.-T. 



The December Issue of The Car- 
penter was not issued for good rea- 
sons made known to the Locals in the 
quarterly circular. This shortage will 
be made good to subscribers and ad- 
vertisers. 

General vote in detail on resolu- 
tions and amendments to the consti- 
tution as agreed on at the New York 
convention will be found on pages 
10-14 of this issue. The amendment 
providing for a $20 charter fee and a 
minimum of 60 cents per month dues 
were the only ones defeated. All the 
others were carried. This is the first 
it • *. as since 1886 where the work of 
lot invention was so uniformly 
-do ted. _ 



Iah-. 




Joliet, 111 . Union carpenters on 
the tin plate mill made a stand against 
non-Union carpenters working on the 
job last month and were successful. 

Denver, Colo.— Union 55 baa 
formed a Carpenters Union Hall com- 
pany with $10,000 capital stock to 
erect a hall in this city and has Incor- 
porated said company. 

J* 

Miners in Van Anda mine, Texado 
Island, British Columbia, were suc- 
cessful in their strike for the eight- 
hour day and $3.50 per day, instead 
of the ten-hour day at $3 per day. 

£ P - -Th# TraHw 

aud Labor Council Is pushing very 
strongly for the general adoption of 
the eight hours. The Carpenters' 
Union is now working on that basis. 

J» 

Efforts are being strenuously 
made to pass a state eight-hour law 
through the Legislature at Washing- 
ton. It la on the lines of the present 
eight hour bill now before the United 
States Senate. 

J* 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Union 7 ia 
going to secure a better scale of wages 
this season. Brother L. F. Blake- 
field is our Business Agent and he la 
doing herculean service for us and for 
Union 87 of St Paul. 

•J* 

Jersey City, N.J.— Carpenters and 
other building trades are pushing for 
the eight-hour day next spring The 
Building Trades Council is doing ex- 
cellent work and has a live Business 
Agent In the field for all the Unions. 
•I® 

Carpenters in Duluth, Minn., 
North Adams, Mass., Racine, Wis., 
and Fort Smith, Ark., lately adopted 
nine hours a day. Vancouver, British 
Columbia, Seattle, Wash., and Spo- 
k"ne, Wash , have secured eight 
hours a day. 

J» 

Carpenters and masons on the 
new People's Bank building, Passaic, 
N. J., went on strike last month to 
get several weeks’ wages due them 
and they were successful. Mcllvain 
and Hukefern, of Pittsburg, Pa., were 
the contractors. 

* 

Union No. 4, St. Louis, Mo., which 
«upended by the G. B. B., D;c. 



Fifty Cents per Year. 
Single Copies, 5 Cts. _ 

5, 1895 disbanded last month, and 
its members have again become con- 
nected with the U. B. The charter, 
books and property of Union 4 are 
now in the hands of the G. S -T. 

J® 

Topeka, Kan.— Master Builders' 
Association agreed to enforce the 
eight-hour day after September iat 
last, and the atone and brick masons 
are observing that rale ever since 
May ist What is the matter with 
the Topeka carpenters that they cant 
get the eight-hour day ? 

The big department stores and 
office buildings in Chicago are now 
required to pay the Union rate of 
thirty-seven and a balf cents per hour 
to carpenters, the same as on other 
joba. Chicago carpenters also enforce 
the rule of s half holiday on Saturdays 
during the summer months. 

aA 

Union 131, Seattle, Wash., has had 
s number of very successful public 
meetings, and la enforcing the eight- 
hour day and a scale of $2.50 per day. 
The City Council of Seattle has passed 
an eight-hour ordinance for all city 
work, and applying alike to con- - 
tractors and aub-con tractors doing city 
work. 



In preparing the buildings in the 
camp for the sick troops at Montaak 
Point, N. Y , last summer. It is nar- 
rated there was no provision to piy *'- 
the carpenters double pay for Sunday 
work, whereupon the Union carpen- 
ters on the job all donated the entire 
Sunday’s labor to get the needed 
buildings finished withont delay for 
the sick soldiers. 

J* 

St. Louis, Mo— The Carpenters* 
Unions of this city were successful in 
getting proper recognition on the 
Lincoln Trust building this month. 
The fight waa against non-Unlon men. 
The Wabash Railroad Company, the 
owners of the building, attempted ai^-. 
Injunction suit against Business'* 
Agent Fuelle and others of the Carpen- 
ters District Connell , but dropped it. J 

* * J 

Galveston, Tex —The Carpenters* £j 
Unions of this city were successful in // 
enforcing the recognition of the eight- 
hour rule, and Union conditions on 
the work of the new fortifications bere^L 
for the United States Government. J 
The engineers have been working Utafl 
men eleven hours a day. in vijok.tlmff 
of the law. Congressman Hawley, oiJl 

thla city, wa? ‘-TlTlf** in aecnrlE 

ing a department rility ri WliMntfiT 



I 



Totftl 




2 



"Sa 



THE CARPENTER. 




London Letter. 



ItY THOMAS REECE. 



London, I)tc ;d — Carpenters and 
joiners are among the best organized 
workmen in Great Britain and Ire- 
land. Three principal Unions appeal 
for their support, and are each in a 
state of extreme vigor. The leading 
society is, of course, the Amalga 
mated Society of Carpenters and 
Joiners, with considerably over fifty 
thousand members, and a record ol 
perpetual progress since its e.'-tablish 
ment in 1S60 Its continually grow 
ing prosperity and potency are well 
shown in the following comparative 
totals : The membership at ‘lie end of 
1892 was 37 588 ; at the end of 1S93, 
40,996; 1894,43041; r .5. 44 «55 : 
1896, 48,631. During tlie same five 
years the annual income rose from 
$494,595 to $632,635 ; whilst the ex- 
penditures rose only from >454.225 to 
$500,720. The balance on hand, 
which was $595,050 at the end of 1892, 
had accumulated to $564 Sio by the 
end of 1896, and at the end of Sep- 
tember, 1898, stood at just upon eight 
hundred thousand dollars. 

• • • • 

The oiher two principal Unions, 
whilst they are a long way behind 
the Amalgamated in numbers and in 
the si. of their banking accounts, 
still .iohieve considerable success. 
The Associated Carpenters and Join- 
’ era Is a Trade Union confined to Scot- 
land, where it has 148 branches and 
some 8,000 members. I take the 
figures of the latest governmental 
report, which carries these statistics 
down to the beginning of 1897 The 
membership of the Associated in- 
creased from 6,270 in 1892, to the 
above figure in 1896 ; whilst its funds, 
after chopping and changing very 
mach in the interim, ended up in 1896 
just about where they were in 1892— 
at about fifty thousand dollars. Its 
income registered an increase, during 
the five years from $48 150 to $66,- 
• •40; and its expenditure increased 
f’-om $40.400 to $48,600 At certain 
dates, however, during the progress 
of the five years, both income and 
expendltu'e rose to figures far higher 
than any of the above, and the result 
was a loss to the society of quite 

five and twenty thousand dollars. 

! # • * * 

he least of the three Unions under 
lideration is the General Union of 
rative Carpenters and Joiners, 
ch is the doyen of them all, as it 
founded in 1827. Its member- 
> has fluctuated more than has 
1 the case with its co societies, 
whilst it registered 5 669 in De 
her, 1896. as sgalnst 3.645 in 1892, 
Is in )8y4, for example, climbed 
o 7,000 Its income nearly doubled 
he five years, 1892-6, whilst its 
enditure increased at a very much 
rer rate, thus enabling the General 
to to increase its funds from $6,- 
to $21,680, relatively by far the 
financial record of any of the 

TO8. 

* * * * 

one of these soe'eties have their 
Iqoartersln London. The Amal- 
a ted Society centralizes at Man- 
ter, the Associated in Edinburgh 
the Genefar Union in Liverpool, 
tough the Afsociated Carpenters 



notice that the Amalgamated Society 
has upward of forty branches over the 
Border with between three and four 
thousand members. Just what stands 
in the way of an amalgamation of 
tbe^e societies, which, by covering the 
same teiritory and interacting in so 
complicated a fashion seem destined 
for one another. 1 cannot as yet say 
with authority. One difficulty Is no 
doubt the different scales of benefits 
and the consequent differences in con- 
tributions and levies. The average 
.«mount of income contributed In a 
year to his society by a member of the 
Amalgamated is thirteen dollars, as 
against $7 75 on the part of a General 
Union member, and $8.25 on the part 
of a member of the Scottish combina- 
tion 

There Is, or was, a tiny little inde- 
pendent Trade Union of carpenters in 
Northampton, called the Northampton 
Local Operative Carpenters and Join- 
er* Friendly and Trade Society which 
has preserved Its autonomy for no 
particular reason since 1859. When 
I last heard of it, its roll contained 
only seventeen names and for aught I 
know the waves of time may have 
since obliterated it. It must have 
been a curiosity. 

* * # * 

In London the carpenters ace well 
organized, there being seventy seven 
branches of the Amalgamated Society 
alone, with a total membership of 
about six thousand. The largest 
single branches are those at Fulham, 
(a West London district), Kdgeware 
Road.Clapham, and Clerkenwell, with 
237, 196, n*3 and 190 members respec- 
tively. London also has as its espe- 
cial prerogative the only trade organiz- 
ation of carpenters which I have not 
yet mentioned. The Perseverance 
Society of Carpenters and Joiners 
perseveres in spite of everything It 
has eight branches and about four 
hundred members. It was born in the 
same year as the Amalgamated Society 
but is confined to the metropolis. 
There was another attempt to start a 
London society but when the bantling 
rose to the dignity of 200 members 
and then the year after dropped to 
about a hundred the organizers very 
wisely amalgamated it with the Gen- 
eral Union, which occurred in 1895. 
Of two other attempts to start inde- 
pendent trade societies, one has dis- 
solved after six years of fruitless agita- 
tion, whilst the other had its regis- 
tration cancelled in 1897 when it was 
three years old. 



i r 






^3 A 







Scarfing. 

Scarfing a g«rder at different joints 
wherever it is practicable should be 
made directly over a post, as illus- 
trated by the above drawings Figs. 1 
and 2, which will be found sufficiently 
strong. 

It Is hardly possible to find a 
stronger method of scarfing than that 
shown in Fig. 1. In this design (Fig. 
1), the post is framed into the plate or 
bolster which should be fully equal 
in size to the timber which it sup- 



ports ; in heavy framing it should . 
from 5 to «1 feet long, with side bracks 
framing into it and bolted at bottom 
to post The bolster is bolted to 
timber by means of v -inch bo' », 
depending entirely on basis of lo ! 
which it is to carry. 

Fig. 1 shows another less expens ve 
system of scarfing making it che rer 
in construction but will not Stan as 
heavy load, nor is it conalderec by 
any means as good as that show In 
Fig. I. 

Chas L Hesckcs 










Light-Hour Cities. 

Below is a list of the cities and towns where 
carpenters make it a rule to work only eight 
houra a day : 



My space grows to a close and I 
should like, after this brief sketch of 
the carpenters and joiners combina- 
tions of the British Isles, to make 
some mention of the heroic and frater- 
nal way in which they have supported 
their industrious fellows in the fight 
for better conditions of labor. Take 
just one instance, the now historical 
engineers’ lock out. The Amalgamated 
Society of Carpenters and Joiners 
donated nearly thirty three thousand 
dollars to the fund for the support of 
the engineers ; the Associated Society, 
$2,475; the General Union, $1,730; 
and the Perseverance Society, $300. 
Such forces as these make for all 
that is best in modern society, and 
%$ record their doings is the greenest 



Alameda, Cal. 

Aila Lotus Tex. 
Aahland, Wia. 

Austin, 111. 
Bakers6eld Cal. 
Bedford Park, N. Y. 
Berkeley, Cal 
Bessemer Col. 
Brighton Park. 111. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Carondelet. Mo. 
Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Heights, 111. 
Cleveland, O. 
Corona, N. Y. 
Cripple Creek. Col. 
Denver, Col. 

Detroit, Mich. 

Hast st. I/Miis, III. 

Kl D ira, Col. 
Klonhurat, III. 
Englewood, 111. 
Kureka, Cal. 
Kvanaton. 111. 
Flushing, N. Y. 
Fremont, Col. 
Fresno Cal 
Galveston, Tex. 
Gilette, Col. 

Grand Crossing, 111. 
Haughville, Ind. 
tiaulord. Cal. 
Highland Park, 111. 
Hitchcock, Tex. 
Hyde Park, 111. 
Independence, Col. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Irvington, N J. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Kensington, 111. 
Kingsbridge, N. Y. 
La Jan la. Col. 

Lake Forest. III. 
Leadville, Col. 



Murphysboro, III 
Newark, N J. 

New Brighton. N. Y. 
Newtown, N Y. 

New York, N Y. 
Oakland, Cal. 

Oak Park, III. 

Omaha, Neb. 

Orange, N. J. 

Ouray, Col. 

Pasadena, Cal. 

Port Richmond, N. Y. 
Pueblo, Col. 
kandsburg. Cal. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Rogers Park, III. 
Sacramento, Cal. 

Salt Lake, ( tab. 

San Antonio, Tex. 

San Fran daco, Cal, 
San Luia Obispo, Cal. 
San Jose, Cal. 

San Rafael, Cal. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Sheboygan. Wia. 
South Chicago, III. 
South Denver, Col. 
South Kvanston, III. 
South Knglewood. 111. 
South Omaha. Neb. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Springfield. III. / 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Stapleton, N. Y. 
Stockton. Cal. 
Swampacott Maas. 
Syracuse, N Y. 

Texas City, Tex. 

Town of Lake. III. 
Tremont. N. Y. 
Unionport, N. Y. 

Van Neat. N. Y. 
Venice. 111. 



Long Island City, N. Y Victor, Col. 
Lo* Angeles, Cal. Waco. Tex. 

Lmn, Maas. Waahlogtot 



Maywood, III. 
Memphis, Tern. 
Milwa» kee, V a. 
Moore »und, II*. 
Mt. Vernon. N. Y. 
Mt Verron, Ind. 



Waco. Tex. 
Washington, D. C. 
Westchester, M. Y. 
Whatcom, wash. 
WilHsrasbrldge, If . Y. 
Wood la wo. N. Y. 
Yonkers, it. Y. 



What the United Br*th *rhM< Ha* 
Done. 



The United Brotherhood of Csrpcr.ti a and 
Joiners of America was founded in Ctn ratio* 
at Chicago, August 12 lHhi. At first it had o*W 
twelve local unions and f,l «2 members ow.ia 
seventeen years, it hasg'owa to numhei E local 
Unions in 406 cities, a of baa over 46, M* « »rolled 
members It is organised to protect toe arpea- 
ter Trade from the evils of ot pi kes »1 botch- 
work ; Us aim la to eocounge a high* soda rd 

of aktll and better wage ; to re-e*i» »iah no 
Apprentice System, and tj'ald and * *d the 
members by mutual proi ctloo and bei voltat 
means; it pays a Wife Funeral Btuffli * f from 
$25 to $50; a Members ! unarm! leacfi .$ 00 to 
fJUU ; and n Disability benefit, $100 to **' In 
these General Benefits fM.000 have f«- ex- 
pended the past two years, sod ME9 the 
year 1KK3, while $083 644 more wore spot in hat 
peiiod for bfck Benefits by the local atens- 
This la fully One and a Quarter Millioe t Dot- 
lara expended for benevolent and charit leftir 
poses. Buck an organisation la worth* rauem» 
lion of every Carpenter. Tbc Brot Ik .hoc* U 
also a Protective Trade Union no v»U at a 
Benevolent Society. It Han mined the eg e> ia 
hundreds of cities, and plaoad tally P • sod a 
Half Million Dollars mom wages an tally in 
the pockets of the Carpcmtrvo la tkonc tins. It 
reduced the houra of labor to I hom» »a day ia 
106 cities, and 9 hours n day in f ar hun- 
dred and twenty-six cities, not to ipmk of 
many cities which have established thi • at l • 
hour system on Saturdays ly th means 
15 130 more men have gained ear *y«tot. 
This Is the result of thomagh 1 \mim- 
Mon. ^nd yet very lew strikes hon« »rred, 
and very little money has been strikes 

by this society. It is not a secret 0 -t*und 
organisation. All competent Carpi '1 * lrt 
eligible to join, and this card Man ia • \ to 
you as am intelligent mechanic to oti nur 
application for membership la the f t\ tre 
Union In your city. It Is 1 hmn # be 



Total , 106 pities. 







Brotherhood, it* does »r« 
with the hoaoSu, ud it 
let* thW trowing sad p-o 



smU la e , 

1 to y«w / 
HV bod* / 



row J * 

Mr / • \ , 



3 



THE CARPENTER. 



Modern Scaffolds and Their Con- 
struction. 



BY OWEN B. MAGINNIS. 

E change of the form of 
buildings, and the material 
method» of construction 
have so changed the 
methods of scaffolding in 
modern buildings that a short disser- 
tation on the methods now employed 
may prove of service to many car- 
penters. 

Carpenter scaffolds may be classed 
under three heads, namely, those 
which are supported by being attached 
to some part or parts of a building, 
those which are self supporting 
and those which can be moved, or 
portable scaffolds. 



from tipping by a wrought iroi dis- 
connecting double hook in two 
halves, the bottom hooking under a 
floor beam and the top over the inside 
end of the scaffold beam or plank. 
This disconnecting hook is made as 
represented in Fig. 2, of inch by 
2 inch wrought iron and bolted 
together with one or two yi bolts, 
as seen in the engraving. A, Fig. 1, 
is the end view of the floor beam, and 
C, one bolt. E is a bolt placed under 
the bottom edge of the plank to pre- 
vent its dropping out of the hook. 
F, is the scaffolding planks placed on 
the top edge outside the wall, and G 
is the cross sectbn of a piece of 2 x 4 
placed and nailed so as to wedge the 
cantilever beam against one side of 
the window frame. 





In the first class I would include 
the ordinary bracket-scaffolds Tor 
frame buildings which are so familiar 
to every carpenter as to require no 
description here, also all scaffolds 
which are bracketed with uprights 
and nailed to door and window frames, 
corner boards, etc., and the hanging 
bracket scaffold which is a framed 
bracket of 2 x 4 or 2 x 3 stuff hung by 
a bolt to the sheathing with a cleat 
spanning two studdings inside, and 
in fact any form of scaffold nailed to 
the inside or outside details of a build- 
ing, though the framed bracket is 
likewise a portable and a very handy 



This scaffold nay be constructed 

■vritliOUt the -nriujg'ht Iiuii liouk lit 

the manner which is shown at the 
dotted line. B is a stout piece to fit 
over of 3 x 6 lieh spruce timber 
notched out or naled to the bottom 
edges of two floorbeams and on each 
side of this two boards are nailed, 
being also nailedto the side of the 
plank above, thus holding it firmly in 
place. This is an exceedingly simple 
and strong form oi cantilever scaffold 
but not so strong or reliable as the 
hook. In closing this description I 
would state that .his form of canti- 
levering out for scaffolds is in daily 




scaffold. Fig. i of the illustrations 
shows a very convenient form of 
scaffold which can be adopted when 
setting cornice or doi"g *ny kind of 
work on the outside walls of a brick 
or stone building, and it is so simple 
as to be rapidly and easily put 
together. Reference to Figs. 1 and 2, 
will show that it consist;* of an ordi- 
nary 2 x 8, 2 x 10, or 2 x 12 sound 
spruce beam projected out through 
each window opuniag about half or 
one-third of its length, with its bot- 
tom edge resting on the sill of the 
window frame. The beam is kept 



use in most of the cities above the 
first, second, and third stories, espe- 
cially on the very h gh buildings and 
as its safety and carrying capacity 
depend entirely on the tensile strength 
of the bearing plank, the greatest of 
care should be taken to^only place the 
soundest of timbers in this impo rant 
position, lest one should happ^ to 
break and cause a fearful fall. 

Self-supporting stationary scan ds 
should be formed ofj sound upri ts 
and duxgo 7 ial bracing! for up. ic Ids 7 x 
3, 3x4, 4x4, or 6x6 inch - re 
spruce timbers, sizes -accord in p e 



weights to be imposed on the scaffold. 
This method I illustrate by the en- 
graving, Fig. 3, which is a scaffold 
of 6 x 6 uprights with ft x 6 inch 
boards for bracing. This square scaf- 
fold is 4 feet by 4 feet on the base and 
was used for putting in terra cotta 
blocks in a church in which- there was 
afterwards placed a scaffold for paint- 




Fig. 3. 



ers and varnishers which covered the 
entire floor of the church and allowed 
them to decorate the ceiling 100 feet 
above. This excellent piece of work 
was built up of 3x3 inch by :6 feet 
long spruce timber uprights butted 
end to end vertically and cleated and 
nailed with yi spruce cleats at the 




joints. These uprights were spaced 
10 feet apart and braced as in Fig. 3 
with 1 x 3 spruce furring strips 16 feet 
long. This is a good construction for 
light weights, but should not be 
trusted except for men and light ma- 
terials, nor loaded with stuff as ceil- 
ing, etc. 

The above form of scaffold may be 
used outside safely by using heavier 
timbers as 6 x 6 uprights and 1x6 
braces, and the writer has seen some 
splendid self-supporting scaffolds 
built thus, notably on top of church 
towers, for the purpose of repairing 
the spires above the towers. Fig. 4 
will give the reader a fuller conception 
of a scaffold of this description, as I 
have made this drawing from one now 
being used on the outside of a four- 
story brick house. Uprights are 3 x 
6 and the braces and foot locks or cross 
ties 1 x 8 inch, all well nailed. The 
footlocks, if intended to car.' y material, 
should have a cleat nailed under their 
bottom edges. This scaffold reaches 
up to the second story and is easily 
moved. In connection with this im- 
portant subject I would state that for 
scaffolds where there is likely to be 
any great danger, as on heights, it is 
always wisest to obtain the timbers 
“ planed,’ * so that all large knots, 
shakes or other vital defects which are 
likely to impair the strength of the 
timber should be exposed and same 
not used. When the rough drawn 
grain is on timber it is not always 
possible to determine the direction of 
the fibrous tissue of the wood, and a 
cross grained or other faulty bearing 
piece may be used and an accident is 
liable to occur. 

In concluding this short article on 
scaffolds, I would state that it has been 
inspired by the number of sad acci- 
dents which occur almost weekly in 
our cities and towns, and it is mourn- 
ful to think of the valuable lives 
which are lost for want of care and the 
consideration of mechanical details in 
this adjunct to building construction. 
How many lives depend on conscien- 
tious foremen ? How great is the re- 
sponsibility and how few appreciate 
it ! Be exact and thorough men, in 
building scaffolds, for a sense of 
danger or a feeling of insecurity must 
of necessity detract from the $kil and 
product of your labor ; and if you fall 
who cau replace your life ? 



Claims Approved in November, 1898. 



No. 


Name. 


Union. 


Am’t. 


4341. 


Mrs. Mary A. Shand . . . 


. 1 


850.00 


4846. 


Frit* Schulz 




200.00 


4340. 


Aug. Gunderson .... 




200.00 


4817. 


Michael Ernst 


10 


200.00 


4348 


Mis. Helena Os wold . . 


. 10 


50.00 


4810. 


Chas. Frittelfiiiz 


12 


200.00 


1360 


Haigh. Shields .... 


22 


200.00 


4351. 


Ernest Paetow 




200 00 


4352. 


W. H. ILmgherty ... . 


. 20 


200.00 


im. 


Mrs. Minnie Duplissis . . 


. 20 


50.00 


43M. 


John Bernard .... 


38 


200.00 


4355. 


Mrs. Milada Kanlca 


89 


50.00 


4356. 


Mrs. Maud Murphy . . . 


10 


50.00 


4357. 


Mrs. Sophia Agusta Garms 


58 


50.00 


4358 


Mrs. Maria Swensen . . . 




50.00 


4350. 


Knglebert Egger .... 




50.00 


4340. 


Louis Schaefer 


61 


272.43 


4361. 


Jas Robertson 




267. >5 


43«2. 


James Holliday ...... 


«9 


100X0 


4S63 


Mrs. Marguerite Vogt . . . 


. 73 


50(H) 


4364. 


Mrs. Edith Crnngle .... 




50.00 


4365. 


John W. Matter . 


. 143 


2CK/.ÜO 


4860. 


Caleb Rees 


142 


200.00 


4367. 


Mrs. Carrie Luella Garland 


171 


50.00 


4368. 


Geo. Kock 


209 


50.00 


4869. 


John Atnbielli 




50.6» 


4870. 


Ft ant Friedrich . . 


809 


3TO.OO 


4371. 


Wilhelm Kimmick .... 


309 


200.60 


4372. 


John J. Minchin 




200.0C 


4873, 


John Hlrschi iel . ; „ . 


875 


500.00 


4374. 


Mrs. Louise Hrengel 


575 


50.00 


4375. 


Mrs. Elizabeth Williams . 


. 875 


50.00 


4376. 


Fred. Rcil 


419 


200.00 


4377. 


August Peterson 


471 


10000 



Totnl $4,48tu 







4 



THE CARPENTER. 



THE CARPENTER 



\ 



[PHILADELPHIA, JANUARY, 1899. 




— _ 

COUNCIL^ 



Curve«, as Used by Carpenters and 
Joiners.— XV. 



make both to width. Make centre or 
plumb joint by bevel C ; join both 
pieces with dowels or slip feather, as 
may be l*st, and the circular head 
will be complete. 

The interior ribs are marked P P, 
22, ; the curves of these are struck 

with radius V, t, or 4, 5. both being 
equal. At Fig. 14S. Is shown an ele- 
vation of half the number of ribs ; 
the shaded parts represent the bevel 
cuts against the front double- curved 
rib. 



nv ! RED T HODGSON. 



SHOW at Fig. 147 a plan and 
elevation of a niche, having a 
semi-circular head and which 
stands In a concave wall. 
The front rib will require to 
have two unequal curves combined, 
the surface in front having to agree 
with the concave of the wall, while 
the under edge must form a semi- 
circle ; in fact, this is an instance of 
double curvature, one of the most 
difficult problems that confronts the 
workman, belonging, as it does, to the 
same class of problems as the forma- 
tion of a hand-rail or wreath over a 
stair having a cylindrical well hole. 




T* I 






\ 



> cA 




cu< 

im 

th 

lif 

on 

th 

g r 

ca 

ra 



1 



ar 






f 



i 



Fic. 147 



The method herewith presented ia 
the simplest known and may be 
easily grasped by the ordinary work 
man. The front rib Is formed of two 
pieces of plank, each being thick 
enough to admit of being worked to 
the required curve. The surface of 
the plank is shown by the chords 4, 6 
and 4, 7, Fig. 147, and it will be ob- 
served that chord 4, 6 forms an angle 
with the line 6, 7; this shows that 
the curve on the surface of the plank 
should be elliptical, because, as a 
matter of fact, it is a section of a 
cylinder which has been cut by a 
plane oblique to its base. In this 
case, the length of the lines, 6, 4 and 
6, V are so nearly equal as to allow 
of the interior curve being stricken 
with the radius 4, 5, and exterior with 
the radius 4, 6 ; take any number of 
points on the latter, and from them 
draw lines parallel with 4, 5: draw 
the chord B, H and parallel to It, 
draw C, D which will give A, B, C, D 
as the form of plank for one half of 
the front rib. Joint the edges of the 
plank, lay it on the drawing and mark 
the points B, E, F, H— these continue 
across the surface, as bevel X directs, 
also across the edges square with the 
surface ; both edges being marked by 
the curved mould C, D ; cut ofi the 
circular slab 5, H, replace it, and fast- 
en each end with a wood-screw ; now 
work out the concave with a flexible 
p'ane or other device, to the lines 
marked out on its edges. Prepare 
the other half in like manner, and 



Suppose it is required to make 
and erect a groin to stand over an 
opening having a rectangular plan, 
similar to the one shown in Fig. 149. 
Make S, 2, L, Y, the ground plan. 
Drav diagonals from opposite corners 
intersecting at O. Draw on line S, 
Y, a semi circle, its radius being A, 
B, which determines the height of 
groin, then through O, draw the dotted 



line II, B, square with the line S. 2, 
also the dotted ine I. B. cutting O, 
in the centre, atrl parallel with S. 2. 
With O as a cente and A as radius ; 
draw quarter circle A, J ; make A, B, 
equal A, O; drav semi ellipse L, B, 
Y, now draw fron O, square with the 
line 2, Y, to B'; make O, B', equal 
to O, A ; then daw semi-ellipse 2, B, 
Y. The ribs of he groin are now in 



1 -V*. 







position. To find the covering divide 
the quadrant A J, into any number 
of equal parts, say four ; draw from 
each point, parallel with Y. I., lines 
cutting the diagonal S. I„ at R. N, 
C, from which draw fquare with Y, 
L. lines cutting ellipse at K. 1\ R 
These are measurements on the curve; 
set off the same above the line L, 
L In this way L. K, equals I,. K on 
the curve, and K, P, equals K, I*, on 
the curve ; again, P, R, B, equals 
corresponding letters on curve, thus 
giving points, through which draw 
parallel with 2, L, cutting lines from 
quadrant A.J, and through intersec- 
tions thus made draw the curve from 
B to I, ; set otr distances on the left 
to equal those on the right, and diaw 
the curve from B to 2, which com- 
pletes the end covering. 

To find the covering of side S, 2, 
take any point, say J ; set otT from 
it four parts, each to equal one of 
those on quadrant A, J ; draw thiougb 
each point parallel with S, 2 ; make 
C, C, equal C, C, on the right ; again 
make N, N, equal N. N. on the right, 
once more make V', V, equal V, R, on 
the right; now draw the curve from 
H, through V, N, C, W ; set of T dis- 
tances on the other side, and draw a 
similar curve to that just made, 
wh'ch completes the side covering. 

Quoting Robert Riddell anent this 
problem, which he had improved on 
somewhat from Nicholson’s method; 
he says : "This problem, and its solu- 
tion are important matters, and it 
should be the earnest desire of 
every mechanic employed in the build- 
ing arts tc thoroughly understand 
them, for on their principles d gr' 
the whole system of grolu 
tion.” And, in referring 
gram, he says; "To have 
Idea of it, suppose the curved lint 



L 






THE CARPENTER. 



5 



cut through the paper, and a cut 
made In like manner on line passing 
through J. Now the piece is loose, 
lift it, and bring the edge through J. 
on the line S, 2 ; bend the paper until 
the point II, stands over centre of 
groin O. Here the bending has 
caused curved edges of covering to 
range with the straight lines O, 2, 
and O, S. Then if the end covering 



the following two Illustrations and 
descriptions were embodied. As the 
methods of obtaining the two higher 
curves— ellipse and hyperbola — are 
curious and useful, I present them 
herewith, hoping their simplicity 
will commend itself to the readers 01 
Caki'enter. 

Fig. 150 shows an ellipse and is 
formed by two equal series of equi- 




FiO 150. 



is cut in a similar manner, and bends 
from line 2, L. L, until point U, stands 
over centre <>, then its curved edge9 
will be found to range with lines O, 
2, on the left and O, L, on the right, 
so that when the curved edges on 
both pieces of covering come together 
they close directly over the line O, 2. 

To make the ribs for this groin, 



distant circles which are described 
around each foci, and the intersections 
of the successive circles (taken in- 
creasingly) of one ret, with the suc- 
cessive circles (taken decreasingly ) of 
the other set. give an ellipse To 
determine an ellipse having given foci 
and a given minor axis, we have only 
to take that particular ellipse of sev- 
eral given by the construction, which 
passes through the ends of the de- 




Fig 15 i 



we must consider that viewing it 
through its narrow ends it has the 
form of a semi -circle, as seen in the 
line S, U, Y. This being the case, it 
follows that all the ribs that come on 
angles Y, O, I,, and 2, (), S. must Ire 
»ts of the quadrant, a9 shown at A, 
y Again, looking through the long 
side, we find the arch to a semi- 
ellipse, as shown at I„, B, Y, parts of 
which are to be cut for the angles O, 
L, 2, and O, S, Y. The short ribs 
may be cut in at regular intervals, to 
their proper lengths and bevels, the 
points being nailed to the diagonal 
ribs, and the feet fastened to plate or 
other framing. If it is intended to 
lath and plaster the groin in the in- 
terior, the ribs should be placed to 16- 
inch centres, and this distance will 
auit for the exterior board covering. 

Some years ago there appeared in 
Knowledge, an English scientific 
journal, a paper on curves, in which 



sired minor axis, or the major axis, if 
we prefer it, may be used to deter- 
mine the ellipse. Of course, it is 
quite easy to take the radii of our 
circles so that two equal circles 
around the foci shall intersect at ex- 
tremities of any indicated minor axis, 
or, if we prefer it, two circles around 
the foci may intersect at any desired 
distance from either foci to determine 
an end of the major axis. After that, 
taking equal divisions along the 
major axis, produced if necessary, we 
get all other radii. 

Fig. 151 illustrates a similar method 
for drawing any desired hyperbola. I 
have, on several occasions, made use 
of these methods, and have found 
them to work out correctly. 

Fig. 1 52 exhibits an ornament drawn 
altogether with the compass. The 
centres are all shown and lettered for 
reference ; r being the general centre, 
while a, j, d, i, m and c show the 
divisions and radiating lines of one- 
half of the figure. As the ct 'es may 
all be framed at the intersec ons of 
the dotted lines, further explanations 
are unnecessary. ( To he continu'd.) 



1 





{Inter tiont under ihtt head cost ten eentt a line.) 



Colcmhub, Ohio 
December 1, ltftW. 

WHEREAS, u has pleased Almighty God id 
Hla Infinite wisdom to remove from our midst 
our esteemed llrothtr, Philip Kirsh, who de- 
parted this life November 21, 1898, and 
Wmkrram, This Union No. til feels the loss of 
a faithful Brother and earnest promoter of 
Uoionism; therefore, be it 
Absolved, That we drape our charter for thirty 
days, and tha* we express our sincere sympathy 
to the bereaved family of enr deceased Brother ; 
also be it 

RetoheJ, That a copy of these resolutions be 
spread on the minutes of our meeting and a copy 
be presented to the family, also a copy be sent to 
The Careknter. our official journal, for publi- 
cation. b. I*. Ewing, 

Rec. Sec . 

L. B. Hilty, \ 

II. K Scott, l Committee. 

G. C. DAt’GHBRTY. 1 



UNION FRIVTERS LABEL. 




This Label is 
issued under 
suthority of the 
Internat io n a 1 
Typographic a 1 
Union and ol the German Typographta. The 
label is used on all newspaper and book work. 
It always bears the name and location of where 
the printing work is done. 



CUT THIS OUT 



Bend for the Best and Cheapest Practical Books 
printed. Written for Carpenters by a Carpenter. 



HOW TO FRAME A HOUSE , 

Or Bal oon and Roof- Framing, by Owen B. Ms 
ginnla author of“ Practical Centering," •* How 
to Join Mouldings," *te., sic. 

It it a practical treatise on the latest and beat 
methods of laying out, framing and raising Um- 
ber house« together with an easily understood 
system of Roof Pramlng. the whole making a 
handy and easily applied hook for carpenters, 
builders, foremen and Journeymen. 



Newark. N. J. 

Noved) her 13, 1898. 

Whereas, It ha« pleased the aster Builder 
of the universe to remove from our midst 
Brother Abram Mundy, a worthy memoer of 
Union 30(1, 

Re tohtd. That in the death of Brother Abram 
Mi ndy we recognise the fact that no man 
knoweth when the grtm reaper death will cut 
uadow , and while lamenting his kaa we ten- 
der the < rea\ ed svldow and family our sincere 
sympathy in their dark hour; being assured 
that time will ease the aching heart; and belt 
further 

Retolied, That our Charter be draped for thirty 
days; a copy of these resolutions sent to the 
widow and als9 published in our official organ, 
Thk Carekntkr. 

Wm. M. Hit aw, \ 

Kosh N. Craig, l Committee 
W. K Chambers, ) 

Pomrkoy, Ohio. 

November 12, 1899. 

Wiierras, It has pleased the great Architect 
and Builder of the Universe to remove from our 
midst our late and respected Brother, John 
Kraus ; therefore, be it 

Reiolvtd , Thst in the death of John Kraus, 
Local Union ttfO of Carpenters and Jo nera of 
America laments the lossot a Brother, who was 
ever r ady to proffer the hand of aid and the 
voice of sympathy to the needy and distressed, a 
blend to us all, an upright citizen, a kind and 
loving father. 

Retahed That our heartfelt sympathy be ex- 
tended to his relatives in their affliction. 

Retoived , That these resolution % be spread upon 
the lecotds of our Local Union, and a copy 
thereof be transmitted to the relatives of our 
deceased Brother, and our oAcial organ, Tub 
Careentbr. 

r.so. Rbutbr, \ 

B. D. Will, l Committee. 

Ckorob Whir, J 



OON TENT«. 

PART I.— Balloon Framing. 

Chapter I. General description of Balloon 
Frames. Framed Hills and their coos' ruction. 

Chapter II Flrai Floor Beams or Joists. Htory 
Sections. Hecond Floor Beams. Htuddlog Fram- 
ing of Door and Windows Opening, Wall Plates 
and Roof Timbers. 

Chapter III. Laying out and Working Bal- 
loon Frames. Girders, Hills, Poets and Studding 

Cnsp»cr IV. Laying out First an t Hecond 
Floor JolsU or Beams, Celling Joists and Wail 
Plates. 

Chapter V. Laying out and Pramlng the 

Ro-f. 

Chapter VI Raising. 

Chapter VII. Bra red Pram# Houses. How to 
Lay out and Frame Them. 

Chapter VIII. How to Frame Out Bay Win- 
dows. 



PART. II.— Roof- Pramlng. 

This contains seven chapters giving the ele- 
ments of Roof* Framing. 

The work Is Illustrated and esplalned by over 
40 large engravings of houses, roofs, etc., and 
bouna la sloth. 



PRICK, - - 91.00 








6 




(Thiä Department is open for criticism and 
»orrespomtence from our readers on mechanical 
#at>iects in Carpentry, and Ideas as to Craft 
organization 

Write on one side 01 the paper only. All 
srtides should be signed. 

Matter for this Department must be In this 
office by tbe asthof the month.) 



Water Closet Fittings. 



Ftotu K. D , Pullman, 111. 

I send by this mail for anyone who 
wants to make them for bis home, 
sketches of a wash basin front and 
woodwork for a water closet seat, 
which I made in birch of scrap stuff 
which I picked up around the mill. 




I framed the whole business, mortise 
and tenon, and clamped and tongued 
together the corners. If any man 
wants it I will send you the details, 
Mr Editor. 



Trimming. 






From J. C. H . Nyack, N Y.: 

On reading The Carpenter, I 
think there is too much about framing 
published in it. and, as brick work is 
gradually pushing out the framework, 
would it not be best to post we country 
carpenters up a bit in trimming Here 
the two branches are very separate, 
and the framers are generally too 
rough in the handling to do the 
finishing up. I don’t see why this is, 
bat it ia and I know it, so, Mr Editor, 
arrange for something about trimming 
Inside, as casing windows, doors, and 
so forth. 



Scaffold« for Shingling. 



From W. H. K., Reno, Nevada: 

Dear Sir: Kindly inform me where 
I can obtain galvanized iron ahingling 
brackets, or if there is such a thing 
made, and oblige. 

Noth. — We would recommend W. 
H. K. to wtite some of the dealers in 
our advertising columns, but publish 
his letter for all readers to answer if 
they so desire. 



Th« Wrong Kind of a Dam. 



To the Editor : 

In my article on “Galvanized 
Iron ” in the November Carpenter, 
where it speaks of the tinker's dam, it 
was made to read more in the way of 
profanity than in the light which it 
was intended by adding “n” to the 
word dam. 

It is said that in olden times the 
tinkers used to build up with clay to 
ket p the solder from running, and this 
was called a dam. Hence the common 
saying of “not worth a tinker’s dam.” 
A. W. Woods. 



THE CARPENTER. 



Shrinkage and Warpage of Timber. 

From Enquirer, Topeka, Kan : 

I trust some practical correspond- 
ent of The Carpenter will send 
some data about the shrinkage anil 
warpage of the different timbers This 
is a part of the carpenter's craft which 
has never yet been written up I like 
the Utters from the men, but to me 
they seem too simple How would a 
good, rousing criticism of the every- 
day mechanic go ; or could he stand 
it ? Would he compare, think you, 
with the older mechanic who £»r.v 
h s business in spite of what "Old 
Timer " or F. T Hodgson tay. Is F. 
T a modern that he so berates us, 
who took entire charge and put up 
the best existing houses in the states 
west of the Ohio, or does he ever stop 
and think of the labor and skill it 
took to do it, w here there was no ma 
chinery and poor tools 



Sprung Stairs 

From S J J , Oswego. N Y : 

I get a great deal of information 
out of The Carpenter, but very 
little about stair building, for nobody 
seems to know how to write up this 
subject, and I have a problem that 
would be worth answering if you 
think it 6t to publish. It is the case of 
a handsome black walnut staircase, 
having the risers and steps spring 
out of the dadoes of the inside string 
(against the wall), so that the stairs 
creak when walked on and tbe plaster 
on tbe soffit underneath is commenc 
ing to crack and fall off in spots. I 
have tried to wedge the steps and 
treads back into the dadoes, but they 
won t go back, and as the stairs are 
getting worse something has got to 
be done. Is it possible, could any 
stair builder tell me, to get them 
together again without removing the 
plaster, and are tbe stairs safe on the 
carriages ? 



What a l)og Is. 



From G I)., Portland, Maine: 

In answer to the man who wants to 
know what a “ Dog" is, I would tell 
him that it is a piece of \ or i round 
hammered iron from <» to 12 inches 
long with the p >ints turned down 
about inches, and it is used to hold 
big timbets together in trestles, dock 
work and on bridges When one po'nt 
is driven into each piece, the two 
pieces are drawn tightly together. 

From I, De G., tjncbec, Canada: 

I am surprised that a reader of The 
Carpenter should ask what a •• Dog" 
is, as the tool is so common among 




mechanics who work timber. I send 
a sketch of this simple tool aud hope 
he will understand it. It is dtiven in 
and pulled out with a hammer. 



Drawing Lesson. 



hv a w WOODS 



Our subject for this lesson represents 
a flight of stone steps, showing the 
plan, front and side elevations The 
dimensions are given on the plan for 
the top measurements, and on the end 
elevation for the heights. The dotted 
lines on the end elevation show the 
sectional view through the atepa. The 
walks represent tile work. 

We recommend drawing this on a 
scale of inch to the foot. Draw 
the plan first, then draw the front 
and side elevations in the positions 
as shown. Use a medium hard pencil 
for all line work and a soft pencil for 
the shading 



Rules Regarding Apprentices. 



At the Detroit Convention of Ihr Toiled Rroth- 
r i hood of Carpenter» »ml Joiner» of America, 
hehl August tv 1 1 . lKHh, ihr following rule» in rela- 
lion to apprentice* were approved mix! the I 4 ocal 
Union» »re urged to *«*< urr their enforcement : 
The rapid Ittflua of unskilled und in- 
oomj*etrui men in the carpenter trade ha« had 
of late yeat», n vtiv depleting a I» f 1 injurious 
effect uiKin the mechanic« in the t»u»tnr«s and 
ban a trudrucy to degrade the »tandard of «kill 
and to give no encouragement to young men to 
become apprentice» and to ma«lrr Ihr trade 
thoroughly ; therefore, in the beat Interest« of 
the crafi . we declare outselvea in favor of the fol- 
lowing rule» ; * 

Auction 1 The Indenturing of apprentice» is 
the >>e»t mean» calculated In give that effic iency 
which it I* de»tf»h!e a c*rj*eu?er should |«>s»rsa, 
and al«o to give the necraaary guarantee to the 
employeia that lotnr return will tie made to them 
for a pio;*er effort to tuin out competent work- 
men , therefore we direct that all I.ocal I'ntona 
under our jurisdiction »hall u«e every possible 
meant, wherever practical, to introduce the ays- 
tern of Indenturing apprentice». 

Sac 2. Any boy or person hereafter engaging 
himself to learn the trade c t carpentry, »hall l>e 
required to aerve a regular apprenticeship c 1 
four conaecutive years, tnd shsll not be consul 
ered a journeyman unless he ha« compiled with 
this rule, and ia twenty-one years cf age at the 
completion of hi» apprenticeship 

ABC. 3 All tiny§ entering the carpenter trade 
with the intention of learning the husineaa «hall 
be held by agreement Indenture or written con 
tract for a term of four years. 

hac 4 When s boy shall have contracted with 
an employer to »erve a certain term of year», he 
•hall, on no pretense whatever, leave said em- 
ployer and contract with another, without the 
full and free consent of said first employer, 
uoleaa there is Just cause or that »uch change la 
made In consequence of the death or relinquish- 
ment of business by the first employer , any ap- 
prentice so leaving shsll not be permitted to 
work ur der the jurisdiction of any Ixxral Union 
in our Brotherhood, but shall be required to re- 
turn to hia employer and aerve out his appren- 
ticeship. 

Arc 6 ft ia •«j«iu«l upun each I I'tAcm 
to make regulations limiting the number of ap- 
prentices to he employed In each shop or mill to 
one for such number of journeymen as may 
•eera to them just; and all Union« are recom- 
mended to admit to membership apprentices In 
the last year of their apprenticeship, to the end 
that, upon the espiration of their terms cf ap- 
prenticeship they may become acquainted with 
the workings of the Union, and t e better fitted 
to appreciate II« prtvilegrs and obligations upon 
assuming full me mbership. 




H-i 




5 , i ».I 

.: 0 -■ 



PlaM. 



T^ont Vi.r*W 





u 

Q 



if) 



ksb 







<I)ljAWlHG •$- 

->j Wesson. 

StoHe Steps. 



LJ 






THE CARPENTER. 



7 





FRAMING PLAN. 



New quarterly Password and blanks 
for the ensuing quarter were sent all 
Locals in good standing on Dec. iSth. 

«4 

Gold plated pins or badges for 
members, with emblem of the U. B., 
cost 25 cents each. They are cheap 
and durable. 




A Platform Staircase. 

BY CHAS L. HERCKES. 

In many cases we need such an 
item as a staircase. The above draw- 
ings represent a nlatfonn staircase 
suitable for a city house. The group 
of drawings represents an elevation 
showing and giving a description of 
the design ; next is our plan and 
framing plan giving us the number of 
risers, width of stairs, etc. The sec 
tion giving height of railings and 
construction of same. 

The finish of staircase is in cherry, 
while the rough framing timber is 
spruce. 

The stairs are supported by 3 x S 
inch carriage beams framing into a 
4x12 inch header at head of plat- 
forms. (See framing plan.) 

The paneling: work, newels, 

columns, balusters, etc , are also 
cherry. The risers and treads are of 
white pine, inch for risers and 
i % inches for treads. The figures A, 
B, C, and D, are larger scale details 
of different parts of staircase. 





The German and French editions 
of the new Constitution will not be 
ready until some time in February 

& 

Ledgers, day books, etc , ruled in 
proper and convenient form, can be 
supplied Locals by addressing this 
office. 



Cards of membership for 1899-1900 
are now ready. Price #1.00 per hun- 
dred. Send your order to the G. S.-T. 

Returns of Ihe general vote in 
detail on the newly amended consti- 
tution will be found on pages 10 to 13 
of this month’s Carpenter. 

A completely new clerical force is 
now employed in the office of the 
G. S. T. Bro. T. J. Flemming, of 
Union 20, Camden, N. J., is now 
chief clerk. 



The new G. E. B. has been in ses- 
sion at the general office since 
January 9th, and will have fully 
two weeks work at this meeting. 

J* 

The new Constitution went into 
effect January 1, 1899. Local Unions 
should at once send to the G S. T. 
for copies, so the members can become 
familiar with the changes in our laws. 

Six new Unions have been chartered 
recently, viz.: Union 182, Lima, 

O ; 213, Hartford City, Ind ; 216, 
Torrington, Conn.; 245, Cambridge, 
O ; 26r, Valdosta, Ga., and 262, Peck- 
ville, Pa. 

*4 

New Constitutions in the form 
amended by the New York convention, 
and as ratified by the recent general 
vote of the members, are now ready 
this month. Send in your orders 
with cash to the G S.-T. through 
your F. S. Price $5.00 per hundred 
copies. 

At Kansas City, Mo., the American 
Federation of Labor htld its eight- 
eenth annual convention last month. 
General Secretary-Treasurer P. J. Mc- 
Guire, Ex General President Harry 
Lloyd, Ex Secretary S J. Kent, and 
O E Woodbury represented the U. B. 

A typographical error appeared 
in the September Financial Report, 
published in the October Carpenter. 
The total expenses for September 
should have read #5,988 37, instead of 
#5,788.3 7. That left the cash balance 
October 1, 1898, #21,936, instead of 
#22,136 as printed. 





8 



THE CARPENTER. 



THE CARPENTER, 



OFFICIAL JOURNAL OK Till* 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of Amerioa. 



Published Monthly on the Fifteenth of each month. 



144 N. Ninth St., Phil*., P«. 

p. J. McGuirk, F.ditornud Publisher. 



Entered ftt the Post-Office at Philadelphia, Pa., 
• aa second-class matter. 



Subscription Pricks— F ifty cents a year, in 
advance, postpaid. 

Address all letters and money to 

P. J. McGuirk, 
Box 88-1, Philadelphia, Pa. 



RhlLA., JANUARY, 1899. 



Past, Present and Future. 



BY SAM L. LEFFI NOWELL. 



hTb T is not only a right thing to 
• do, but it is the religious 
duty of every member of 
a Trades Union to give 
thought and reflection upon 
his past, present and future condition. 
Taken from the rough, or raw material, 
as it were, he falls into the hands of 
safe manipulation, and by a slow but 
sure application of, say, mechanical 
process, develops into a more finished, 
if not perfect, production of upright 
manhood. Brought from darkness 
and utter ignorance of his rights, he 
comes into the light of reason, intel- 
ligence and scrutiny, and is awakened 
with higher aspirations, brighter 
hopes and reue wed zeal in the strug- 
gle allotted him for a common exist- 
ence and a betterment of the condition 
of himself and those dependent upon 
him. 

This process of development is 
necessarily slow— and should be so— 
it is safer thus. The promise in view 
is not Utopian or chimerical ; neither 
sophistic nor fallacious. It is real, 
actual— exists in truth. It is not as 
the flash-light of a camera, to glare 
and dazzle for a moment, then dis- 
appear and leave, for despondency, the 
same darkness and gloom as before. 

Enlightenment begins with the 
very first step taken in Trades-Union- 
ism ; enlightenment of mind, instruc- 
tion in a new line of thought; a 
clearing of intellect and conscience ; 
escaping from an isolation of ignor- 
ance and obscurity to a better knowl- 
edge of personal worth, value and 
usefulness. The selfishness of the 
individual weakens in its attribute 
of clannishness, and gradually but 
surely wastes itself in the broader 
expanse of communal fellowship, 
friendship and fraternity. 

While the newly entered apprentice 
into the Trade Union is impressed 
with the hope of a betterment of his 
condition, in increased pay for his 
labor and fewer hours of toil, in his 
for sustenance and possible 
existence, he soon learns that that is 
not all the good there is in store for 
him. Men of his own trade whom he 
knew only distantly before — men 
whose very glance had formerly 
pierced him as an arrow of frigidity 
and cheerlessness— now meet him and 
greet him, their faces aglow with ani- 
mation and good cheer, extending the 
hearty grasp of friendship and fellow- 



ship which infuses by its very touch 
an unmistakable fellow-feeling, a 
desire for an agreement of affections 
and inclinations, and such conformity 
of that natural temperament as will 
make two persons pleased with each 
other. 

He is somewhat puzzled in the 
beginning ; he is in doubt as to 
whether the ice will bear him up, 
crossing a stream which has long sep- 
arated darkness from light ; but, as 
he passes over and is landed safely on 
the other shore, he merges into the 
dawn of brighter prospects, enlight- 
ened hope, and is inspired with a 
confidence that not all the world is 
bad, and that he is himself a iactor in 
the development of a power to be con- 
ceived as determining the future of 
himself and the rest of mankind. His 
mind passes through a process of un- 
rolling or unfolding ; is awakened to 
a better understanding of his own in- 
dividual worth and an enlightened 
appreciation of the power for good 
that lie3 within himself, if he will 
but utilize the opportunities assured 
him by the co-operation of firm hands 
and willing hearts, to act jointly in a 
life struggle for an amelioration of 
conditions which have been burden- 
some, if not unjust and tyrannical. 

This is the history of thousands 
who have been brought within the 
fold of pure Trade Unionism ; but it is 
not alone with them that it is intended 
to deal in the humble pretensions of 
this unassuming homily. It is to 
the more experienced, better drilled, 
better informed soldier in the ranks 
of Unionism. 

What of your past ? Do you ever 
think of it ? Have you any remem- 
brance of a past that was bitter, hope- 
less, remorseless ? Have your condi- 
tions been improved ? How have they 
been made better ? Do yoti get 
any better pay now than you did 
before you joined with the fellows of 
your trade or calling to secure it ? Do 
you toll as many long hours as you 
were forced to do before you found 
assistance to lift the embargo which 
bore such heavy weight upon your lib- 
erty of life and the pursuit of common 
domestic happiness ? Are you not im- 
proved in health and strength to 
battle for the means of support for 
yourself and those dependent upon 
you ? Are you not better equipped 
to avail yourself of the opportunities 
offered for an improvement of your 
own mind ; for more of leisure, rest 
and contentment for the worn-out 
wife at the humble, holy shrine of 
your domestic felicity ; for the better 
education, enlightenment and happi- 
ness of your children ? Have you not 
improved in your conception of re- 
sponsibility and respectability, and 
feel newly clad with armor for a de- 
fense and maintenance of the same ? 

“There is something more than 
natural in this if philosophy could 
find it out.” What has caused the 
change ? Do you ever give it thought? 
It is not worthy only of reflection but 
of new resolves and determinations. 
The Trade Union in your case has 
been not only one of compensation ; it 
has been one of preservation from 
danger, if not calamity— one of abso- 
lute salvation from the ills which have 
ever afflicted mankind in helpless 
Do you fully comprehend 



all that is possible if you are only 
true to yourself ? But to be true to 
one’s self is not alone to look out for 
the interest of self. “ There are oth- 
ers M You are not alone in the respon- 
sibility for the privileges and emolu- 
ments you enjoy. By helping others 
you but add to the safety and security 
of your own belongings. Stand by 
your fellows. Be constant and vigi- 
lant. Do not console yourself in quiet 
complacency that all is secure because 
of your own better contented condi- 
tions. Stretch out your hands for the 
rescue and liberation of the unre- 
deemed. Use your endeavors to polish 
up the rough ashlars scattered in your 
pathway as a hindrance to your own 
progress and prosperity in the march 
of advance to brighter, happier days, 
when the world shall have been made 
better ; when comfort, good cheer and 
consolation shall accompany felicita- 
tions and congratulations upon the 
reward sure to follow faithful perform- 
ance of duty, fidelity to trust imposed, 
in a full fruition of appeasement, con- 
tentment, happiness, secured in the 
bonds of fellowship,- friendship and 
fraternity. 

Believe me, my dear brother trade 
unionist, your work is not done be- 
cause you are safe within the fold. 
Every member of a trade organization 
should be on constant alert to improve 
and strengthen the spirit of his con- 
victions. Paying dues and attending 
only occasionally upon the meetings of 
a Union may possibly satisfy the let- 
ter of the law. The writer has been 
doing better than that for nearly 
forty-nine years, and has never made 
a step to regret. His devotions have 
always been devout, rigid, exact — 
with religious faithfulness. He has 
never lost sight of the favors con- 
ferred or the value of genuine benefi- 
cence enjoyed. The man who forgets 
the advantages obtained from his 
Trade Union connections is unworthy 
of kind consideration and respectful 
recognition. Let no man professing 
Trade Union principles suffer himself 
— or others, if he can prevent them — 
to droop into pessimism and gloomy 
despondency. There be those who 
grumble about the amount of dues 
imposed, or of an occasional assess- 
ment. Out upon such lack of faith 
in achievement made and yet in store 
for the faithful to their calling. Take 
out your pencil and figure out your 
dues for a whole year; then figure 
out your increased pay obtained 
through Trade Union methods ; de- 
duct the lowest figures from the 
highest ; then look at yourself, as 
in a mirror, and strive to conceal the 
shame which a conscientious consid- 
eration would cause to bear heavily 
upon your action. 

There is no investment on earth for 
a workingman to make that will pay 
as much per cent, as a Trade Union. 



American Federation of Labor. 



II. 



INTERNAL POLICY —RELATION TO 
OTHER ORGANIZATIONS. 



BY MORTON A. ALDRICH, PH. D. 



The objects of the American Feder- 
ation of Labor are stated in its Consti- 
tution as follows : 



1. The objects of this Federation shall be the 
encouragement and formation of local Trade 
and Labor Unions, and the closer federation 0 
such societies through the organization of Cen- 
tral Trade and Labor Unions in every city, a ° 
the further combination of such bodies into 

State, Territorial or Provincial organizations,^ 

secure legislation in the interest of the working 



masses. 

2. The establishment of National and Inter- 
national Trade Unions, based upon a strict re- 
cognition of the autonomy of each trade and the 
promotion and advancement of such bodies. 

3. An American Federation of all Nations 
and International Trade Unions, to aid and assist 
each other, to aid and encourage the sale ° 
Union label goods, and to secure national legisla- 



tion in the interest of the working people 



and 



influence public opinion, by peacelul and legal 
methods, in favor cf organized labor. 

4. To aid and encourage the labor press ° 
America. 

Its policy is thus two- fold. Besides 
what may be called the external policy» 
such as the promotion of legislation 
and the encouragement of the sale 0 
Union label goods, the Federation 
seeks to bring about by means 0 
closer federation more efficient organ- 
ization of the American Trade Union 
movement. This work within 
Trade Union world, though less con- 
spicuous than the external activity 0 
the Federation, and on that account 
generally ignored, deserves carefn 
consideration. 

Organizers of the Federation— o ve 
three hundred in all — work to brin£ 
the Unions of a trade together 10 
a national Union, and especially 
organize new local Unions. Th e$e 

organizers receive no pay, except neces- 
sary expenses. Of late they k aVe 
been devoting especial attention t0 
the difficult problem of organize 
unskilled laborers. 

The Federation is the medin^ 
through which the more experienced 
Trade Unionists give wholesome 



vice to the cruder and less effic* eIlt 
Unions. Year after vear Presft eIlt 



Year after year Pres 
Gompers, in his annual reports, 
urged the Unions to strengthen 
organization by charging high <* ueS 
and adopting a system of insur*^ 
benefits. A well filled treasury» ^ 
points out, is one of a Trade Un* 0 * 
most potent arguments against an 
willing employer ; the benefit ft 1 * 
for sick, funeral, disability and 
of-work benefits enable a Trade U* 1 ; 



to do 
above 
funds 



,a 



tb e 

It 



more for its members ; , 

all the existence of be® 
secures a permanency in 
membership of the Trade Union, 
was the Unions without funds wb‘ c J. 
broke up during the depression 0 
*893, while the only national 



He makes no sacrifice of principle, Union affiliated wUh the * Itederatio® 
“ >«««» «Ul*. which had a J'Ul crow.» '» 



condition. 



with his politics, religion or social 
functions. He can be a Trade Union- 
ist and anything else he pleases that 
may befit an honest, upright citizen, 
while the benefits are enhanced by 
each succeeding hour of toil, and he 
is braced in adherence to a rectitude 
which leaves no trace of blush or 
shame. 

Long live the Trade Union ! 



a continuous grow- ^ 
membership during this same p er 0 ^ 
was the one which had the system* 0 ^ 
high dues and benefits generally 
tablished. Further, only those Uu* 00 
which maintain their member^ 1 
intact during dull periods of indus** 
are prepared to take advantage of * 
first sign of returning good e 
This attitude of President Gomp e ^ ^ 
heartily endorsed by the convent* 0 



THE CARPENTER. — > 



General Officers 

• OF THB 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 
124 N. Ninth St , Philadelphia, Pa. 



General President —John Williams, Utica, 
N. Y. 

General Secretary-Treasurer.— P. J. McGuire, 
P. O. Box 884, Philadelphia, Pa. 

General Vice-Presidents. 

First Vice-President.— W. D. Huber, 95 Waverly 
st., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Second Vice-President.— William Bauer, 2610 
W. Polk st., Chicago, 111. 

General Executive Board. 

(All correspondence for the G. E. B. must be 
mailed to the General Secretary-Treasurer.) 

James M. Lane, 269 W. 124th st., New York, N.Y 

J. R. Miller, 1522 Washington ave.. St. Louis, Mo. 

A. C. Cattermull. 1013 W. 86 th st., Sta. P.,Chicago. 

Fred. C. Walz, 1332 Broad st., Hartford, Conn. 

W. J. Williams, 170 Mills ft.. Atlanta, Ga. 



American Federation of Labor. 

(i Continued .) 



of the Federation ; the convention of 
1896 resolved that no local Union 
should be permitted to remain affili- 
ated with the Federation unless its 
dues were at least fifty cents a month. 
Not many years ago such a proposal 
would have met with strong opposi. 
tion, but now most Unions have come 
to appreciate the advantages of sub- 
stantial regular dues. 

The great lack of unity in the 
American Trade Union movement has 
often resulted in the existence of rival 
Trade Unions in the same trade. The 
division in authorit}" resulting from 
this dual organization is uniformly 
bad. The employer has to deal with 
two sets of Trade Union officials in- 
stead of one ; and, as a rule, the two 
organizations have ended in giving 
much more energy to fighting each 
other than to advancing the interests 
of their members. The American 
Federation has taken a firm stand 
against this needless dual organiza- 
tion. it invariably refuses to recog- 
nize more than one national organiza- 
tion in a single trade*, and it under- 
takes to protect the organization which 
it recognizes against both rivals and 
seceders. 

It remains to consider the relation 
of the American Federation of Labor 
to the rival labor organization of the 
Knights of Labor, which had existed 
since 1869. The Federation and the 
Knights both included workmen of 
various trades, but they differed radi- 
cally in their forms of organization. 
While the Knights admitted any one 
to membership (except the three ostra- 



*The case of the American branches of the 
(English) Amalgamated Society of Carpenters 
and Joiners is an exception. They were ad- 
mitted into the American Federation of Labor 
by consent of the American Society, the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners. 



cized classes of lawyers, bankers and 
saloonkeepers), the Federation closely 
confined its membership to working- 
men. The organization of the Knights 
rested on lodges founded by the cen- 
tral order, and power was strongly 
centralized. The units of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor were strong, 
independent national Unions. The 
fundamental differ nee between the 
two bodies, however, lay in the com- 
position of the local units. The 
Knights tried to a considerable extent 
to organize in the same local assem- 
blies all classes of workmen regardless 
of vocation. The local Unions repre- 
sented in the Federation, on the con- 
trary, comprise only workmen of a 
single trade (with the unimportant 
exception of the federal Unions ). 
The Federation deems it a mistake to 
invest authority over the affairs of a 
trade in a Union in which other 
trades are represented, and asserts the 
principle that the workmen of a craft 
alone have the right to regulate the 
affairs of that craft. 

When the Federation was first 
founded, the two organizations ap- 
parently intended to live harmoni- 
ously together. At the Federation 
convention of 1881 nearly half the 
delegates represented local assemblies 
of the Knights of Labor. Trouble 
soon arose, however, from the rivalry 
between the organizations of the 
Knights and the Federation among 
workmen in the same trade. The 
unions of the Knights provoked great 
bitterness of feeling by accepting 
workmen as members whom the Trade 
Unions licivl declared " unfair. *» In 

some cases, when a Trade Union went 
on strike, the Knights went so far as 
to organize the workmen who took 
their places into one of their local 
assemblies. The resulting differences 
developed into an ugly fight. Several 
conferences between the two organi- 
zations utterly failed to bring about 
an agreement. The Federation de- 
manded that the Knights of Labor 
should surrender all their authority 
in Trade Union affairs, which had 
become their chief concern, and con- 
fine themselves to the educational 
branch of their work. The struggle 
has continued intermittently ever 
since. In several instances the rival 
local organizations in the same trade 
have fought each other till they for- 
got their trade interests, greatly to 
the convenience of the employers. 
For a time both organizations suf- 
fered ; but as the final result the 
American Federation of Labor has 
steadily grown, while the membership 
of the Knights of Labor, owing both 
to its political intrigues and to the 
imperfect basis of its trade organiza- 
tion, has dwindled until to day the 
order is not strong enough except in 
a few localities to be a serious rival 
to the Federation. 

The conflict was a struggle for 
supremacy, of course, but deeper than 
that it was a conflict between the dif- 
ferent principles of organization 
underlying the two orders. Under 
the Knights of Labor, the policy of 
the workmen in a trade might be 
fixed, in part at least, by men out- 
side the trade. The American Feder- 
ation of Labor, supported by the 
national Trade Unions, gained a 
victory for the principle that the 



members of a ti 
divided authorii 
that trade. 



d/ should have un 'detailed expenses,! 
'over the affairs of Printing l.ooo postals. . . . 









FOR TAX, PIN 8 AND SUPPLIES. 
During the month ending November 30, 1898. 
Whenever any errors appear notify the G. S.-T. 
without delay. 



1— $147 10 100— $5 80 

2 23 70 101 3 00 

3 7 «0 103 11 20 

5 31 00 10 4 — - 5 40 

6 5 60 105 4 00 

7 72 00 . 106 14 90 



8 18 20 

9 15 10 

10 — 168 10 

11 14 80 

12 00 60 

13 38 40 

15 16 20 

16 19 40 

18 3 80 

19 57 85 

20 7 80 

21 21 60 

22 — 70 80 

23 43 35 

24 21 30 

25 17 00 

26 31 60 

27 10 60 

28 9 20 

29 28 80 

31 21 60 

32 28 20 

33 — 110 20 

34 10 80 

85 5 20 

37 4 20 

38 6 20 

40 3 60 

41 6 00 

42 — 9 40 

44 8 30 

45 12 

46 11 10 

47 23 20 

48 2 OO 

60 3 HO 

51 45 40 

52 16 40 

54 26 00 

55 80 55 

56 9 40 

57 4 40 

58 96 40 

59 7 40 

60 11 30 

62 m 60 

63 29 00 

64 29 00 

65 15 15 

66 4 00 

67 10 80 

68 2 60 

69 9 00 

70 9 IX) 

71 3 60 

72 41 55 

73 59 40 

74 5 80 

75 13 60 

78 15 60 

79 7 

80 16 40 

81 14 40 

82 2 40 

«I 22 20 

84 4 20 

85 5 30 

86 13 60 

87 13 80 

88 12 20 

89 2 95 

90 19 20 

91 22 90 

92 6 40 

93 24 80 

95 12 0G 

96 66 90 

97 6 65 

98 45 05 

99 2 20 



109 17 20 

110 — =— 1* 65 

111 6 60 

112 — 51 20 

114 21 40 

115 63 90 

116 2 ÖD 

117 2 60 

118 *2 20 

119 28 20 

120 — 14 50 

121 10 50 

122 10 40 

123 8 50 

125 46 00 

126 7 75 

128 4 40 

129 6 (X) 

130 1 00 

131 15 40 

134 8 20 

185 17 00 

136 4 80 

137 7 00 

139 2 00 

U0 7 60 

141 34 30 

142 — 26 72 

143 2 60 

144 — 5 00 

146 29 25 

118 23 20 

149 6 20 

150 50 

lfti l-i 40 

152 3 50 

1.54 2 40 

155 6 15 

156 2 80 

157 2 40 

1,58 5 70 

159 5 00 

160 32 15 

161 — 11 80 

163 6 80 

165 4 80 

166 6 30 

167 20 80 

168 14 00 

169 21 40 

170 4 00 

171 7 80 

172 11 40 

173 2 80 

174 29 20 

175 13 20 

176 17 20 

177 19 90 

178 4 20 

179 16 80 

180 5 80 

181 94 40 

182 10 00 

las 6 40 

181 8 80 

185 7 60 

186 2 40 

187 10 40 

188 6 25 

190 7 80 

191 6 20 

192 3 20 

194 2 00 

19.5 3 IX) 

198 7 00 

199 37 40 

200 18 20 

202 20 SO 

203 17 10 

206 9 20 



207 $8 60 1 402 $7 40 

208 — 2 60 406 4 80 

209 16 00 407 6 20 

210 — 13 80 409 2 20 

211 33 80 416 29 60 

213 10 00 419 40 60 

214 3 00 424 4 40 

215 19 .50 427 57 40 

216 10 00 428 7 40 



217 3 

218 30 

220 9 00 

221 5 00 

223 35 80 

224 — 15 68 

228 9 80 

229 4 40 

230 7 80 

281 9 40 

233 16 80 

235 4 80 

236 4 40 

238 10 40 

239 14 20 

241 8 40 

242 12 60 

244 2 10 

245 10 50 

246 3 40 

247 20 20 

248 4 80 

249 25 20 

250 10 80 

251 9 40 

252 7 20 

255 1 25 

257 95 60 

258 15 20 

259 S 65 

260 5 

261 10 00 

2ti5 — 6 00 

266 8 40 

268 4 30 

278 14 20 

274 15 80 

281 — 118 50 

286 13 00 

287 3 20 

288 5 80 

291 23 20 

300 15 50 

301 62 70 

304 10 a5 

306 75 20 

309 — 199 60 

815 8 20 

316 3 (X) 

828 2 40 

825 6 40 

327 2 40 

328 19 30 

332 5 60 

334 4 60 

340 79 80 

342 4 40 

343 8 40 

349 7 

355 10 40 

356 3 80 

359 15 60 

360 7 00 

361 25 60 

865 — 15 70 

371 2 80 

374 10 60 

875 — 144 80 
376 10 00 

381 18 00 

382 67 80 

381 5 85 

391 8 20 

393 5 20 

394 9 10 

399 6 00 

400 3 20 



429 11 30 

4138 15 30 

434 4 00 

437 5 40 

439 3 20 

440 — 10 40 

442 3 40 

444 10 20 

448 9 60 

451 18 00 

453 50 00 

457 74 20 

460 2 40 

464 30 80 

407 4 40 

468 24 10 

471 32 60 

473 — 37 10 

474 4 20 

476 60 50 

482 11 70 

483 25 60 

484 11 00 

486 10 80 

490 26 10 

493 22 40 

497 44 40 

499 7 20 

507 8 oo 

5) 9 — 4 4 05 



CTOBEE, 1898. 

I Printing 1,000 postals. . . .1 ... $ 3 oo 

.3,000 envelope- and 3 , 000 let- 
ter heads for General Oilcers and 

G. E. B * . . . . 24 25 

Printing 1.250 large vote retöriw . . . 21 75 

“ 1,250 circulars, four pages. , 11 50 

“ GOO request circulars 1 76 

“ 1,000 stamped envelopes . . 1 25 

" 800 gummed slips ..... 1 50 

“ 5,000 letter heads . ...... 20 IX) 

** 19,000 copies October Carpen* 

ter C? ’ . . 168 60 

*' f >00 note sheet circulars ... 3 00 

“ 5,000 membership cards ... 12 50 

One-half ream large wrapping paper 8 76 

Expressage 75 

Postage on October Carpenter. . . 28 1* 

Engravings for October “ ... 31 25 ' 

Special writers for ,l “ ... 14 00 

A W. Woods 16.00 

D. L. Stoddard . ift gp 

10 telegrams 2 58 

Expressage on supplies, etc 13.03 

Postage “ “ “ 28 72 

500 postals o (JO 

Registered letters 28« 

Postage on general vote circtgjars • • 10 00 

I , 000 stamped envelopes 2180 

500 postals 6 00 

Office rent for October 25 00 

Quarterly p. O. box rent ....... 3 00 

Salary and clerk hire 362 71 

Tax to A. F. of L. for September. . . 66 67 

F. J. Lambert, attorney 75 Ot) 

Amalgamated Carpenters, for Donald 

Monro 010 

II. M. Saun ers, investigation of Bailey 

claim 10 00 

A. C. Cattermu.l 27 76 

P. J. McGuire, traveling expenses. . 18 05 

Rubber seals and daters ft Q 3 

2,000 clrfsp envelopes Ik 00 

One dozen transfer cases 4 76 

Stationery 3 31 

Incidentals .... 1 »5 

Janitor’s services .4 00 

D. C. of Newark, N. J 100 00 

D. C. Pittsburg * . . . . 100 00 

D. C. of San Francisco > • • * . . . H00 00 

Benefits Nos. 4,293 to 4,343 . 6,825 00 



Total . 



. $ 3,758 : 



513 33 60 

615 13 80 

521 17 90 

522 14 40 

526 51 60 

547 33 15 

564 10 00 

567 - —24 80 

.584 28 80 

591 fj oo 

592 17 20 

003 3 20 

605 2 20 

000 4 80 

Oil 8 20 

612 2 80 

617 8 70 

622 17 40 

628 6 00 

637 8 00 

638 5 60 

14 60 

610 10 00 

650 — 3 80 

652 18 55 

658 2 40 

059 12 20 

667 2 40 

676 5 00 

678 - — 9 80 

687 8 10 

696 4 40 

703 3 80 

701 6 00 

707 11 40 

712 2 80 

714 17 20 

715 35 20 

716 20 40 

723 — 15 00 
/26— 19 00 

739 2 80 

746 2 20 

750 11 60 

757 4 60 

767 4 00 

785 2 20 



RECEIPTS, NOVEMBER. 1*98. 

From the Unions, tax, etc f $6,362 36 

■ m 76 

10 00 



Advertisers 
Rent .... 



*' Subscribers ...... I 

*' Miscellaneous I 

Cash balance, November 1, 189il 



8 00 
60 

20,131 08 



Total $26 778 78 

Total expenses 6,109 02 



Cash balance, December 1, 189.T 



. $20,669 16 



DETAILED EXPENSES, NOVEMBER, ]898. 



Total 



RECEIPTS, OCTOBER, 1898. 

From the Unions, tax. etc $0 ; 

“ Advertisers ]_ __ 

'* Subscribers 4 00 

“ R ent 10 00 

“ Clearances 4 20 

“ Miscellaneous 9 79 

Cash balance, October 1, 1988 21,936 00 



Total $28,892 84 

Total expenses 8,758 26 



Pr uling 6, 0G0 applications ...,..$ 
" 1,000 letter sheets ...... 

“ 5,000 nr 1 ears notices 

“ 200 arrears, German .... 

“ 1,000 note circulars. ..... 

" 1,000 receipt forms 

“ 1,000 bill heads 

“ 2,000 Treas. blanks ...... 

“ 1,500 notehends 

41 1,000 clearances . 

" 3,000 F. S. blanks 

“ 10,000 labels 

“ 1,000 officers’ bonds 

“ 100 R. S. order books „ . . . 

“ 1,000 postals 

“ 15 ledgers (200 pages) 

“ 15 “ (300 pages) L . . . 

“ 18,750 copies, November Car- 

$6,362 35 fenter ......... 

Expressage L . . . 

I Print bill 

Postage on November ^ arpentI k . . 
Printing proceedings of Ne\^ Yolk 

convention 

Engravings for November Cap i enter 
S pecial writers for “ 

Press Clipping Bureau . . . • . I . . . 
Nine telegrams ... 

Expressage on supplies, etc. . 

Postage “ “ “ . . « 

Postage on Convention Proceedings to 

Locals 

•VlOOO Postals 

* Office rent for November . . « • 

Salary and clerk hire 

Gas bill for quarter ..... 

Tax to A. F. of L. for October . 

500 Brotherhood pins ... 

P J. McGuire, travelling expensi 
Stationery and incidentals . 

Janitor’s services 

Benefits, Nos. 43-14 to 4377 . . 



Wr 



Cash balance, November l, 1898 . 



. $20,13-1 as 



Total . 



166 00 
75 

601 80 
27 85 

227 75 
38 25 
49 00 
10 00 

2 99 
17 70 
27 81 

12 00 
10 00 
25 00 
374 16 
7 10 

m (.7 
100 00 
16 7ft 
l 80 

3 25 
1,189 68 



$6,109 62 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



RESOLU- 

TIONS. 



M- 



0\ 



rowr 

•rll StMl, 



Swo ri 



AMENDMENTS. 

8 9 10 I 11 12 | 13 14 15 16 



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82 

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111 ! 



160 

101 | 
164 



186 ! 
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190 

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12 



THE CARPENTER 



3' 

A 

lull 



i 

.J 

! 



I 



• M 

I 

A 



DU 

;MA 




fti 

\ row» 

‘-»nl Steel, •< 




f»f * 4 c ^ n 



v 



RESOLU- 

TIONS. 



AMENDMENTS. 





1 


2 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


























• 




• 








* 
















j 








„j 








i 








j 




• 
























• 










to 




















w 




cn 




(A 




<A 








CA 




CA 




CA 




CA 








B 






a. 




CA 




X 




to 




V, 








CO 




to 




as 




Cfl 


a 




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0 






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1 



SUPPLEMENTARY. 



7 


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37 


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40 


11 


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40 


3 


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40 


9 


17 


23 


6 


0 


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61 


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62 


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58 


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62 


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43 


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499 


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1 


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41 


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563 


40 


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28 


38 


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17 


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47 


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181 


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0 


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1 


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1 


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1 


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3 


2 


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11 


2 


12 


1 


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0 


11 


10 


1 


11 


0 


11 


0 


11 


0 


11 


0 


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11 


11 


0 


11 


0 


10 


1 


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1 


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11, 11 


0 


11 


0 


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0 


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10 


0 


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0 


10 


0 


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0 


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0, 


10 


78 


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0 


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85 


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0 


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0 


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For 

Against ....... 



SUMMARY. 



2 


1 1 


2 


1 3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 1 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 1 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


_23_ 


24 


2 


2423 

4577 


6465 
1 794 


5806 
1 1742 1 


5362 
| 2030 


5825 

1698 


6417 

953 


4418 

3105 


5808 

1493 


I 5711 
1 1561 


5488 

1462 


0092 
1 919 


4995 

1069 


5092 

mi 


4949 

1029 


4947 

2091 


3914 

8353 


52 V) 

2115 1 


j 6031 
1 1019 


5961 

7?9 


7)817 

707 


5220 
13' 2 


5268 

1337 


5419 

872 


5743 

703 


5060 

iaw 


41 

ll 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



AMENDMENTS. 



a 

D 

237 

238 

239 
241 
24(3 
247 

251 

252 
255 

257 

258 

259 
2(30 
2(3(3 

273 

274 

275 
281 
28(3 

287 

288 
291 

300 

301 
304 
30(3 

309 
315 
323 
325 
328 
332 
33-1 

310 
349 
352 
355 
856 
359 
3(3 • 
361 
3(35 

374 

375 
381 
384 
391 

393 

394 

399 
402 
41(3 
419 
424 

427 

428 

429 
437 
440 

448 

449 
451 
453 
457 
4(32 
4(34 
4(38 
471 

473 

474 
476 
478 

483 

484 
48(3 

400 
493 
509 
513 
515 

521 

522 
526 
547 
554 
567 
578 
580 
584 
588 

592 

593 
603 
606 
611 
622 
628 
637 
639 
650 
652 
676 
(387 
696 
704 
7C7 

715 

716 
723 
726 
739 
746 
750 
786 

43 

(359 

(378 



26 



27 



28 29 



30 



31 



ID 

a 

be 


u 

o 


X 

a 

CO 

be 


u 

o 


b 

'5 

be 


o 


1« 

B 

*3 

bo 


o 


.2 

bo 


<1 


X 


< 


fa 


< 


fa 


< 


fa 


<3 
















10 




7 


10 


0 


9 


0 


10 


0 


0 


22 


22 


0 


22 


0 


22 


0 


22 


0 


0 


0 


12 


0 


12 


12 


0 


12 


0 


1 


8 


0 


8 


0 


8 


0 


8 


0 


4 


2 


5 


6 


1 


3 


4 


4 


3 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


21 


6 


8 


3 


7 


2 


8 


1 


9 


2 


8 


17 


0 


17 


0 


17 


0 


17 


0 


17 


0 


7 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


2 


44 


1 


45 


0 


45 


0 


13 


30 


5 


28 


1 


30 


0 


30 


0 


26 


4 


0 


26 


0 


2(5 


0 


26 


0 


26 


0 


0 


15 


3 


18 


0 


18 


0 


17 


0 


0 


7 


1 


8 


0 


8 


0 


8 


0 


0 


20 


0 


21 


0 


16 


3 


19 


0 


0 


22 


0 


22 


0 


14 


0 


16 


0 


1 


7 


1 


7 


0 


7 


0 


6 


1 


9 


13 


9 


24 


0 


9 


15 


6 


17 


0 


9 


3 


12 


0 


2 


10 


12 


0 


8 


3 


6 


9 


0 


3 


6 


8 


1 


0 


0 


11 


0 


11 


0 


11 


11 


0 


27 


0 


33 


11 


0 


0 


26 


8 


19 


2 


25 


1 


26 


0 


25 


1 


26 


0 


0 


32 


1 


42 


0 


42 


0 


41 


1 


0 


12 


0 


13 


0 


13 


0 


13 


0 


12 


16 


0 


11 


0 


13 


0 


12 


0 


258 


121 


212 


97 


248 


300 


55 


267 


68 


1 


11 


1 


14 


2 


14 


2 


14 


2 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


10 


5 


0 


0 


16 


13 


0 


12 


4 


7 


3 


10 


0 


24 


23 


3 


22 


4 


12 


3 


0 


12 


0 


12 


0 


12 


0 


12 


0 


0 


11 


0 


11 


0 


8 


3 


11 


0 


2 


28 


1 


11 


1 


27 


0 


9 


1 


1 


13 


0 


13 


0 


13 


0 


2 


8 


1 


14 


0 


13 


1 


18 


1 


13 


1 


26 


26 


0 


26 


0 


26 


0 


26 


0 


0 


8 


4 


13 


0 


0 


13 


13 


0 


0 


14 


0 


14 


0 


14 


0 


14 


0 


4 


20 


0 


13 


7 


17 


2 


10 


9 


0 


18 


0 


10 


6 


13 


0 


18 


0 


20 


12 


10 


19 


1 


21 


1 


18 


6 


0 


14 


0 


14 


0 


14 


0 


14 


0 


165 


147 


114 


78 


194 


191 


125 


94 


176 


0 


28 


19 


47 


0 


47 


0 


47 


0 


0 


8 


0 


8 


0 


8 


0 


8 


0 


0 


17 


0 


17 


0 


0 


17 


17 


0 


8 


0 


8 


8 


0 


8 


0 


0 


8 


2 


18 


0 


18 


0 


18 


0 


18 


0 


0 


7 


0 


7 


0 


4 


3 


7 


0 


1 


13 


8 


8 


3 


6 


4 


11 


4 


0 


20 


0 


19 


0 


21 


0 


19 


0 


72 


73 


0 


71 


0 


70 


0 


7 


61 


0 


11 


1 


9 


0 


15 


1 


7 


8 


22 


25 


3 


24 


0 


27 


1 


6 


22 


21 


0 


21 


0 


21 


0 


21 


0 


21 


11 


0 


15 


10 


0 


12 


1 


12 


0 


15 


0 


15 


0 


15 


0 


15 


0 


15 


17 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


2 


9 


1 


4 


6 


12 


0 


12 


1 


0 


16 


3 


0 


19 


0 


19 


0 


19 


0 


61 


0 


61 


0 


61 


0 


60 


1 


0 


40 


0 


40 


0 


40 


0 


39 


2 


39 


41 


1 


28 


0 


19 


0 


23 


10 


0 


7 


0 


7 


0 


7 


0 


7 


0 


0 


31 


14 


25 


1 


20 


33 


39 


11 


24 


0 


46 


2 


42 


46 


0 


16 


0 


43 


12 


33 


32 


13 


44 


0 


44 


0 


0 


1 


54 


1 


54 


25 


3 


28 


0 


3 


2 


8 


1 


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SUPPLEMENTARY. 



7 


0 


30 


24 


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24 


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40 


1 


32 


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30 


2 


0 


26 I 


32 : 


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33 


0 


4 


2 


0 


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30 


1 


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1 


20 


l 


24 


0 


30 


0 


29 


0 


1 


31 


33 


0 


81 


1 j 


33 


1 


88 


0 


35 


1 


32 


0 


1 


28 


499 


5 


5 


10 


7 


2 


11 


0 


8 


2 


10 


0 


11 


0! 


10 


1 


11 


0 


10 


1 


ll 


l | 


8 


5 


3 

25 


9 


7 


5 


6 


3 


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4 


5 


7 


8 


3 


9 


0 


11 


0 


11 


0 


11 


0 


12 


0 


12 


0 


10 


1 


563 


27 


0 


27 


0 


27 


0 


27 


0 


27 


0 


28 


0 


28 


0 


28 


o 


28 


(t 


28 


0 


20 


5 


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23 


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28 


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12 


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5 


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1 


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0 


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5 


0 


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0 


12 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


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0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


12 


7 


346 


0 


10 


10 


0 


10 


0 


ID 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


1 10 


0 


j 10 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


lu 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


10 


0 


9 


0 


9 


0 


9 


0 


9 


0 


9 


0 


9 


0 


78 


35 


0 


35 


0 


1 35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


1 85 


0 


1 35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 


35 


0 



SUMMARY. 





26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


32 


33 


co 


35 ! 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50~ 


For 

Against 


4141 

2046 


5019 

1477 


5167 

1253 


5702 

910 


5351 

1039 


60(14 

651 


5898 

i 694 


5881 

693 


5278 
| 1238 


5616 

787 


5609 
i 996 


5708 
1 726 i 


5869 

594 


5518 

952 


5655 
1 711 


5919 

584 


5622 

717 


6534 

788 


5700 

550 


5751 

546 


5692 

621 


5880 
! 471 


5789 

52-4 


5738 

566 


5111 

1327 



THE CARPENTER. 



15 




4 or (Bar <B*rman Readers. 

9Jnijo5r8=©ru6 lies „(farjieiitet " 

iS gutem Serien guten ©ruft, 

8«m frozen feft ber ^abrcSmenbc, 
C5icd? alten, S3 r übern, einen .Ruft 
Unb ©Iiicfu>ünfd)c ol)ne ©nbe — 

2td), fount icty, tuaS id) toiinfc&e, geben, 
$yiirft>a§r — 

SOv folttet allefammt erleben, 

(Sin reichet, §od>&eglücftc3 3 a $ t! 

Unb mel;r ! 2tU (Sure Seben^tage, 

Sie loilrben t;eitcr, ftitt unb rein, 

(San* ungetrübt bon 9totl) unb $lage, 

3)e3 magren 2)Jcnfc§tl;um3 mürbig fein. 

3» alien fiauben, alten gotten, 

SBürb' in ber tidjt ften ^errticbleit, 

3m S3unbc mit ber 2Ba&rl;eit thronen, 

3)ic eluige (Mcrcd)tigfcit. 

2lm Slrm bc8 ^rtebenS mürbe [(breiten, 

35er Öott ber ßiebc burd) bic ffielt, 

Unb feine §änbe fegnenb breiten, 

2Bo 2Renf(b sum 2ttcnf#cn ficb gefeilt, 
ftrei, ftart im SWcc^t unb groft in Sugcnb, 

(Srlöft au§ finfterem paffes 2Janu, 

Bu bliib'n in immer neuer 3uflcn&, 

Sdüöft SSolf an 93olf ficb liebenb an. 
iß o rüber mär’ baä grimme Streiten 
Unb ’S 93cttelu um ba3 liebe S3rot, 

Unb auögctilgt für aüe Beiten, 

$er taufe nbfacbe ftlud) ber 9iotl; 

35cö (Slcnbs £>errfdjaft mär’ geenbet, 

®ic jetjt auf Millionen rufyt, 

2ßcm jeglichem bag Seine febänbet, 

35er Strbeit ^cil ge Segcngflutf; — 

3)ag 9lllc3 f(blicftt mein 2Bünf($cit ein - 
Sßirb’ö bermal einft mobl 2Ba$rl)eit merben ? 
Spricht mobl einmal bie B**t boreiu, 

Solch beb ™ 1 ©lütte auf ber Grbcn ? 

D sm eifeit nid?t, bie »eit mirb fommen, 
ffiir haben längft ibr Unterpfaub, 

©cbon ift ibr HRorgenratb erglommen, 

£eU ftrablcnb über aUem 2anb ! 

2Bir al)nen f ro ^ bel S^nft ® CÖC,,/ 

Erfüllt mit neuem ScbaffenSbrang, 

Unb ringen mutfyiß Ibr entgegen, 

Hub grüften Sie mit £t>mnenfang, 

O mng bi«««®/ ‘ üic ^ rü ^ in0§luctter ' 

Daä neu &e 8 rilnt bnä übe gelb - 

®emlranfen«e^n«i«e«rtt«r. 

Du San« ber Soffnunfl burd, b.e Seit ! 
D^bettMcr ©eift bes aitenfdMum«, leite, 

nÄ.W r,treu,f.«r t „nbb,«r, 

Uub trog uttS ba^ i ! ait<er jum otiette, 

.(lodfflatternb «or tm neuen 3«$ • 

Beil) Deinen fiSmVf«» mue St * rh : 

Unb Went’ «U Denen ®cme ®utm. 

Die treu M ml»)'« “ m ß"»‘ n ® c,fe ' 
jn üirbeit, 'J 5 iffenf(t;«fi unb Jtunft. 

Sum 3a6reSf«lu6- 

®ie »eit ((} ®if4^’ ei 3 a ^ en " > ie D ° n 
!en Sblfetn feiert mirb, flimmt au« jeben 
nfenben 3 Jlettf$en feterlt^unb jromgt «n 
einem SlüdbUrf auf baS («e.benbe 3<«r, 
bie Söerganflen^eit, unb ju einem Sorb l«I 

ba3 an&red)enbe 3 a l) r ' ' n ^ ie 3 u * un f*- 
Sa ber „©arpenter" mit biefer Kummer 
ifeS 3a6r fo ift e8 not^roenbifl 

6 au« mir einen 8M auf baä oerganflene 
,b baS julünftige 3«r toerfen, benn ber 
Carpenter" ift ni«t eine Seitung tm ge« 
«nli«en Sinne, fonbern er ift baä getfitge 
mb unfeter 33 rüberf«aft, einer Drgant« 
ion beren SebenSjroecf eS ift bie materielle 
b geiftige Sage «rer SJlitgtieber ju »er« 

[fern. t ... 

Diefer Su>ecf !ann aber nur benn erretd&t 
rben wenn bie grofce SJ^affe unferer 2Kit* 
cber in ernfter Sßeife über i^re Sage nad)< 
t!t. Serfueben a)ir alfo, bie ©reigniffe beö 
‘gangenen 3<^eS i« !ur » en S^flen uor 
ferem ©eifte reoue pafüren ju laffen unb 
iicbjeiiig einen Sölicf in bie 3u!unft §u 
in. 

Daö 3abr, an beffen ©nbe wir fteben, tvav 
tau wie baS ooraufgegangene für unS, ein 
-br beä Ringens unb beö SeibenS. 

Dag ©efpenft ber 2lrbeitSloftgfeit toelibeö 
ben Reiben ber Carpenter nun fd)on 3 a b re 
ig bwumroanbert, machte ficb im oerfloffe* 
t Sabre in faft nod) b^ ercm ^ a 6 e g e ^enb, 

1 mie im oorbergebenben. 

^Inaufbaltiam fcbleicbt ber SBolf junger 
- unfere ©ütten, unb tyrn, bort # faft bei 
i meiften unferer (SoUegen finbet er jeit* 
itig ©ingang !— ©rbarmunggloö bobrtftcb 
©ebraube ber fapitaliftifcben 2 luöbeutung 
unfer gleifdj, bie Änocben jermalmenb 
b baö 3Jtar! auöpreffenb. 



Bmar ift t>on unferer Organifation 2UIeg 
gegeben um ben Würgengel beS arbeitenben 
jBoHeS - ben ^apitaliSmug - in gemiffen 
0cbran!en ju batten ; hier unb ba griffen 
eine «njabt ©oüegen §u ber testen SBaffe - 
jum @tri!e. 

2UIein, fo lange eg noch eine grofce Slnjabl 
(Sollegen giebt, bie ficb unferer Organifation 
nicht anfcbliefien, bie, obgleich fie bie gleichen 
Sntereffen haben mie mir organiftrten ©ar* 
penter, )fu jebem greife arbeiten unb ftatt 8 
ober 9 ©tunben 10 unb 12©tunben arbeiten, 
fotange werben wir in unferem Seftreben 
nach materieller SöefferfteUung bem Xeufel in 
ber Sabel gleichen, ber oerfuebte, bie Sröfcbe 
aug einem SBeiber ju werfen ; genau fo oiel 
wie er binaugwaif fprangen aud^ wieber bin« 
ein. 2)ag wag wir auf bem einen ^lafce ex* 
ringen wirb ung an anberer ©teile wieber 
genommen ! 

©enomnun, oon wem ? ftiebt oon unferen 
Slugbcutern, ben flapüaliften — obgleich eg 
biefen ju ©ute fommt — nein, eg wirb ung 
genommen oon unferen eigenen gad&collegen, 
bie in golge ihrer geiftigen Xrägbeit ober 
aug falfcboerftanbenem 3ntereffe, ftatt mit 
ung, wiber ung Icimpfcn. 

$ag ift bie Duelle unferer Dbmnacbt, bie, 
wenn wir alle nur eg ernftlid) wollen, oer« 
ftegen wirb. 

fDie ©onoention unferer Srüberfd&aft bie 
im testen Quartale biefeg Sabreg in 9 tew 
gor t tagte, bat aufeer anberen bereits SBe* 
fcblüffe gefaxt „Sergrögerung beg ,©arpen* 
ter # unb energifd&e Agitation jur 3 lufflärung 
unb Organiftrung unferer ©ottegen." 2)ie, 
wenn richtig burebgefübrt unb oon ung allen 
unterftüfct, ung bem 3i®t e bringen 

werben. 

©enau wie bag oetfloffene 3abr enbet fo 
beginnt auch bag neue für ung, unb oon ung 
felbft bängt eg baber ab, ob wir in gleicher 
2Beife wie bie früheren 3ab*e in unferem 
©lenb fortleben wollen, ober ben 2ftutb haben 
gegen unfere Sluöbeuter aufjutreten. 2B*mt 
nicht aUc 2l»t3«tch«n trügen, fo wirb ung bag 

fommenbe Sah* meljr Kämpfe bringen wie 
bag oetfloffene. 

2)er ©eift ber Unjufriebenheit bricht ftch in 
unferen Leihen immer weiter Söahn. 2)er 
®rucf ber auf ung laftet ift für ung unerträg* 
lieh geworben unb wir organiftrten ©arpen* 
ter ha& en ^ en ^ er ^ a Ö e e ^^nnt unb 
fittb bereit jebeg Opfer ju bringen, benn su 
oerlieren haben wir nid^tS fonbern nur au 
gewinnen. 

Unb batum, ©oUegen! mit ftifchem, frohem 
2Ruthe marfchiren wir ing neue 3ahr hinein, 
felbft wenn eg ung härtere Kämpfe bringen 
wirb wie bag oerfloffene ; bag Sewufitfein 
ba6 wir für unfer 3 Jtenfchenrecht ftreiten, bag 
öewufetfein bag wir bag Sßohlergehen— nicht 
nur für ung — fonbern für alle aftenfd&en er* 
ftreben, giebt ung ßraft in unferem Kampfe 
augauharren. 

Organifation! ©inigteit! 
Opfer tnuth! Unb ber©ieg fann 
ung ntcht fehlen — big bie Äetten 
ber Arbeit gebrochen finb, unb 
ber glücflichen HJtenfchhett bag 
2)reigeftirn ber Freiheit, ©lei ch* 
heit unb Sörüber lidbleit lacht. 



Framing. 



FOR OWEN B. MAGINNIS. 




To cut jack ; if you wish them 16 
inches apart, slide the square up to 1 6 
inches, if 20 inches, slide up to 20 
inches and so on. 





10' 


M 


l j 


Mf. IV 






<v/o 

/ V / HJ 

/- &?£ 


V' v*'- 




/ 7 









WEN B. MAGINNIS offers 
a prize for the most origi- 
nal, latest and best method 
of framing. Now I have 
given some thought and 
study to roof framing and have con- 
cluded the square is master of the 
situation, as it is much quicker and 
less liable to mistake than any method 
I know of. 

Take the number of inches the roof 
is to rise to the foot on the tongue 
and one foot on the blade (which is 
the rise and run of one foot). If the 
building is 14 feet wide at a 7 foot 
run, apply seven times as illustrated 
(Fig. 1 ) To cut octagon rafter apply 
same as common except use 13 inches 
in place of 12 inches on blade Hip 
or valley use 17 inches. 




apart, measure across your square at 
16 inches at '/$ pitch and you have 19 
inches (Fig. 6) length of short jack, 
twice that length is length of second 



ones and so on, or divide the common 
rafter into the number of jacks 
required and get your lengths from 
common rafter : 



Fig. i. 

The rise and run cut on rise gives 
top cut and all plumb cuts, the run 
gives cut on plate and all level cuts. 

The side cut of jacks to fit hip, and 
valley to fit ridge, etc , is length of 
rafter and run, cut on length 

These general rules apply to all 
roofs and it is roof framing in a “ nut- 
shell/’ although it may not be new, 
original or the best. 

But a better way yet is to take rise 
and run, measure across and get length 
of rafter, this gives, length of all 
rafters for even or uneven pitches, and 
all main cuts. 




«4 



As the length of common rafter is 
12 feet and run 10 feet, place the 
square on 12 and 10, cut on 12 for 
bevel of jack rafter (Fig. 7). 

Now as the front gable is to show 
the roof, divide into about three equal 
parts, allowing for projections; set the 
foot of valley 4 feet 6 inches from 
centre of building, as it runs back 
10 feet to deck. 




r, g. 1 . 

To illustrate this I will take a little 
24 foot cottage, pitch hip roof, 4 
feet deck and gable in front, see cut 
(Fig 2). 

As it is only the principle involved 
for convenience in illustrating, I will 
use even feet as much as possible, and 
not give accurate measurements as 
to inches, although in real framing 
accurate measurements should always 
be made. 




Fig. 8. 

The run of vallev is 11 feet (Fig. 8); 
as the rise is 6 feet S inches, run 1 1 
feet, length of valley rafter, 13 feet 

(Fig 9 )- 

As the rise of front gable is 6 feet 
8 inches and run 4 feet 6 inches, 
length of gable rafter 8 feet (Fig. 10). 



Fig. 3. 

Yi pitch roof rises 8 inches to the 
foot. As this 24 foot house has a 4 
foot deck, the run of common rafter 
would be 10 feet, as the rise is 6 feet 
8 inches and run 10 feet, the length of 
conmon rafter is 12 feet (Fig 3). 

As the run of the hip is the diago- 
nal of 10 feet or 14 feet (Fig. 4), and 
the rise is 6 feet 8 inches, run 14 feet, 
length of hip 15 feet 6 inches (Fig 5;. 





Fig. 12. 

As the length of common rafter on 
main roof is 12 feet, and run of gable 
4 feet 6 inches, place the square on 
length, and run cut on length and it 
gives side cut of main jack to fit 
valley (Fig. 11) 

As the gable rafter is 8 feet and run 
of main roof 10 feet, length and run 
cut on length gives side cut of gable 
jack (Fig 12). 

D. L Stoddard. 



1 







16 



THE CARPENTER. 




I 




cj 




roi 

Visu# . 






Swo 







ALABAMA* 

89. Mobile— D. French, 601 Charleston st. 

92. “ (Col.) W. G. Lewis, 751 St. Louis st. 

ARKANSAS. 

248. Fayetteville — M. F. Cunningham 
86. Ft. Smith— H. G. Reed. 

CALIFORNIA. 

194. Alameda— J. Tait, 1323 Park ave. 

332. Los Angeles— S. Gray, Box 224. 

36. Oakland— F. J. Anderson, 670 5th st. 

235. Riverside— Chas. Hamilton, 277 5th st. 
San Francisco — Secretary of Dist. Council, 
Wm. J. Kidd. 220 3d st. 

22. N. L. Wandell, 1133% Mission st., Sta. B. 

95. (Latin) L. Masarie, 44% Erie st. 

304. (Ger.) Wm. Jilge, 405 Ellsworth st. 

483. Guy Lathrop. 915^ Market st. 

316. San Jose— W. J. Wilcox, 525 W. Tuliau st. 
35. San Rafael— L T. Sheils, Box 194. 



CANADA. 

14. Brantford — I. W. Taylor, 158 Terrace Hill. 
83. Halifax, N. S.— A. Northup, 36 Edward st. 
18. Hamilton — W. J. Frid, 25 Nelson st. 

134. Montreal— (Fr.) E. Frechette, 231 San- 
guinet. ^ 

376. “ Allan Ramsay, 157 Quesnel st. 

255. Rat Portage, Ont. - John Nordland, Box 
192. 

38. St. Catherines — James Carty, Box 193. 

27. Toronto— D. D. McNeill, 288 Hamburg ave. 
617. Vancouver, B. C.— L. G. Dordge, 7th ave., 
Fairview. 

343. Winnipeg, Man.— R. Bell, 76 Schultz st. 



COLORADO. 

264. Boulder— R. D. Vernon. 

615. Colo. Springs— Frank Sawyer, Elk Hotel. 
Cripple Creek— Sec. of D C., P.N. McPhee, 
Box 476. 

547. Cripple Creek— W ill. Smith, 569 E. Myers. 
55. Denver— L. B. Reeder, 1332 California st. 
244. El Dora — L. W. Newton. 

178. Independence — T. W. Reid, Macon, P. O. 
Box 5. 

633. Leadville— W. C. Scouller, 130 W. 6 st. 

234. Ouray— John Kirby. 

584. Victor— C. E. Palmer, Box 384. 

CONNECTICUT. 

115. Bridgeport— J. C. Booth, 770 Norman st. 
127. Derby — Geo. H. Lampert, 36 Bank st. 

43. Hartford — Alex. McKay, 67 Wooster st. 

97. New Britain— A. L. Johnson, 114 Franklin. 
79. New Haven — Wm. Wilson, 508 Chapel st. 
133. New London— A G. Keenev. 1 W. Coit st. 
137. Norwich— F. S Edmonds, 293 Central ave. 
746. Norwalk — William A. Kelloerg, Box 391. 
210. Stamford — R. B. McMillin, 176 Pacific st. 
216. Torrington— L. Hotchkiss. 26 George st. 
260. Waterbury— Jos. E. Sandiford, 27 N. Vine. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

190. Washington— L. F. Burner, 1446 Q st., 
N. W. 



FLORIDA. 

224. Jacksonville- (Col.) J. A. Sampson, 26 W. 

Union st. 

605. “ F. E. Houghton. 917 E. Church st. 

74. Pensacola— J. A. Lyle. 317 W. Zawagossa 
696. Tampa— C. B. Hester, 2407 Tampa st. 

GEORGIA. 

439. Atlanta— T. H. Miller, 16 Venable st. 

136. Augusta— (Col.) T. P. Lewis, 1309 Philip st. 
144. Macon— G. S. Bolton, 520 Elmst. 

261. V ldosta— A. J. Gannon. 



ILLINOIS. 

433. Belleville— L. Kloess, 226 N. Gold st. 

70. Brighton Park— O. Gratton, 3809 S. 
Albany Ave. 

41. Champaign— O. F. Miller. 407 Thomas ave. 
Chicago- Secretary of District Council, 
Thos. Neale, 187 E. Wash st.. Room 7. 

1. W.G.Schardt, 189 K. Washingt’nst., Room 2. 
10. J. H. Stevens, 6029 Peoria st. 

13. T. J. Lelivelt. 1710 Fillmore st. 

21. (French) P. Hudon, 207 S. Center ave. 

54. (Bohem.) John Dlouhy, 12^2 W. 21 PI. 

58. William W. Benuette. 1730 N. Clark st. 

181. (Scan.) J.C. Johnson.889 N. Washtenaw ave. 
242. (Ger.) Hermann Voell, 4825 Paulina st. 

416. Fred. Lemke, 520 W. 14th st. 

419. (Ger.) John Suckrau, 3253 S. Oakley ave. 

521. (Stairs) Gust. Hansen, 732 N. Rockwell st. 
295. Collinsville— Jos. Vujtech, Lock Box 471. 
169.' East St. Louis— E. Wendling. 512 111. ave. 
#52. Englewood— A. Wistrom, 6150 Aberdeen st. 
'360. Galesburg— C. J. Johnson, 879 Wash’ n ave. 
141. Grd. Crossing — J. Murray, 7086 S. Chicago 
ave. 

174. Joliet— G D. Kanagv. 305 Richmond st. 

434. Kensington— (Fr.) Ed. Lapolice, 214 W. 

116th st. 

150. Kewanee— Chas. Winquist, Box 11. 

250. Lake Forest— James Dickinson, Box 278. 
241. Moline — John Carlson, 1203 7th ave. 

80. Moreland— H. Sharp. 2449 W. Ohiost. 

183. Peoria— J. H. Rice, 405 Behrendsave. 

195. Peru— H. Baldeschwieler. Box 550. 

189. Quincy— F. W. Euscher, 933 S. 8th st. 

166. Rock Island— Wm. Krueger. Jr., 1101 4th. 
199. South Chicago— J. C. Grantham, 8023 Ed- 
wards ave., Sta. S, Chicago. 

16. Springfield— T. M. Blankenship, 724 S.14th 
448. Waukegan— J. Demerest, 719 County st. 



INDIANA. 

352. Anderson— Geo. Woodmauser. 235 W. 11th 
652. Klwood— W. H. Shaw, 1350 S. A. st. 

90. Evansville— F. W. Klein, 513 Edgar st. 

213. Hartford City— G. O. Bault. 

Indianapolis— Secretary of Dist. Council, 
D. D. Stoddard, 144 E. Washington st. 
60. (Ger.) Paul Rahn, 1126 Laurel. 

281. J. T. Goode, 308 W. Maryland st 
215. Lafayette- H. G. Cole, 2113 South st. 

865 Marion— J. M. Simons, 609 E. Sherman st. 
592. Muncie-H. P. Baker, 412 S. Fwpklin Ä. 

48. Terre Haute- A. Valentine. 724 S. 10th st. 
658. Vincennes— Levi Taylor, 1206 p ® r jy 8t - t , 

220 4 Washington— Jas. Ramsey, Jr., 8 S.E. 7th st 



INDIAN TERRITORY. 

162. Muskogee— J- P. Hosmer. 

IOWA. 

315 Boone— G. L- McElroy. 

534. Burlington — J. Hackman, 905 S. Central av. 
554. Davenport— W. C. Meyers, 432 Brady st. 

106. Des Moines— U. S. G. Badgley, 1303 21st st. 
678. Dubuque— M. R. Hogan, 299 7th st. 

767. Ottumwa— J. W. Morrison, 110 S. Jefferson st 

KANSAS. 

107. Kansas City— A. D. Gates, 818 Packard st. 

180. “ O. B. Fuller, 208 Lafayette ave. 

499. Leavenworth— J. Schaufler. Montezuma av 
158. Topeka— A. M. H. Claudy, 408 Tyler st. 

KENTUCKY. 

712. Covington— C. Glatting, 1502 Kavanaugh st. 
785. “ (Ger.) B. Kampsen, 262 W. 13th st. 

442. Hopkinsville— W. O Hall. 

103. Louisville — H. S. Huffman. L737 Gallagher. 
214. “ (Ger.) J. Schneider, 1136 E. Jacob av. 

698. Newport— W. E. Wing, 622 Central ave. 

LOUISIANA. 

New Orleans— Secretary of Dist. Council 
F. G. Wett£r 2220 Josephine st. 

76. D. C. Kesler, 2818 Constance st. 

704. F. Duhrkop, 617 Cadiz st. 

739. M. Joaquin, 1304 St. Roche ave. 

85. Shreveport— L. Malkus, Box 261. 

MAINE. 

407. Lewiston — C. T inker, 21 Turner st., Auburn 

MARYLAND. 

29. Baltimore— W. H. Keenan. 1519 W. Mul- 
berry st. 

44. “ (Ger.) H. Schroeder, 2308 Canton ave. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston— Secretary of Dist. Council, H. M. 
Taylor, 116 Whitfield st., Dorchester. 
33. “ C. J. Gallagher, 8 Rand PI., Roxbury. 

218 E. Boston— Hugh McKay ,283 Lexington st. 
223. Fall River— F. J. Trainor, 105 Thomas st. 
82. Haverhill— R. A. Clark, 36 Dudley st. 

424, Hingham— H. E. Wherity. Box 113. 

V 121. Holyoke— F. Marchand, 46 Cabot st. 
i 400. Hudson— Geo. E. Bryant, Box 125. 

111. Lawrence— Wm, C. Gemmel. 17 Crosby st. 
370. Lenox — P. H. Cannavan, Box 27. 

108. Lynn — M. L. Delano, 103 Lewis st. 

221. Marblehead— R. H. Roach, 9 Elm ct. 

154. Marlboro — J. O. Donohue, 37 School st. 

409 Nf.w Bedford— C.G. Francis, 216 North st. 
275. Newton— C. Connors, 82 West st. 

193. North Adams- G. W. Houghton. 1 Ryon’s 
Lane. 

444. Pittsfield— Chas Hyde, 16 Booth’s Place. 
67. Roxbury — H. M. Taylor, 116 Whitfield st., 
Dorchester. 

96. Springfield— (French) P. Provost, Jr., Box 
485, Merrick. 

177. “ P. J. Collins, 1365 State st. 

23. Worcester- W. A Rossley, 5 City View ave 

MICHIGAN. 

105. Alpena— B. D. Kelly, 416 Tawas st. 

116. Bay City— E. G. Gates, 218 N. Birney st. 

113. Calumet- W. L. Rogers, Box 528. 

19. Detroit— T. S. Jordan. 427 Beaufaitave. 
196. Grand Rapids— A. De Boer, 217 E. Grove st. 
173. Munising— A. L. Johnson. 

100. Muskegon— Harley W. Starke, 11 Marshall 
59. Saginaw — P. Frisch, 502 Ward st., E. S. 

334. “ Henry Wettlaufer, 1811 Madison st. 

46. SaultSt. Marie— A. Stowell, 282 Portage av. 

MINNESOTA. 

361. Duluth— John Knox, W. Duluth. 

7. Minneapolis- Henning Stubee, 2303 E. 22d 
266. Red Lake Falls— N. Holberg. 

87. St. Paul— Aug. J. Metzger, 423 Rondo st. 



MISSOURI. 

Kansas City— S ecretary of Dist. Council. 
John Kirk. 404 E. 12th st. 

75. J. E. Chaffin, 2220 Troost ave. 

100. H. S. Thayer 205 W. 29th st. 

249. E. H. Price, 1716 Michigan ave. 

110. St. Joseph— Wm. Zimmerman, 1223 N. 13th 
St. Louis— Secretary of District Council, 

R. Fuelle. 604 Market st. 

5. (Ger.) Aug. Kaiser. 2236 Shenandoah ave. 

45. (Ger.) W. Wamhoff. 1416 Montgomery st. 

47. (Ger.) R. Fuelle, 310 Clark ave. 

73. Chas. Wesling, 4035 Easton ave. 

257. J. A. Steininger, 3635 Lucky st. 

578. (Stair Bldrs.) H. D. Kolls. 4036 N. 25th st 

MONTANA. 

88. Anaconda— C. W. Starr, Box 238. 

256. Belt— W m Nollar. 

112. Butte City— C. F. Nugent, Box 623. 

286 Great Falls — O. M. Lambert, Box 923. 

28. Missoula— M. C. Pepple. 



427. Omaha— J. H. Maus, 831 S. 28th st. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

118. Manchester— s. Thornes, 55 Douglass st. 

NEW JERSEY. 

ASBURY Park— Wm. H. Carr, Box 897 
Bayonne- P. A. Miller, 13 E. 53d st. 
Bridgeton— J. H. Reeves, 145 Fayette st 
Camden— T. E. Peteison, 430 Walnut st 
E. Orange— L. P. Sherrer, 34 Bedford st 
Elizabeth— H Zimmerman 240 South st. 

“ (Ger.) John Kuhn. 11 Spencer i 
Hackensack— T. Heath. 312 Union st 
Hoboken— A. Crothers, 131 Jackson st. 

“ (Ger.) H. Sievers, 400 Moaroe st. 
Irvington— Chas. Van Wert. 

Jersey City— T hos. J. Devin, 226 Mont 
cello ave. 

/T „ L , ^ L. F. Ryan, 181 Ninth st. 

(J. C. Heights) John Handorf, North st. at 
Boulevard. 

Long Branch— Chas. E. Brown, Box 24 
Long Branch City. 

Milburn— J H. White, Short Hills. 
Millville-Jss. McNeal. 622 W. Main st 
Montclair— J as. McLeod, 141 Forest st. 
Morristown— C. V. Deats. Lock Box 10 
Newark — Secretary of District Council T 
M. Shaw, 415 Plane st. 

H. G. Long, 10 Davis st. . E. Newark. 
(Ger.) M. Ambielli, 84 Kussuth st. 



750. 

486. 

121 . 

20 . 

217. 

167. 

687. 

265. 

391. 

467. 

57. 

139. 

482. 

564. 

151. 

232. 

305 

429. 

638. 



119. 

120 



148. Herrn. Henri, 427 S. 7th st. 

306. A. L. Beegle, 120 N. 2d st. 

723. (Ger.) G. Arendt, 584 Springfield ave. 

349. Orange— M. Morlock, 17 Parkinson Ter. 
325. Paterson — P. E. Van Houten, 713 E. 27th st. 
490. Passaic — John Icke, 309 Highland ave. 

65. Perth Amboy— W. H. Bath, 33 Lewis st. 

399. Phillipsburg— W. S. Garrison, 8 Fayette st. 
155. Plainfield— Wm. H. Lunger, 94 Wester- 
velt ave., N. Plainfield. 

31. Trenton— J. J. Rourke, 25 Market st. 

612. Union Hill— (Ger.) J. Worischek, 721 Adam 
st.. Hoboken. 



NEW YORK. 



274. Albany— L. B. Harvey, 492 3d st. 

659. “ (Ger.) Wm. Franklin. 450 Elk st. 

6. Amsterdam— Lester Covey, 20 Milton st. 
453. Auburn — E. B. Koon, 116 Franklin st. 

24. Batavia— F. S. Booth. 142 Harvester ave. 
233. Binghampton— F. W. Sicklor, 42 Walnut st. 
Brooklyn — Secretary of District Council, 
Chas. Friedel 58 Himrod st. 

12. Otto Zeibig, 1432 De Kalb ave. 

32. (Ger.Cab.Mkrs.) H. Munster, 371 Palmettost. 
109. Edw. Tobin, 507 Schenck ave., Sub-Sta. 43. 
126. M. J. Casey, 85 Newell st. 

147. C. E. Brown, 272 Howard ave. 

175. W. F. Bostwick, 333 Roebling st. 

247. Chas. D. Monroe. 42 St. Mark’s ave. 

258. M. Spence, 15 Pulaski st. 

291. (Ger) F. Kramer, 96 Hamburg ave. 

3SL. S. E. Elliott, 1295 St. Mark’s ave. 

451 Wm. Carroll, 792 Bergen st. 

471. H. S. Thurber, 318a 15th st. 

639. Archie Aimers, 264 52d st. 

Buffalo — Secretary of District Council, 

W. Wreggitt, 78 Edward st. 

9. W. H. Wreggitt, 78 Edward st. 

355. (Ger.) Jno. Groele, 536 Doat st. 

374 E. O. Yokom, 19 Ferguson ave. 

440. J. H. Myers, 83 Landon st. 

99. Cohoes— A. Van Arnam. 22 George st. 

640. College Point— G. A. Pickel, 5th ave and 

11th st. 

81. Far Rockaway— Matthew Murphy. 

323. Fishkill-on-Hudson— W.W.Rowe, Box 215. 
714. Flushing— F. S. Field, 154 New Locust st. 
187. Geneva — G.W. Dadson, 26 Hollenbeck ave. 
229. Glens Falls — E. J. White. 10 Gage ave. 

68. Hempstead — S. B. Chester, Bux 82. 

149. Irvington— R obert Brown, Hastings-on- 
Hudson. 

003. Ithaca— E. A. Whiting. 8 Auburn st. 

66. Jamestown— O. D. Smith, 794 E. Second st. 
40. Kingsbridge— John E. Forshay, 864 Union 
ave.. New York City. 

251. Kingston— E. C. Peterson, Box 15, Sub Sta. 
591. Little Falls — T. R. Mangan, 142 W. Mon- 



roe. 

34. Long Island City— JohnCurley, 239 Java st. , 
Greenpoint. 

157. Mamaroneck— Chas. E. Tooker. 

212. Mt. Vernon— A. H. Parker, 273 W. Lincoln 
avenue. 

493. “ Jas. H. Perry, 127 N. 7th ave. 

301. Newburg — John Templeton, 159 Ren wick. 
42. New Rochelle— J. V. Gahan, 30 Birch st. 
507. Newtown, L. I. — W. H. Du Bois, Box 86, 
Corona, N. Y. 

New York— Secretary of District Council, 
D. F. Featherston, 309 W. 143d st. 

51. J. J. Hewitt, 595 E. 133d st. Care Neilan. 

56. (Floor Layers) J. Hefner, 411 Steinway ave., 
L. I. City. 

63. Wm. F. Ryan, 96«) 2d ave. 

64. Thos. P. J. Coleman . 7886th ave. . Care Molle. 
200. (Jewish) John Goldfarb, 84 E. 113th st 

309. (Ger. Cab. Makers) Simon Kuehl, 224 1st av. 
340. D. Vanderbeek, 259 W. 128th st. 

375. (Ger.) F. W. Mueller, 635 Morris ave. 

382. H. Seymour, 1300 2d ave. 

457. (Scan.) O. Wallin, 24 W. 118th st. 

464. (Ger.) A. Stumpf, 546 E. 154th st. 

468. Jas. Maguire, 223 Delancey st. 

473. Wm. Trotter, 754 9th ave. 

476 Wm. E. P. Schwartz, 2 Brown’s Point, 



478. 

497. 

509. 

513. 

707. 

715. 

786. 

474. 

101. 

m. 

77. 

203. 

72. 

179. 

231. 

146. 



567 



15 

26. 

192. 

78 

125 

580. 



172. 

128. 

593. 

273. 

726 



Astoria, L. I. 

T. J. Plaeger, 3417 3d ave. 

(Ger.) Geo. Berthold, 321 E. 12th st. 

John McGrail, 174 E. 82nd st. 

(Ger.) R. Kuehnel, 619 E. 9th st.: rear. 

(Fr Canadian) Geo. Menard, 157 E. 76th st. 
Chas. Camp, 223 W. 148th st. 

(Ger. Millwrights and Millers) Henry Maak, 
357 Linden st., Brooklyn. 

Nyack — R F. Wool, Box 493. 

Oneonta— C. W. Burnside, 9 Walling ave. 
Peekskill— C. T. Powell, 306 Simpson pi. 
Portch ester— Anton Nelson, Box 127. 
Poughkeepsie— J. P. Jacobson, Box 32. 
Rochester— H. M. Fletcher, 5 Snyder st. 

“ (Ger.) Frank Schwind, 4 May PI. 
u John Buehrle, 30 Buchan Park. 
Schenectady— Henry Bain, 326 Craig st. 
Staten Island— Secretary Dist. Council. 

J. W. Sheehan, 174 Broadway, West New 
Brighton 

Port Richmond— J. Keenan, 238 Jersey st., 
New Brighton. 

Stapleton— P. J. Klee Box 545. 
Syracuse— Secretary of District Council, 

E E Battey, 517 East Genesee st. 

(Ger.) J. R. Ryan, 125 Gebhardt ave 
E E Battey, ol7 E. Genesee st. 

A. J. Damirande, 250 Gertrude. 

Troy — David King. Box 65. 

Utica— G. W. Griffiths, 240 Dudley ave. 
Watertown— W. J. Mullen, 121 A. Main st. 
Westchester County— Secretary of Dis- 
trict Council, Jas. Gagan, 110 Hugenot, 

New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Westchester— Chas. Baxter, Middletown rd 
Whitestone— Geo. Belton, Box 8. 
Williams Bridge— John Edgley, White 
Plains ave , bet. 1st and 2nd sts. 
Yonkers — E. C. Hulse, 47 Maule st. 



39. (Bohem.) V. Plechaty, 45 Jewett st. 

393. (Ger.) Theo. Welhrich, 16 Parker ave. 

449. (Ger.) Wm. H. Schultz, 35 Conrad st. 

61. Columbus— A. C. Welch, 1127 Highland st. 
104. Dayton— W. C. Smith, 132 S. La Belle st. 
316. “ (Ger.) Jos. Wirth, 311 Clover st. 

328. E. Liverpool— W. W. Patten. 128 Third st. 
637. Hamilton — W. C. Musch, 509 Eaton st. 

182 Lima - D. E- Speer, 114 E. Second st. 

703. Lockland- ChaTlesE. Hertel, Box 182. 

356 Marietta— J. W. Forester, 2 Woster lane. 
650 Pomeroy— E. D. Will. 

437. Portsmouth- C. Thoraan, 110 Campbell 
ave. 

186. Steubenville— D. H. Peterson, 706 Adams. 
243. Tiffin— W. H. Boehler, 202 W. Perry st. 

25. Toledo— E. J Arnold, 540 Wabash st. 

168. *• (Ger.) P. Goetz, 236 Palmer st. 

171. Youngstown— W. s. Stoyer, 715 Augusta st. 
716. Zanesville— Fred. Kappes, Central ave., 
10th Ward. 



OREGON. 

50. Portland— David Henderson, Box 548. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Allegheny City- 
211. J. W. Pitts, 181 Washington ave. 

237. (Ger.) A. Weizman. 66 Troy Hill road. 

135. Allentown— A. M. Moyer, 136 N. 5th,st. 

246. Beaver Falls— A. Burry, Box 611, New 

Brighton. 

406. Bethlehem— I. M. Swinker 412 Broadway, 
S. Bethlehem. 

124. Bradford— W. H. McQuown, 55 Wash’n §t. 

207. Chester— Eber S. Rigby, 316 E. Fifth st. * 
239. Easton — Frank P. Horn, 914 Butler st. 

122. Germantown— J. E. Martin, 126 E. Duval. 
462 Grebnsburg — J H. B. Rowe, 236 Concord. 

287. Harrisburg- W. Bohner, 222 Peffer st. 

129. Hazleton— Chas. Sloyer, 440 W. Green st. 

288. Homestead — Edwin Rowe. Jr., L. Box 527. 

208. Lancaster — Jos. Smith, 229 Chester st. 

206. New t astle— Wm. White, 35 Carson st. 
333. New Kensington— C. S. Aulenbach. 

262. Peckville T U. Spangenburg. 
Philadelphia— Sec. District Council, John 

Watson, 2618 Jasper st., Station K. 

8. W. C. Hall, 1433 S. Nineteenth *t. 

227. (Kensington) John Watson, 2618 Jasper st. 
Station K. 

238. (Ger.) Joseph Oyen, 814 N. Fourth st. 

359. (Mill) J. Dueringer, Jr., 1909 K. Huntingdon. 
Pittsburgh— Secretary of District Council, 
J. G. Snyder, 412 Grant st. 

142. H. G. Schomaker. 126 Sherman ave., Alleg. 

164. (Ger.) P. Geek. 2133 Tus-in st. 

165. (E. End) H. Robertson. 322 Princeton pi. 
202. G. W. McCausland, 130 Lambert st., E. E. 
230. W. J. Richey, 1601 Carson st. 

402. (Ger.) Louis Pauker. 63 Eureka st., 31 Wd. 
1-50. Plymouth— G. H. Edwards, Box 1040. 

563. Scranton— H. C. Scott. 737 Lee C urt. 

484. S. Scranton— (Ger.) T. Straub, rear 109 S. 
Main ave. 

37. Shamokin— H. A. L. Smink, 510 E. Cameron. 
268. Sharon— R. H. McCleery, Box 504. 

757. Taylor — George Wicks, Box 45 

93. Wilkes-Barre — D A. Post, 17 Cinderella st. 

102. “ A. H. Ayers, 51 Penn st. 

191. York— C. Snyderaan, 301 N. West st. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

540. Central Falls— H. A. Gaboriault, 46 Perry 
176. Newport — P. B. Dawley, 18 Levin st. 

342. Pawtucket— J. B.. Parquet, Box 183, Valley 
Falls. 

94. Providence— P. Dolan, 9 Lawn st. 

117. Woonsocket— J. A. Praray 84 0rcharlst. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

52 Charleston— (Col ) John Pinckney, 17 H st. 
69. Columbia— (Col.) C. A. Thompson, 1523 E. 
Taylor st. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

197 Lead City— R. M. Spink. 

TENNESSEE. 

■ 259. Jackson— D. E. Holland, 103 Long st. 

225 Knoxville— W. W. Ramsey, 310 Fousha st. 
152. Memphis — (Col.) H. C. Ellison, 24 Dupree st. 
394. “ J E. Wright, 82 Manassas st. 

TEXAS. 

300. AUSTIN— J. B. Webb, 505 W. 11th st. 

185. Cleburne— J. C. Green. 

198 Dallas— Wm. Watkins, Box 299. 

371. Denison— W. W. Neighbour, 1315 W. 

Gandy ave. 

Galveston— Secretarv of District Council, 
M. C. Bowden, 609 9th st. 

526. J. E Proctor, 1414 19th st. 

611. (Ger.) Otto Viereck, 1306 Ave. M^. 

114. Houston— W. X. Norris, 2310 Rusk st. 

53. Orange— C. B. Payne. 

156. Port Arthur— Hugo Schultze. 

460 San Antonio— (Ger.) Aug. Ries, 302 Plum. 
717. “ “ A G. Wietzel, 135 Centre st. 

622. Waco— A. E. Widmer, Labor Hall. 

UTAH. 

184. Salt Lake City— F. C. Hodder, 1111 E. 5ih 
So. st. ^ 

VERMONT. 

263. St. Albans - Geo. Bromson, Weiden st. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

384. Asheville— G. C. Lumley.51 Blanton st. 

OHIO. 

84. Akron— A. H. Bates, 189 N. Howard st. 

132 Barberton— W. L. Keller. 

17. Bf:llaire — G. W. Curtis, 3638 Harrison st. 
170 Bridgeport— John D Glenn, Box 41. 

110 Bucyrus — J. S. Bevan. 631 Maple st. 

245 Cambridge— V. C Fergurson. 

143. Canton— Chas. Rimmel, 525 N. McKinley 
ave. 

Cincinnati— Secretary of District Council, 
J. H. Meyer, 23 Mercer st. 

2. J. E. Overbecke, 2622 Hackberry st., Walnut 
Hills. 

209. (Ger.) August Weiss, 969 Gest st. 

327. (Mill) H. Brink worth, 1315 Spring st. 

628. A. Berger, 4229 Fergus st. 

667. D. J. Jones, 2228 Kenton st.. Station D. 

«76. Jos. Lang, Box 301, Carthage. 

692. J. P. Luckey, 2427 Bloom st. 

Cleveland— Secretary of District Council. 
F. A. Moran. 158 Superior st., Room 10. 
11. H. L. Lepole, 18 Poe ave. 



WASHINGTON. 

131. Seattle— Fred. Blenkins, Fremont. 

98. Spokane— J. A. Anderberg, E. 524 Blaine. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

236. Clarksburg— J. w. Stealey. 

428. Fairmount— W. R. Hickman, 428 Benoir 
ave. 

226. Parkersburg— S. M. Carfer, 921 21st at. 

3. Wheeling— A. L. Bauer, 1619 Jacob st. 

WISCONSIN. 

588. Green Bay— H. Meister, 1128 Cherry st. 
161. Kenosha— H. C. Goseliue, 730 Park ave. 
Milwaukee— Secretary of District Council, 
Charles Heuer, 501 Twenty.fifth st. 

30. (Ger.) Wm. Bublitz 1810 Frondulac ave. 

71. (Millwrs.) W. Trautmann, 1221 Vliet st. 

188. Aug. J. Hag-n, 781 34th st. 

228. (Ger ) R. Meyers. 768 19th ave. 

522 (Ger.) Chas. Runge, 1325 Lloyd st. 

252. Osh ko 9E -Casper Fluor. 69 Grove st. 

91. Racinb-M. G. King, 1517 Phillipsave. 




THE CARPENTER 









MORRILL'.S PERFECT 

Bench 8tops. Car 8ealera. A 



SKW SETS. 



'I 

JSik. 



Universal Punches. 

Cutting Nippers. 

Charles Morrill, 

35 Warren Street, New York. 





lSt£ 

7UZ 



1 K V Ufj 

©M© 



l . B. C. A J. of America Society Wood*. 
ESTABLISHED 1866. 

CHAS. SVENDSEN. 



MATd'KACTIKKK OF 




3 <S 

x ® 



8 6 

O PL 



Regalia and Badges. 

Orer wo Soclrty Ft*«« Banner» Mannbc 
lurrvl. O w too Societies furnished 
with Badges or Regalia. 

No. ao East Court St., Cincinnati. 

United Hatters of North America 






ONIOR I.ABFL. 



This la the Union Label 
OF TUB 

Unite* Hattem of North America. 

When yen *** buying a fur hat, either »oft or 
«iE, am te hat the Genuine Onion Label is 
»ewed |q it. if a retailer haa loose labels in his 
possess! on and offer a to i>ut one in a hat for 
yon do not patronise him. The chance« arc th*t 
the tabela are connterfcit. 

Th« genuine Union Label la perfoTated on the 
torn edges exactly the game aa a t »stage stamp. 

JOHN A MOPHITT, Pres., 
JOHN PHILLIPS, Bec y. Orange, N. J. 

477 Park Are., Brooklyn. N.Y. 

Henry H. Trenor, 

Carpenter and Builder 

7 Rector 8t., Sew York. 

Telephone 1*18 Cortl.mL 

Stores, 'Counting Rooms, Stc. 

Fitted up with Dispatch. 

Jobbing of all kinds 

Promptly »n«l We.tly K*ocut«U. 



HE 



KAMMACHER 

SCHLEMMER 

&CO. 

tot BOWERY 
KttUT YORK 



Reed J ^uerbacher, 

229 BOWERY, 

NEW YORE CITY, 

Demi ere in 

Fine Tools. 

• 

A Complete line of 1 
everything good 
in Carpenters’ 1 
and Joiners’ 
TOOLS. 

Send tor our Tool CaUlocue. 

LOUIS ERNST & SONS 

129 & 131 East Main St 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



(tUpaUwd P.ten t, NAtB) 

Thla Trade Huk U *1. raped on nil Sew Set» and other Ihrjwm Bpocteltlee of my nrake. 

THE FINZER TOBACCOS 

are 

UNION LABEL GOODS 

(Union Labol on each box.) 

Every Union Man should aid THE NATIONAL TOBACCO 
WORKERS UNION by using one or more of the fol- 
lowing brands: 

OLD HONESTY PLUG 

JOLLY TAR PLUG 

CANTEEN PLUG 

BOOT JACK PLUG 

WILD ROSE SMOKING 

FIVE BROTHERS PIPE SMOKING 

»SrAny dealer wül order ANY BRAND you prefer. 



ai.ua LABEL CIOAJLB. 



Wm. McNiece $ Son, 

51 & CHERRY ST., 

PH1L.AOBI.PHIA, PA. 




MANUFACTURE ItS OF 



r . Panel — 

_and Rip $aurs, 

FROM THE VERY BEST CAST STEEL 



W arr an ted the Best in the W orld 



HAND MADE, 



Thia Label U printed in black ink on U~ht blue 
paper, and U pasted on the cigar-bos. Don't mix 
it up with the U. S. Revenue label on the box, a« 
ihe latter U nearly of a similar color. See that 
the Cigar Makers* Blue Label appear« on the box 
from which you are served. It insures you 
against Chinese-made cigars and tenement-made 
goods. 

First Class Books, 

CfllDAP, PRACTICAL AND USEFUL 

Mo Dia« CABVRiriBY ABD BCILDIhU. 

Sylvester . ___ •! 

Tub Builds as Quidb and BrruufOM 
PaicB Rook. Hod geo n • _ if J® 

i Tub Btxbl Bquakb. abd How to Csb It I 00 
1 Practical Uabpbbtbt. Hodgson . . 

0t# i b-Buildino Maob Rasy. Hodgson . 1 00 
Habd Kailxbo Mad* Rasy ■ • I 00 

Thb OAmmsTFn’B abd Buildm’s Com- 

PIJBTB OOUFANIOB 1 

Address P. J McGoibb, 

Bom 884, Philadelphia, Pa. 



CARPENTERS, LEARN TO CUT A ROOF 

MODERN Roofs and Roof Cutting 
simply and plainly explained so that any 
carpenter can learn to cut a roof or 
money refunded. 

Price. One Dollar, postpaid. 

Agent* Wanted. Address. 

A. C. CUUMANN, 

1016 FEBBY IT, U CBOSSE, WIS. 



The Sworn Printed Circulation of This Paper is 

19,000 COPIES MONTHLY 

And Back Mont* Constantly Increasing. 



IMPROVED 

Lalvoi-Saving 

CARPENTERS’ 

TOOLS. 

STANLEY 

RULE & LEVEL CO. 

New Britain, Conn. 

SOLD BY VLL 



Stanley’s Improved Victor Circnlar Plane. 




Hardware Dealers. I No.20. Circular Plane, Nirkd Plated, 1J in. Cutter 






The Wxlblc Stool Face of thto Ww 
or convex, by turning the »crew * hie a ib a* tac ea 



\ 





THE CARPENTER 



LUßi'B BARN II GDR HANBERB 





Union 



THE 




..MADE 



«« VTAIUAKD." u IPBClAL.** M. 

Wa «re th« originators and largest makers of U -shaped hangers 
<N« the tlNUINI UNE HANOER for best satisfaction. 

ALSO LANE PARLOR DOOR HANOERS. 

Qoods Sold by all Hardware Dealers. 

SmA tor **r OMiltfM of Bwdww« SptiHiWe 

LANE BROTHERS manufacturers; 
COMPANY. POUOHKEEPSIE, NEW YORK. 

Norcross Brothers 

CONTRACTORS AND DUILDERS 



160 Fifth Avenue, New York 
Tremont Building, Boston . . 
Worcester, Mass 



A 

UNION 
MAN? 
THEN 
STAND 
UP 
FOR 
THE 

PRINCIPLES 
OF 

OROANIZED 
LABOR 
AND 
WEAR 
UNION 
MADE 
CLOTHINO. 

dainty wilt edged Russia leather pocket memorandum book free. 

HAMILTON CARHARTT & COMPANY, DETROIT, MICMIOAN, 

The firm that Is mekioc UNION MADE Clothing popular. 



Pants 



BRAND 





ANO 

OVERALLS 



utot 



FOX’S LOCK MORTISING TOOL. 




This is the Tool that saves one-half the time in putting in Door Locks. It's the curve thst 
does it. Why so ? Because 00,000 carpenters say so. For sale by the trade, or sent post-paid on 
receipt of price, Sl.OO. Write (or circular. 

P. L. FOX & CO •t 1 ^ RERS 

BRIDGEPORT. CONN. 



P. C. ECKHARDT 

General Contractor $ Builder 

693 Ninth Avenue 



Between 47th and 48th Streets 



TELEPHONE 1050-38 



NEW YORK 




Adjustable and Folding H’dle 0. K. 
MANUFACTURED BY 



Carpenters’ Knives 
Rebladed 

23 c . per BLADE 

Blades made to fit any handle, tempered to 
P°R® *5 k *« 1 wood. We make a Two-Bladed 3K 
Kotfo and will send sample auywhere in 
for 00 oenU. The knife retails for I 
Sl.OO In Boston. 



A. J. Wilkinson & CaS^*** 6 * 8 ® 

Orders by mail promptly attended to 

180-188 Washington St. _ . 



BOSTON, MASS. 



E. LOCKWOOD, 

190 POPLAR ST., CHELSEA, HASS. 



Sworn Circulation of THE 0* "PENTER 
19,000 COPIES MONTHLY 

Scat Advertising Medium for Tool ■aanfaetnrers, Wood Working Machinerj, 
Hardware, Lumber aad Building Materials. Also of Special Advantage to 
0 —tr eaters. Architects aad Bnalaau Hob. 




co oo 



U 

o 

be 

3 

< 



ANCHOR BRAND 
Adze Eye Nail Hammers. 



LARGEST MANUFACTURERS IN THE WORLD. 

Fayette R. Plumb, Fhila., 

INCOBPOB ATBD. 



Qal.hly »CTred. OU» Ft« DÜ1 Will FATOT 
OSTAXAID. Bond modal. sketch or pboto. witA 
description for ft** report Mt/> pat*ot*Mlltr 4I PA0B 
HAJTD-BOOK rui CooUina rnforwwcws ssd fell 
information. WEITS FOR 00 FT OF OTTA «FACIAL 
OPFAA. Itlf tho modtlibwrml prupogitloo svor made br 
APAUtl Ulontj, snd STAAT IVTAVTOA BAOTLD 
A1 IP IF tofoi* applying for ptoAwat. Addrwsa i 

H.B.WILLSON&CO. 

PATENT U«¥CM. 

toBwn«4g. WASHINGTON. P. C. 



For Advertising Rates 

IN 

The Carpenter 

Apply to 

P. J. JtlcQUIRE, 

134 North Ninth Stroot. 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

i 




W. S. Thomson 

Manufsctnrcr snd Dealer la 

WOOD WORKERS’ SUPPLIES 

Belting, Belting Hooka, Lacing, Band 
and Circular Saws, Piles, Emery Wheels, 
Babbit Metal, Planing Machine Knives, 
Cutters, Etc. 

418 aad 420 Waat 27lh St. Naw Yard 

All Orders by Mall Promptly Attended Te. 




•,v .. 















■ diy-w 



m 









''C&JZ*\~~ 



äÜ 




KW, 



mi 




7rYJ^\ 



A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interest!. 



VOL. XIX.— No. 2, \ 
Established 1881. ) 



PHILADELPHIA, FEBRUARY, 1899 . 



I Fifty Cents Per Year. 
( Single Copies, 5 Cts. 



Henry Disston & Sons, 

* PHILADELPHIA, PA., U.S. A. ^ 



ESTABLISHED 1840 . 



,o 4 o. KEYSTONE 

SAW, TOOL, STEEL AND FILE WORKS, 



SAWS, FILES AND TOOLS FOR THE MARKETS OF THE WORLD. 

No. 12 Hand Saw. 



if:. . ;■ ■ ' : 



Our Saws have all the Latest Improvements, and are warranted superior to all others. 

They hnve no rival in quality, finish, and general utility, and are made from the best steel, and of superior temper. The grinding, by our New ssd 
Improved Machinery, in use only by us, makes them the easiest running Saws in the world. They h?.ve gained a universal reputation among mechanic« 
and are sold by all the prominent Wholesale and Retail Hardware Dealers in America and Europe. The manufactures of »his firm have secured the highest 
Premiums at all the World's Great hairs, where they have been exhibited. 



TAINTOR 
POSITIVE 
SAW SET 

ThO*'^«lld<! nf %lil« tool 
if« boon mo d, and thoy 
•o highly commanded by 
v%bo u no thorn. 



And we Guarantee a better Article, at the same Price, than any other House in the World. 

Alii. OOODB HEAHIN« OUR NAME ARE FULLY WARRANTED 
If »our Hardware Deal. 

or do«« not handle thoin, 

don't toko on Inferior tot 

- * I’?. 0 .“".'*. •® ,> * ••• 

aigr •• lt*o JuAt at good.’* 




TAINTOR MFO. CO. 

9 to 15 MURRAY ST. 



NEW YORK. 



m 

SPRIN 




m 



IfOE O* 



o 





£ > -c THEBE ST^ 
.“PRACTICALLY I 

| unbreakable! 

days the World's Fair Award (v } 



THE ONLY ABSOLUTELY N0ISELES8 
DOOR HANGER ON THE MARKET... 



UNION CARPENTERS ASK FOR — ^ 

NEWBURGH, KEYSTONE, UNION-MADE 

Overalls, Coots, Ponts - Carpenters’ Aprons 



Your dealer will gladly 
furnish you these ex* 
cellent goods if you ask 
for them. 



Cut, 

Made, 

Sold, 



Right. 



CLEVELAND & WHITEHILL CO. 



For bottom Prices 
Mention this Paper 



The McCabe Parlor 
Door Hanger, No. 2 ( 



NEWETTSam, IT. 



MOORE’S 



New 



M The McCabe Hanger Manufacturing Co. 

^ 532 W 22d Street N. Y. City.! 



••TRUti AS A DIE.” 

F “”J1 WROUGHT STEEL LOCKS 

v vSz) OROIDE FINISH 

.& ' .Strong, Durable, Inexpensive 

k . I or 5ale hy ull hardware Dealers 

L 

jbu Carponti rs will ftpptecute the f.tct that tbc 

jj ineiisureiiicnth of thesr locks aic and Must be 

exa< t, as true as u die can make them. No 

e troubiC and \cx .Hon in fitting «... 

( aInIohu« <>f Wrought Me**l l.ork« and Lock 
RH«, on application 

RUSSELL & ERWIN M’F’G CO. 



IMPROVED WROUGHT STEEL STORM 
[ , I WINOOW FASTENERS 



it 

».•!?. f* ♦> i v 

Hr- j , 

i 



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Philadelphia. 



Ohlc&go. 



New York. 

Baltimore. 



With these fasteners, storm windows can 
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more securely, than in auy other way yet 
invented. 

NO LADDER REQUIRED. 

Fastened frem the insMe, the only tool 
necessary being a small hammer. 

Send for Circulars. 

The Stanley Works, ds P l m. 

NbW BRITAIN, CONN. 

79 Chambers St., N. Yi 



f 






THE CARPENTER. 



High GRADE MACHINERY STANDARD WOOD WORKING MACHINERY 




No. t. Variety Wood Wobiii. 

▲ moat valuable machine for Carpenteri, 
Builders. Bash, Door and Blind Makers, etc., 
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CARPENTERS, BUILDERS, SASN. 
DOOR, BUND MAKERS, ETC. 

an Single Machines er Equipment* 
cheerfully Tarnished. 

Ask Sr “ Wsod Worker ” Cstslogtts. 

J. A. Fay & Co., 

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CINCINNATI, OHIO. 




OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



If In need of anythin« tn «or Km 
figure with you, ae we ess wm 
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fttust rated 312 page ootologoo 
Save gaad asa far It 



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No. S. Plans a, Matchsr asd Mould«. 
Planes, one side, S4 inches wide by • inches 
thick. 

Metchee 13 Inches wide; 
in invaluable maehtne for a email or medium 
sized shop. 



The Egan Company, 

406.416 W. Pront Street, 

'Wn^CINCINNATI, OMM. 




FOOT & HAND POWER MACHINERY 

COMPLETE OUTFITS . 

Cs 'poolers end Builders without stesm power 
esn successfully compete with the Urge shops 
by using oar New Labor Saving Machinery. 

Machine# Sold ON TRIAL. Catalogue Free. 

8ENECA FALL8 MFG. CO. 

aa Water 8t., Seneca Palls, N. V., U. S. A. 




THE LATEST AND BEST. 





OUR NO. 141 
UPRIGHT MOULDER 



Cutters can be kept low on 
spindles at all times. 

Spindles are of best cruci- 
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run in phosphor bronze box- 
es, the upper boxes being of 
the “fountain” type, supply- 
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over all parts of the bearing. 

Write us for further infor- 
mation, also for new cata- 
logue. 

S. A. WOODS VACHIHE CO. 

South Boston, Mass. 



fW'NS (ä/\rt 

18 BY 28 INCHES, 




THE SQUARE ROOT 
DELINEATOR 

OR KCY TO THt STCCL SQUALL * 

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Sent post paid. Price $ 1.00 
|^HE CARPENTER. rrZ£!ZL,m 



MARTEN DOSCHER 



V« Nike ’em, Too Viot 'em 

If you are a carpenter, 
a contractor, a lumber 
dealer, a real estate 
agent, or if you are 
going to build a house, 
send 5 cents for Hicks' 
Illustrated Catalogue 
of artistic designs. . . 



MANUFACTURER 



Sauqatuck, Conn. u p - hicks 



37 Station A 

Omaha. Nbb. 



What liWk 

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If Jou are dissatisfied 1 

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n the course# of Mochanicnl or Elec- i 
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in qualified for salaried draft- — 

°a room positions. Write 
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Me re ■ tea, 

Pa* * 




Carpenters* Bench and Moulding 

PLANES 



Hand Made. 



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TOWER & LYON, "nTw'^ork*"'***’ 

Monatootoren of 

FINE TOOLS. 

Chaplin's Pat. Planes. 

Comgoted Face or Smooth Face. 

Checkered Bobber Hoodies or Easatolod 
Woo# Handle*. 

LEVER ADJUDTMEHT. 
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• or imiTATioam. 



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£ ALLEN B, RORKE 
£ Builder 

% and 

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•n a ^ 

Contractor 



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Philadelphia Bourae, 

.PHILADELPHIA 





Bo rare tho trade work CHAMPION Id 




Sworn Circulation of THE CARPENTEB 

19,00ft COPIES MONTHLY 

Best Advertising Medium for Tool Manufacturers, Wood 
Working Machinery, Hardware, Lumber and Building 
Materiale, Also of Special Advantage to Contractors, 
Architect« and Business Men. 



V Design. 



Satisfaction 

Is given all around when the house Is 
trimmed with Sargent’s Hardware. The 
Architect is pleased because he speci- 
fied it ; the owner is pleased each time 
he looks at the trimmings because they 
add so much to the beauty of the home, 
and everybody Is pleased with the work- 
ing of Sargent’s Easy Spring Locks. 

Sargent & Company, 

Makers of Artistic Hardware amd Fia# LtOa 

New York ; aad New Ham, r «*■ 








T 

} 









1 





A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 
Established WSl? - } PHILADELPHIA, FEBRUARY, 1809. { ansle^ople^^CU.' 




Guy Alloway has been thrice re- 
jected from membership in Union 55, 
Denver, Col. 



- P. Cavanagh, formerly of Union 

oj 509, now a member of Union 6 4, New 
York City, accused of being a defaulter, 
has had his case investigated by the 
D. C. of New York. The charges have 
been found untrue. 

J* 




William Craig, formerly of Union 
170, Bridgeport, O., is a slick fraud 
He skipped that town leaving numer- 
ous creditors and indebted to several 
Union members. He is 5 feet 10 inches 
high, black hair and black eyes, and 
claims to be a stair builder, carver, 
artist and photographer. 



J* 



* 



w 




i 



Any member or Local having 
copies of The Carpenter for De- 
cember, 1897, will confer a favor by 
sending two or three ol them to this 
office. 

> 

Local Unions and District Coun- 
cils should amend their By Laws and 
rules to conform to the new Constitu- 
tion. See Sections 48 and 49 on that 
score 

J- 

Proceedings of January session of 
G. E. B. will appear in onr next 
issue. 

New Constitutions, English and 
German, are now ready. Five dollars 
per hundred. Send in your orders 
with the cash to the G. S.-T. 







William Griffith, Union 1ST, Atlanta, Ga. ( 
for misappropriation of funds. 

* 

David Michaud, Union 22, Snn Francisco, 
Cal., for serious violations of trade rules and 
general bad conduct. 

o* 

John Nebswbndbe, Union 174, Joliet, III., 
for slander and conduct unbecoming a Union 
man. 



Present Prosperous Condition of the 
United Brotherhood. 



For the first winter in ovtr five 
years, since the industrial crisis has 
been fully under way, v*e can safely 
report a larger percentage of the 
membership at work all over the 
country, though work in the larger 
cities still keeps flat on account of 
the changes in building construc- 
tion. 

The prospects for the coming spring 
are exceedingly bright, and numerous 
trade movements among carpenters 
for the eight-hour day are reported to 
this office — a greater number than we 
have known in several years. 

Our net membership in good stand- 
ing since last August to date has not 
varied one hundred in the aggregate, 
where even in the best of times, 
during November, December and 
January, we usually suflered a loss of 
ten to fifteen per cent, in member- 
ship. This evidences our member- 
ship is less fluctuating and has 
become more stable and permanent. 

We now have over 400 Unions and 
31,600 members in good standing and 
benefit, and our cash balance at end 
of this month will be fully $2,000 
more than it was last September 
during the convention. 



Trade Movements Among Carpen- 
ters. 



The eight- hour day and a code ot 
trade rules will be established this 
season in Jersey City, N. J.; Trenton, 
N. J ; Seattle, Wash.; New Rochelle, 
N Y ; Elizabeth, N. J ; Indianapolis, 
Ind ; Scranton, Pa.: Des Moines, la.; 
and Springfield, 111 . 

On January 27th, Union 264, 
Boulder, Colo., established the eight- 
hour day and Union rules. 

The niue-hour day and Union rules 
will be enforced this spring in Peck- 
ville, Pa ; Cleburne, Tex.; Jackson, 
Tenn ; Moline, 111 ., and St. Joseph, 
Mo.; and in Torrlngton, Conn , and 
Cambridge, O., the nine-hour day was 
established recently. 

Union 146, Schenectady, N. Y., has 
adopted the rule not to work with 
non Union men. 

Racine, Wis.; Zanesville, O.; Pas- 
saic, N. J ; Perth Amboy, N. J. ; 
Munde, Ind ; Amsterdam, N. Y ; 
Keewanee, 111 .; Springfield, Mass.: 
Minneapolis, Minn.; and Troy, N. Y ; 
are arranging movements to secure 
stringent observance of the nine hour 
day and a standard scale of wages. 




Memphis, Tenn. — A committee of 
Union 394 waited on the Tennessee 
Brewing Company and had the Cole 
Manufacturing Company unionize 
their plant, where they were making 
bar fixtures. The result Is an addi- 
tion of thirty-two new members last 
month. 

Champaign, 111 . — The Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad Company has just com- 
pleted a new depot. Several weeks 
ago the Union men, through Union 
41, made a stand against the employ- 
ment of non-Unlon men and won the 
issue. 

J* 

Detroit, Mich. — Union 19 is en- 
forcing the rule of five dollars Initiation 
fee. The German Union has gone 
over to the Socialists, and is barred 
from every central body. Prospects 
of work good, on account of Bi-centen- 
tary in 1901. We have a committee 
out negotiating with the bosses. 

J* 

Buchanan «Sc Lvall, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., have agreed to hire none but 
Union carpenters at $3 25 per day for 
eight hours work. 

J* 

Columbus, O — President Frank 
Westerman, of Union 61, was recently 
tried in the police courts for violation 
of the Anti -Trust law, and was ac- 
quitted. The charges were preferred 
by notorious scabs with whom Bro. 
Westerman and other Union men re- 
fused to work. 

Rock Island, 111 . — Frank Mix- 
ture, manager of the Rock Island 
Stove Company, and one of the largest 
stockholders, has had his $6,000 
house built by scab labor. He op- 
posed the committee of Union 166 
that waited on him. The Riverside 
cooking and heating stoves aTe made 
by this firm and sell very largely 
west of the Mississippi. Our mem- 
bers and friends can do without them. 

J* 

Columbus, O. — Nelson Morris & 
Co , meat packers, Chicago, erected 
a cold storage house in this city 
and the work was done by a notorious 
non-Union firm despite all our ap- 
peals to the firm. 



Rochester, N. Y. — The firm ol 
Leon Lempert and Son, special de- 
signers of opera houses and music 
halls had charge of the Opera House 
job here — has broken every promise 
made to organized labor in this city. 
Wherever this firm goes it should be 
branded as unfair. 

J* 

Zanesville, O. — The S. A. Weller 
Company, potters, after a long contest 
against organized labor, lately signed 
an agreement satisfactory to the 
Unions of this city. 

* 

Pittspurg, Pa. — The Carpenters 
Unions of this city are making an 
aggressive campaign to enlist the 
support of non-Union men to enforce 
higher wages and stricter trade rules 
this coming spring. Public meetings 
have been held and a circular to the 
trade was lBsued and with splendid 
results. 

J* 

Ottumwa, Iowa. — At a recent pub- 
lic meeting of Union 767, a large 
number of contractors attended and 
expressed their support. 

•J* 

Columbus, O. — Union 61 has under- 
taken an active movement against 
contract work at the U. S. barracks 
buildings and is urging the day’s 
work plan. 



Nine New Unions. 

Charters have been granted the past 
month to: Unions 49, Lowell, Mass.; 
130, Hancock, Mich. ; 263, St. 

Albans, Vt.; 264, Boulder, Colo., 
and 138, Kansas City, Kan. (The 
latter is a consolidation of Unions 107 
and 180 of Kansas City, Kan.) Also 
to Unions 145, Sayre, Pa. ; 153, 

Helena, Mont.; 201, Wichita, Kan., 
and 204, Coffeen, 111 . 



No More Arrears Notices. 



Under the newly amended Consti- 
tution now in force, no arrears no- 
tices need hereafter be sent by the 
F. S., as formerly, to members two 
months in arrears. That is dispensed 
with. See Section 89 (a) of Constitu- 
tion on that point 



Mayor Jones, oi Toledo, O., has 
put an eight hour day Into effect for 
the police force instead of twelve hours, 
and without increased cost to the tax 
payers, and has adopted the same 
system on all city public work. 




_k L 



j 

A 



■ » !• ‘«K 





2 



THE CARPENTER 




(Tbtj Department la open tor criticism and 
correspondence from our readers on mechanical 
aab|acta In Carpentry, and Ideaa as to Craft 
crganlzatlon. 

Write on ona aide 01 the paper only. All 
articles should be signed. 

Matter for this Department moat be In this 
office by the 35th of tho month.) 



Making Windows Air Tight. 



From K. W. G., Ticonderoga, N. Y. 

I recently had a job here to make 
windows air tight and did it in this 
way : By taking off the outside blinds 
and rehanging sash in their place, 
making a double sash. Then I put 
weather strips on the stop beads and 
outside blind stop and on the meeting 
rails of all the sashes. The decrease 



T 



in the cost of coal has more than paid 
for the labor and cost of stuff and the 
house is cooler in summer. 



Fastening Trim to Stone or Brickwork 



From A. F., Madison, Wis.. 

What is the easiest and quickest 
method of attaching trim to stone or 
brickwork laid in cement, as the 
joints are so hard it is impossible to 
cut through them with a cold chisel 
and a hammer for plugs ? This work 
of drilling for plugs is hard and tedi- 
ous and if one of the brothers will 
give me an idea on this it would help 
“ one who hates to do it." 



The Best Method of Hanging Sliding 
Doors. 



From Cyril K , Montreal, Can. 

Sir: — W hat is the usual practice 
in the States in hanging sliding doors ? 
Are they hung from the top or set on 
track on the floor, and which is the 
better working method, as I find the 
settlement of the floors, if there be 
much, throws the doors out of level 
and they don't come to a joint? 
Kindly answer and oblige. 

Note— The above letter is placed 
before the brothers for their reply. 



Design for Boat House. 



From Wm. P., Ansonia, Conn. 

Would Mr. Wood please publish a 
design for a small boat house about 
25 x 60, one story high, with a peaked 
roof and two gables, with the prob- 
able cost of same. 




Let (Js Hear From the Woodworkers. 



From H. P. C., Indianapolis, Ind. 

How is it that there is nothing 
published in The Carpenter about 
woodworking machinery ? There are 
a great number of woodworking 
brothers in the Brotherhood, and if 
they read the paper they should be 
glad to write something worth read- 
ing for the rest of us. Come on, boys, 




Wants a Rule for Tapering Shafts. 



From Unknown, Philadelphia. 

I have two tapering shafts and 
desire a rule in practical geometry 
that will equally divide their solid 
contents subject to each respective 
length. I have a number of rules for 





this but none of them appear to be 
correct. Perhaps either Mr. Magin- 
nis or Mr. Hodgson can give a correct 
rule for this, which perhaps may fill a 
long felt want and be a source of 
great satisfaction to many of our 
friends. 



Bufpalo, N. Y.— The central labor 
body of this city has won its fight 
in compelling the Edgemoor Bridge 
Company, Wilmington, Del., to respect 
the eight-hour day and weekly pay in 
constructing the Seneca- Hamburg 
viaduct. 



Calculating Stuff. 



From G. O., Portland, Me. 

Here is a ciaft problem for some of 

the wiseacres. Let them figure me 

up the amount of stuff board meas- 
ure of the following bill of material : 

LIST OP ROUGH TIMBER. 

Girder, planed, i yellow pine timber, 
8 x 10 x 18 feet long. 

First floor beams, 40 spruce timbers, 
3 x 12 x 24 feet long. 

Second floor beams, 40 spruce timbers, 
3 x 12 x 24 feet long. 

Wall plates, 4 spruce timbers, 4 x 8 x 
25 ftet long. 

Studding, 100. spruce, 4 x 6 x 20 feet 
long. 

Rafters, 26, spruce, front, 3 x 6 x 2 1 ft et 
long. 

Rafters, 35, spruce, rear, 3 x 6 x iSfeet 
long. 

Collar beams, 26, 3 x 6 x 12 feet long. 

Ridge trees, 3, 2 x 10 x 28 feet long. 

Valley rafters, 2, 3 x 10 x 22 feet long. 

Bridging, 400 lineal feet, 2 x 3 
inches. 

Furring, 1,500 lineal feet, 1 x 2, spruce. 

Hemlock sheathing, 3,000 square 
feet, Js x 8 inches 



FLOORING. 

1 , 5C0 square feet of 2 x 3 inch, yellow- 
pine, tongued and grooved. 

1.500 square feet Js x 3 inch, tongued 
and grooved North Carolina pin»-. 

6.500 square feet ceiling, tongued and 
grooved and beaded. 

All above stuff to be free from 
knots, shakes, etc., to be kiln dritd 
and of good quality. 



Gable l-inlsh. 



ItV A W. WOODS. 




Y request of a reader we sub- 
mit a few gable ornaments 
suitable for cottages. 

These designs are such 

as we have used in our 

own work with good results 

Gable ornaments are not as popular 
as they were a few years ago, espe 
cially for the better class of buildings, 
but for cottages or residences of mod- 
erate coat, work of this kind greatly 
improves the general appearance of 
the house. Yet it has its objections 
in the way of costs, bird roosts and 
ktreping in repair. Work of this kind 
should be well made and joints well 
painted before putting together, and 
all but the last coat of paint applied 
before putting in place It is our in- 
tention to show other designs in this 
class of work. 




A 




THE CARPENTER 



8 



Some British Notes. 

BY THOMAS REECE. 

Coming from the secretary of one 
of the largest Unions in the country, 
the remarks of F. Chandler, of the 
Amalgamated Society of Carpenters 
and Joiners, upon the now all absorb- 
ing question of Trades Federation, 
are worthy of the deepest attention, 
lie frankly does not much believe in 
the National Federation of Trades, 
which is being proposed — and has 
been proposed for the last fifty years 
in different shapes and forms From 
his point of view’ national federation, 
if carried into effect, would only result 
in bringing into existence a parallel 
federation of employers, and, as the 
workmen federation would be bound 
to be weaker than the employers’ 
combine, ow’ing to the large number 
of non-unionists there are in these 
countries— in the pitched battle of 
massed forces which would even- 
tuate labor w’ould most probably sus- 
tain defeat. 

# # # # 

He casts his vote in favor of more 
attention being paid to each Trade 
Union’s organization and expansion. 
Perfect the societies which now' exist, 
lessen the huge totals of workmen who 
are outside these Unions, make every 
trade organization include, if possible, 
every worker in the trade, and pro- 
ceed with the older and quieter 
methods of obtaining concessions — 
above all things avoid unnecessarily 
alarming the plutocracy by any theat- 
rical but insecure show of magnitude 
— these are the tenor of his remarks. 

* * # # 

The Amalgamated Society is favor- 
able to an amalgamation of the kin- 
dred Unions in the carpenters and 
joiners trades, and has sent around 
circulars to the other large unions to 
that efTect. William MacIntyre, of 
the Associated Society, has been in- 
structed, however, that his Union 
would not entertain such a proposal. 
W. Watkin, of the (General Union, 
suggests a conference between his 
society and the Amalgamated, and 
it seems fairly likely that these two 
fine Trade Unions may, after a time, 
fuse. 



A rather painful dispute has by 
degrees crept into the trade repre- 
sented b> this letter. In the naval 
dockyards, joiners have been recently 
doing work which the shipwrights 
consider (and I think correctly) to be 
their own particular vocation. These 
jobs have been such things as laying 
decks, erecting bulkheads, etc , and a 
tremendous amount of ill-feeling has 
been engendered in consequence. 
When the joiners at Devonport dock- 
yard commenced this kind of work a 
protest from the shipwrights secured 
a cessation of it. Now the dispute 
has broken out at Pembroke and some 
other yards. The joiners say that 
owing to the widespread substitution 
of ironwork for woodwork in modern 
vessels, that section of the joiner’s 
trade is being gradually wiped out 
and they are entitled to get employ- 
ment at what was formerly regarded 
as shipwright’s work. 



The end of it will, most likely, be 
that by a year or two the two hitherto 
distinct branches of dockyard work 
will be combined into one, but until 
then a period of dispute and bad blood 
may be looked for. 

* # * * 
Reports as to the state of employ- 
ment vary considerably, London be- 
ing classed “fairly good," whilst 
other parts of the country swung from 
44 moderate " to 41 well-employed. ” 
The state of trade throughout Scot- 
land is 44 good,” whilst carpenters in 
Ireland are having rather a slack 
time, except in Dublin. 

# * # * 

An attempt on the part of an em- 
ployer in Newport, Mon , to get his 
caipenters (who, by-the-by, were non- 
Unionists) to start work at an earlier 
hour than was usual throughout the 
trade was met by all the men ceasing 
work for four days. Then the boss 

withdrew the notice. 

* # # * 

The London members of the A. S. 
C. J are talking of having a Trades 
Hall for themselves in the metropolis. 
Greenwich Branch is taking the lead 
in the agitation, and as there are in 
London quite 7,000 members of the 
Union, distributed amongst nearly 
eighty branches, the usefulness of a 
centralized metropolitan headquarters 
is evident. London’s share of the 
reserve funds of the society is about 
ninety thousand dollars, and it is sug- 
gested that a loan might be advanced 
against this to build the hall. This 
loan would be repaid to the reserve 
fund by a quarterly special levy of 
twenty- five cents on London mem- 
bers. 

* * * * 

The Tyne members of the Union 
are still resolute in refusing to work 
more overtime than can be possibly 
helped, in order to give their unem- 
ployed comrades an added oppor- 
tunity. The employers have desired 
to break down this rule, but without 
success. 

# # * * 

The carpenters and joiners of Salis- 
bury have succeeded in getting an 
advance from twelve to thirteen cents 
per hour, making their average weekly 
wages now $7*5° The Selkirk men 
have gained an increase from fourteen 
to fifteen cents per hour. 

Notices as to Disability Benefits. 

Local Unions and members are 
requested to study Section 106 (A) of 
the new Constitution relating to 
claims for disability benefits. The 
old law has been amended, so sixty 
days' notice after surgeons or doctors 
decide a member is permanently dis- 
abled will be sufficient, provided 
claim is filed at this office within one 
year from date of accident. 

The Marlboro Shoemakers’ Strike. 

The Shoemakers of Marlboro, Mass., 
have been on strike several months 
against an attempt of the manufact- 
urers of that city to destroy the Boot 
and Shoe Workers’ Union. Kvery 
effort at conciliation and settlement 
has been repulsed by the bosses. The 
following firms are the unfair ones : 
S H. Howe Shoe Company, Marlboro, 
Mass ; John A. Frye, Marlboro, Mass ; 
John O’Connell, Marlboro, Mass ; 
Rice & Hutchins, Marlboro, Maas. 




A Beautiful home 

BY I. P. HICKS, OMAHA, NEB. 

IE plan here presented is 
an elegant eight room resi- 
dence and an artistic de- 
sign which has been built 
from several times in differ- 
parts of the country. We have two 
modifications of this plan, in which 
the size has been reduced some, and a 
few other changes made to reduce ex- 
pense of building the house, in order 
to meet the requirements of those who 
wanted to build after this plan. 



12 squares first floor com- 
plete, $7.15 

1 2 squares second floor com- 
plete $7 50 . 

32 squares outside walls com- 
plete, $9 55 

1 7 J squares roofing complete, 

$8 75 

1 2 squares ceiling complete, 

$4 75 

18 squares partitions com- 
plete. $7.20 .... 

140 lineal feet outside base 5c. 
200 lineal feet corner casings, 

6c 

180 lineal feet belt course cas- 
ings, 6c 

280 lineal feet main cornice, 




* u.' i < ' ‘ x 




3C.I- . ^ . I ... : 




MU’ 



nqiiqiUUiqil 




EIGHT ROOM HOUSE. FRONT ELEVATION. 



The size of the house as shown by 
the engraving in this issue is 34 feet 
6 inches by 49 feet over all except the 
steps. Cellar under kitchen, pantry, 
bedroom, and part of dining room. 
Height of first story 9 feet, second 
story 8 feet 6 inches. 

The rooms are all large and con- 
veniently arranged. The house is 
calculated for hot air heating, and at 
the same time is well calculated for 
heating by stoves, the chimneys being 
placed so that they are available for 
all but one back room on the second 



1 10 lineal feet gutter, 14c. 

24 lineal feet front porch, $3 
22 lineal feet back porch, 

52.50 

28 windows complete $7 
6 gable windows complete, 

$5 • • 

20 doors complete. $7.25 . 

3 double sliding doors com- 
plete, $19 

Basing two small rooms, $2 80 
Basing two medium rooms, 

$3 *5 

Basing four large rooms, $3 80 
Basing hall, second story 
Wainscoting kitchen 



“W 

•m «.«• 



■ o 



& 



ff hHII, . 




floor. Space is provided back of the 
kitchen stairs for en ice box, and in 
the bath room for a large water tank 
The plan as a whole is a very pleasing 
and desirable one. The estimated 
cost is as follows : 

172 yards excavating, 25c. . $4300 

800 cubic feet brick wall, 19c 152 00 

560 superficial feet brick cellar 

bottom, loc. . . .5600 

41 lineal feet double flue 
chimney, $1.40 . . .5740 

1 8 lineal feet chimney breast, 

$»5« 45 00 

18 lineal feet double flu« 
abov« breast, $1.40 24 20 



57 40 



Wainscoting and finishing 
bathroom . 

Finishing pantry . 
Finishing china closet . 
Finishing five closets, fi 80 
Front stairs . 

Back stairs 

Cellar .... 
Painting 780 yards, 18c. 
Plumbing , . . 

Gas Fitting . 

Tin and iron work . 
Incidentals, 5 per cent. 



Total sstlmata . 




THE CARPENTER. 



THE CARPENTER 



PHILADELPHIA. FEBRUARY. 1899. 




Curves »5 Used by Carpenters and 
Joiners.— XVI. 



IlY FRED. T. HODGSON. 




(Concluded). 



||tf THE papers of this series 
that were chiefly devoted to 
scrolls, I did not make much 
reference to elliptical, or to 
irregular scrolls, and, as 
these are sometimes required, it may 
not be amiss to exhibit a few examples 
of this kind, and with this purpose in 
view the following illustrations and 



descriptions are presented. 



semicircle N, E, touching E, on the 
centre as shown, and the outline of 
the figure is complete. 

The narrowing up of the lines of 
the scroll may be accomplished by 
any of the methods shown in previous 
papers, the same centres being em- 
ployed, with slight variations, in every 
case. 

To describe an elliptical scroll to 
any height and projection from centre, 
proceed as follows : Divide the height 
F, C, or L, M, Fig. 154, into twenty- 
three equal parts, taking the centre 
E, ten divisions from the bottom ; 
through N, the first division above E, 
draw N, F, cutting the diagonal line 
E, O, at F. On E, as a centre, wUh 
a radius E, F, describe the circle, or 
through E, draw P, Q ; at right 
angles to the diagonal line, O, S, 
make E, P, and E, Q, each equal to 
E, F; on F, as a centre, with the 
distance L, F, describe an arc, L, H, 
cutting E, H, at right angles to L, M. 





Fig. 153 exhibits what may be 
termed an angular scroll, and the 
method of describing the lines to form 
it, which is taken from a work now 
out of print, is as follows : The per- 
pendicular, A, B, is divided into 
twenty-three equal parts ; then make 
the centre of the eye on a line with 
the tenth division up, or thirteenth 
division down, and through this 
centre draw H, T, at right angles to 
A, B ; bisect the angle through the 
centre by the diagonal line D, C ; 
through the next division above H, 
on the line A, B, draw K, E, parallel 
to H, T, cutting the line D, C, at E. 
On the centre of eye, with a radius to 
E, describe a circle cutting D, C, on 
the opposite side of the centre at E ; 
divide E, E, into six equal parts at 
3, s, centre, 6, 4, and E, then with 
the upper B, as a centre and B, P, as 
radius, describe an arc, P, K, cutting 
D, C ; then with radius from lower E, 
to C, describe the semicircle C, T, 
cutting H, T, at T ; o, 3, with radius 
3, T, describe semicircle T, K, con- 
tinue to L. On 4, as a centre with the 
radius 4, L, describe the semicircle L, 
M ; on 5, as a centre with radius 5, 
M, describe the semicircle M, N ; on 
6, with a radius 6, N, describe^the 



At li, irom E, make E, G, equal to 
the distance the projection of the 
scroll is intended to be from the 
centre ; divide G, H, into six equal 
parts, and set one of the parts to I ; 
make E, K, and E, R, each equal to 
the sum of the two lines, E. F. and 
G, I. Through the points K, P, R, Q, 
complete the parallelogram A, B, C, 
D, whose sides, A, B, C. D, are 
parallel to P, Q. and A, D ; B, C, 
parallel to K, B, draw the diagonals, 

A, C, and B, D, and divide each of 
them into six equal parts ; then on 

B, as a centre, with radius B. L, 
describe the arc, L, J, cutting A, B, 
produced at b. On A, as a centre, 
with a radius A, b, describe the arc 
b, c, cutting A, D, produced at C ; on 
B, as a centre, with the radius D, c, 
describe the arc, c , d, cutting C, D, 
produced at d ; on C, as a centre, 
with radius, C, d, describe an arc, 
d, e ; on 5, as a centre, with radius, 
5, e, describe an arc, e,f\ on 6, as a 
centre, with radius, 6,/, describe an 
arc, f, g ; on 7, as a centre, with 



radius, 7, g, describe an arc, g. h ; 
On 8, as a centre, with radius, 8, h , 
describe an arc, N, i Proceed in this 
manner, beginning the third revolu 
tion at 9, and end at 12. Lastly, 
describe an ellipse, touching the last 
centre of the third revolution, E, 
being its centre, and its transverse 
and congregate axis being in the 
same ratio as the length or height of 
the scroll is to its width, and the 
scroll will be complete. 

This is a beautiful example, and its 
construction cannot fall of interesting 
as well as instructing the young stu- 
dent. It belongs to the “higher 
curves, ’ ’ and a knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of the laws that underlie its 
construction, Imply a familiarity with 
geometry of a high order. Later on 
I will, with the editor’s permission, 
present a chapter or two on the 
“higher curves,” and their relation 
to the building arts. 

At Fig. 155 I exhibit a design that 
may be used for many purposes. It 
was originally designed years ago for 



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Fig. 155. 





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*4. 




THE CARPENTER. 



a drop cornice of a verandah, but it 
would answer quite well for a “barge- 
board,” or for a cresting. Indeed, it 
would prove quite effective for the 
latter purpose on a building of suita- 
ble style. As the centres and distances 
are all shown and lettered in the left 
hand diagram, a further description 
will be quite unnecessary. 

Fig. 156 is an example of cut work, 
intended to form one-half of a panel, 
the other half being the same pattern 
reversed ; or the two ornaments may 
be used in two panels with a muntln 
or other device between them. 

At Fig. 157 I show two examples of 
ornamental panels, Kach ornament 
terminates at A A, and may be doubled 
with itself, or may show only half the 
design, as exhibited. 

Fig. 158 shows another design 
suited for a panel or for screen work. 
One half is shown open, the other 
with a solid back. 

The design shown at Fig. 159 makes 
a very effective bracket, is easily 
designed and easily made. 

This paper ends the series, not be- 
cause the subject is exhausted, but 
because I have noticed that in these 
days of “rush” and rapid changes, 
men get wearied, and often dissatis- 
fied at long and continued effort in 
one direction, so I close here, but will 
in the future, from time to time, add 




Fig 156. 



Fig. 158. 




publish every known method, and 
if any reader has discovered, or in- 
vented any method for obtaining lines 
and cuts that I do not possess, I will 
take it as a great favor if he will sub- 
mit the same to me for publication or 
for examination, for it may be that 
some bright, sharp workman has 
struck some very quick method for 
solving “Hopper and splay” work 
that is worthy ot perpetuation, and 
this condition can be brought about 
by the introduction of such method 
into the columns of Carpenter. 

(Concluded.) 



Fig. 159. 



Claims Approved In December, 1898. 



Fig 157 - 

other chapters on “ curves ” as neces- 
sity may suggest. I hope what has 
been presented in this series has not 
altogether fallen on barren soil, and 
that some readers of Carpenter have 
been able to extract good and useful 
suggestions from them ; if this is so, 

I shall feel satisfied, and conteut that 
my efforts have been not altogether 
in vain. 

Next month, with the editor’s per- 
mission, I will take up the questions 
of “ Hopper and splay work,” and 
while I cannot promise much that is 
new in the way of quicker methods 
for obtaining the various cuts, I think 
I may safely Bay that I will be able to 
present many of the old methods in a 
simple and convenient manner, and 
by divesting them of high sounding 
terms to some extent, render them 
more understandable to the man who 
executes the work. 

In dealing with the subject of 
“Hoppers, etc.,” I will endeavor to 



No. 


Nam a. 


Union 


AM'T. 


4378. 


Chaa. Enke . . . . 


. I 


$200 00 


1379. 


Frank Cederstrom . . . 


. 7 


200 00 


43X0. 


Mu. Verna Workman 


. 11 


60 00 


4:wi. 


Henry Stelloh 


. 45 


200 03 


4381. 


Wm. O’Neil 


03 


200 00 


4M 


Dave W. Canon .... 


. «9 


2 C 0 00 


4864. 


Arthur Jones 


. 80 


J00 00 


4385 


Richard K. Pents • 


. . 83 


XX) 00 


43K0. 


John Huebner . . . 


. . 155 


200 00 


43*7. 


Henry Trowbridge . . . 


. 107 


200 00 


438M. 


John D. McDonald . . . 


. . 170 


200 00 


4.1X9. 


c;.W. Moure .... 


. . 248 


200 00 


4390. 


Mrs. I.ydla A. Allsup . . 


. 257 


60 CO 


4491. 


David H. Clark 


2W 


200 CO 


4160. 


Thekla Schmitting . . . 


. . 291 


50 00 


4393. 


Gustav Engel 


. 309 


200 00 


43*. *4. 


Mrs. Marie Kneipp . . 


. 309 


SO 00 


4iW5. 


John Christmann .... 


. 340 


200 00 


4890. 


Mrs. Annie G. Thompson 


340 


GO 00 


4197 , 


Christians Flygsre . . . 


• *10 


50 00 


4*98 


Mrs. Mary Mulligan . . 


. .842 


50 00 


4399. 


Frederick Wasg (Dis.) . 


. 87 


109 00 


4400. 


Henry Dsnehower . . • 


1 


60 00 


4401. 


Wm. Vsnderford (Dis.) 


427 


200 CO 


4402. 


James P. Harr 


. 437 


'200 00 


1103. 


Philip Fehr ... 


. 404 


200 00 


41 4. 


A. Vsnderveer Vorhees . 


. 488 


200 00 


4105. 


Win. Byrnes 


176 


200 00 


44 0. 


Mrs. Bn lira Herfler . . 


. 497 


60 00 


4407. 


Mrs. Ells Dail, y • • 


. 503 


'25 00 


440X 


Mrs Clyde GofT . . . 


. 028 


60 00 


19 9. 


Marvin Babcock 


. .471 


60 00 


4410. 


John Krouse ...... 


. 060 


60 00 


4111. 


George Lloyd (Dis.) . . . 


. 461 


400 00 




Total 




KU» oo 


The Supreme Court 


of Colorado 


has decided the eight-hour city ordi- 






RECEIPTS, DECEMBER. 1898. 

From the Unions, Us, etc $0,341 39 

•• Advertiser» . 141 25 

** Rent 10 00 

44 D. C. supplies 600 

** Subscriptions 350 

" Clearances 3 10 

44 Miscellaneous 00 

Balance, December 1, 1898 20,669 16 

Total $27 175 00 

Total expenses 7,724 63 

Cash balance. January 1, 1899 $19,450 77 



Chicago Bricklayers Union notified 
Commissioner of Public Works Mc- 
Gann not long since that members of 
the Union would hereafter protect the 
city’s interests in all sewer and tunnel 
work. Union workmen will refuse to 
handle dry brick or material in 
public improvements which is not up 
to the specifications. 




ttggnob 

FOR TAX, PIN* AND 8UPPUE8. 

Daring the month ending December 81, 1898. 
Whenever any errors appear notify the 0. 8.-T. 
without delay. 




105 $4 20 217 $4 20 424 $8 40 

106 14 60 218 16 00 127 64 05 

107- 11 60 220 501 428 7 40 

76 221 6 00 429 13 10 

110 17 30 222 10 433 14 60 

HI 7 30 223 9 00 434 3 40 

112 — 57 70 225 4 60 437 5 40 

114 io 40 227 6 05 439 6 40 

115 $ 75 228 10 00 440 — 12 20 

116 2 70 229 5 50l 442 3 20 

119 28 60 230 8 00) 444 7 40 

120 — 8 20 



DETAILED EXPENSES, DECEMBER. 1898. 
Printing 1 000 physician's certificates $ 8 75 

44 1,000 claims for benefit . • • 12 25 

44 1,000 stamped envelopes . . 1 25 

44 500 postals 1 50 

44 500 password circulars . . 9 25 

'• 10,000 membership cards . . 25 00 

•• 40 200-page ledgers 44 80 

44 10 400» page ledgers . . 30 00 

*' 18,750 copies January Can pen 

Tan 465 00 

“ extra ubular matter, general 

vote on Constitution ... 78 2> 

Composition of new Constitntion ... 40 65 

Engravings for CaapaNTBa .... 49 70 

Special writers for 44 29 00 

Press Clipping Bureau . 6 00 

10 telegums 2 92 

Rxpresaage on supplies, etc 21 74 

Postage M “ 41 .... . 29 62 

1,000 stamped envelopes 21 80 

500 postals b 00 

Office rent for December 25 00 

Quarterly rent of P. O. box 3 00 

Salary and clerk hire 342 16 

Tax to A. F. of h, for November . . 66 67 

One ton of coal 6 75 

Four Welsbach lights 6 60 

One ash can 2 25 

Advertising commissions 100 00 

Rubber seals and daters 6 26 

Stationery and incidentals 1 50 

Janitor 160 

John Williams, to Batavia, N. Y. . . . 23 61 

D. F. Featheraton; canvassing board . 30 00 

M. A Maher, 44 M 30 00 

Wesley C. Hall. M M 18 00 

8. J. Kent, postage, etc 2 60 

•• 14 Delegate to A. F. of L. . . 76 76 

O. E. Woodbury, •• “ M • • 101 50 

P. J. McGuire. 44 44 44 111 46 

H. Lloyd, 4 4 44 44 1W 76 

D. C. of New York . • • • 600 00 

44 Newark, N. J 800 00 

Benefits Nos. 4,87$ to 4,411 4,926 00 

Total • 7,724 63 



121 10 00 232 2 40 



1 — $162 20 

2 22 «0 

8 9 36 

6 81 40 

6 7 16 

7 88 40 

8 22 70 

9 16 80 

10 — 168 80 
11 42 20 

13 40 00 

14 4 20 

15 19 20 

16— 22 40 

18 3 80 

19 28 96 

21 22 00 

20 
4 00 

24 fcl 00 

25 19 66 

26 33 75 

27 10 80 

28 8 40 

29 03 80 

30 — 12 60 

81 20 00 

32 28 40 

83 — 106 60 
84 14 20 

86 5 20 

U6 14 40 

87 5 00 

88 6 20 

8 9 H 00 

40 8 80 

41 18 75 

42 18 00 

4:4 88 00 

44 9 90 

46 14 20 

46 10 60 

47 26 66 

48 2 00 

60 3 60 

61 50 45 

62 20 60 

53 6 60 

64 2 5 80 

66 80 20 

66 11 80 

67 3 80 

69 7 40 

60 11 20 

61 50 70 

62 88 75 

68 16 40 

64 26 80 

66 13 20 

66 4 60 

67 8 60 

09 9 00 

70 9 60 

71 s 60 

72 36 85 

T3 71 00 

74 6 80 

76—15 20 

76 4 00 

77 10 00 

78 21 25 

79 7 00 

80 16 00 

82 2 40 

83 12 00 

4 50 

5 00 

87 26 80 

88 11 00 199 24 10 

89 2 80 202 19 40 

90 27 60 208 16 40 

92 8 90 206 7 40 

98 — 29 90, 207 18 lOl 

94 5 00 208 — 2 60 

96 — 34 00 209 16 00 

97- * — 6 00 210 —16 40 

98 46 80 211 38 40 

90- - 2 20 212 16 80 

101 4 00 214- 

102 19 20 215- 

5 60 216- 



231 10 20 448 8 



122 10 40 

7 80 

124 7 20 

125 61 60 

126 6 60 

127 12 40 

6 40 

131 40 00 

188 16 20 

134 7 40 

135 17 20 

4 80 

187 6 60 

139 17 00 

140 6 40 

141 20 85 

142 — 23 00 

— 2 60 

144 — 4 80 

147 10 80 

148 87 60 

149 6 20 

150 9 401 

161 8 35 

152 3 40 

166 5 40 

157 2 00 

158 10 00 

169 4 00 

160 31 80 

161 12 20 

163 6 80 

164 2 00 

166 6 30 

107 21 20 

106 14 00 

169 29 00 

170 4 00 

171 n 00 

172 11 20 

173 2 40 

174 34 05 

176— ■ 26 05 

176 21 20 

177 18 80 

178 5 70 

179 17 70 

180 5 20 

181 96 20 

182 1 00 

183 6 00 

184 g 60 

186 2 40 

187 11 20 

188 4 20 

189 65 40 

190 7 20 

191 6 20 

192 7 20 

198 15 00 

194 2 20 

196 8 00 

196 4 40 

197 17 80 

7 00 



283 7 40 

234 10 

286 4 80 

238 4 00 

237 8 40 

238 10 40 

239 16 10 

241 4 00 

242 12 80 

243 8 00 

244 4 06 

246 8 20 

247 21 20 

249 9 70 

261 9 00 

252 8 80 

266 3 00 

256 6 66 

267 2 75 

258 16 06 

259 9 40 

260 6 00 

261 1 00 

262 14 V 

263 10 00 

2 60 
7 40 

278—13 40 

274 15 00 

275 - 13 60 

286 14 20 

287 3 20 

288 5 80 

291 16 80 

296 2 0O| 

300 7 00 

804 11 00 

306— 10 00 

806 17 50 

309—189 60 

816 g 40 

816 2 80 

828 2 40 

825 8 00 

827 4 80 

826- 17 00 

882- 6 40 

838 20 40 

834 4 20 

840—77 40 

842 4 40 

348 10 40 

846 4 20 

849 12 40 

852 22 00 

866 10 20 

4 00 

5 80 

360 7 20 

361 »5 95 

866 16 20 

370 4 00 

871 2 20 

374 20 36 

876 — 166 40 
381 — 18 20 
882 69 80i 

891 g 201 

6 20 
8 00 

3 00 
H 00 
7 80 

4 80 

407 12 20 

8 00 410 82 00' 

10 80 419 42 0O f 

15 06 



449 29 I 



461 20 15 

468 39 20 

457 40 40 

460 2 20 

462 11 60 

464 33 20 

467 4 40 

468 27 15 

471 41 70 

478 — 43 46 

474 4 20 

476—61 80 
478 42 40 

482 12 10 

483 27 00 

4*4 11 00 

486 10 60 

490 20 40 

498 21 00 

497 42 20 

499 6 00 

607 7 00 

609 49 60 

518 ,34 40 

616—14 80 

621 16 60 

622 18 40 

620 38 80 

634 4 00 

564 14 00 

603—177 40 

664 12 46 

607 —20 20 

578 8 00 

580 0 80 

684 23 66 

5*8 14 40 

691 12 00 

692 22 60 

598 8 60 

«08 6 40 

000 4 80 

011 8 20 

012 8 40 

«22 18 16 

688 4 00 

087 9 66 

8 43 
15 40 
4 90 

060 6 30 

062 16 50 

058 4 80 

069 11 80 

067 8 10 

07 6 -■ — 6 20 

«78 10 20 

087 6 20 

092 6 00 

096 4 00 

«98 8 06 

708 8 80 

707 12 80 

712 1 60 

714 g 40 

716—87 00 

710 22 00 

717 4 40 

728 13 00 

720 17 00 

789 2 80 

740 2 20 

760 - 18 86 

757 4 20 

707 2 40 

4 40 
8 80 



Total $0,341 39 




ö 



THE CARPENTER. 






The Building of a Semi-Spiral Stair- 
case. 



BY OWEN B MACINNIS 

n N writing this article for the 
benefit of those who rarely 
meet this class of work, I do 
so merely for the purpose of 
suggesting a method rather 
than a positive system. The problem 
is a most difficult and tedious one and 
requires much patience and thought. 

In commencing, I would refer the 
studious carpenter to the large dia- 
gram Fig i, where he will see the 
plan and projected elevation of a semi- 
spiral staircase, 16 feet in diameter, 
with an 8 foot radius for the outside 
string and a 4-foot radius for the in- 



plan as shown must be laid out on a 
floor the full size, or a portion, say 
half of it, may be laid down in order 
to obtain the exact sizes of the treads 
and risers. Now, to determine the 
exact shape of the twisted inside and 
outside strings, proceed as follows : 
Draw a straight line and on it with 
a big pair of compasses or a trammel 
rod, set off nine spaces each equal to 
the outside width of the tread from i 
to 17. From these points raise up 
perpendiculars in the manner repre- 
sented at the top of Fig. 1. Divide 
the left hand perpendicular into seven- 
teen spaces, each equal in height to 
the height of a riser, namely, 6,V 
inches, and draw horizontal lines 
across to intersect with each perpen- 







side string. There are eighteen risers 
in a height 10 feet from first floor to 
second floor, so that to determine the 
height of each riser, we do the follow- 
ing little arithmetic : 

10 feet reduced to inches = 120 
inches. 

120 divided by 18 = 6% inches, or 
6# Inches, so that there will be 
eighteen risers at 6$f inches. 

From these figures two pitch boards 
can be made as two will be required, 
namely, one for the outside string and 
one for the inside. That for the out- 
side string will be seen on the floor 
line A B between the projection dotted 
lines as X and that for the inside 
string will be seen at Y, between 8 
and 9 on the plan. Both pitches or 
rises are the same but the run differs 
in width, the outside string being 18 
inches run and the inside 9 inches, 
giving a mean or average width on 
the tread or walking line of 13^ 
inches. 

In laying out this staircase, the 



dicular according to its number. By 
tracing a curved line from point to 
point, the exact shape of the string 
will be obtained. When working out 
this system of lines it is better to 
place three or four #-inch or #-inch 
pine boards placed together on the 
floor edge to edge, and to lay out and 
draw the curves on these boards, 
keeping them together with thin hard- 
wood battens, or they may be cut to 
the curve with the compass saw or 
band saw and then battened together. 
It will be noticed that I publish no 
engraving with the foregoing descrip- 
tion, as the method of procedure is 
clearly shown above the line A B at 
Fig. i, where the reader will perceive 
I have found the exact elevation of 
both strings, risers and treads by carry- 
ing up the points from the plan below. 
These diagrams may be made sepa- 
rately or to scale. 

Concerning the construction of 
twisted work of this class, I have 
found that the best practical method 
is to build them up to the desired 
thickness in # or % inch thick- 
nesses of veneer reversing the grains 
so as to obtain the best safeguards 
against warping or working. If the 




Fig. 2. — METHOD Ol-’ HEN DING INSIDE 
STRING 



curves are sharp the pieces of veneer 
should be placed in a steam box and 
steamed till they are pliable, and then 
bent over a drum or mold constructed 
in the way represented at Fig. 2. 
Similarly Fig. 3 shows the bending 
of outside string. Each strip of 
veneer should be bent, strip on strip, 
till entire thickness is bent, then 
when dry they should be taken off, 
heated in the hot box and glued to- 
gether. Clamps, band screws, ceiling 
shores and wedges should be used 
liberally so as to get the veneers close 
together and in this way form the 
exact mold. 

Fig. 4 is the panelling to side on 
the outside string, if same be against 
a semi circular wall and the inside 
string be open. It is built up as be- 
fore and the panels are put in with 
points. 






or 

P» 

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THE CARPENTER 



7 






Drawing Lesson. 



BY A W. WOODS 

OR our lesson this month we 
will take that of isometri- 
feft cal drawing. In architec- 

SSZdSSa tural working drawings it 
is the custom of showing 
only one side of the object including 
projections on the sides, such as bay 
windows, porches, etc , and with all 
parts at a uniform scale, but in iso- 
metrical drawings is shown three 
views at scale in a single figure with 
the lines of the respective sides 
parallel. 



as they recede from the eye appear to 
diminish in size and for that reason 
isometrical drawing is not well adapted 
for large work. 

Our illustration shows that of a 
carpenter’s tool chest. The reader 
will notice that the end and side lines 
are drawn at an angle of 30° from the 
horizontal or 6o° from the perpendicu- 
lar lines. Some other degree might 
be used, but the above gives about 
the best results, then again, angles 
are only to be had on the 45 and 
30° and 6o° slants, the latter two 
being the same only reversed. They 
may be had at most any first class 
book store or a 30 and 6o° angle can 




Fig. i. 



This class of drawing is useful in 
illustrating small objects, such as 
giving the dimensions of lumber, cut 
stone, furniture, etc., as it gives a 
much clearer idea at a glance of what 
Is wanted than is given by the single 
e'evation of the different sides, and in 
most cases is quite as easily drawn, 
but for large objects the dimensions 
appear to be out of proportion, which 
is caused by the absence of vanishing 
points, and consequently no fixed 
point of sight as in the common per- 
spective. 




Owing to the laws of sight, objects 



be easily made, as it is equal to one- 
half of an equilateral triangle and 
can be laid out as shown in Fig. 2. 
Lay out the diagram at any desired 
size on a piece of hard wood about } of 
an inch in thickness and dress to the 
lines as shown. 

In our next lesson we will continue 
this subject with further illustrations, 
also that of cabinet perspective show- 
ing the difterence between the two. 

The "New York City Carpenters " 
is the title of a narrow, isolated, inde- 
pendent local organization in Gotham, 
recently made up of a combination of 
the K. of L. carpenters, known as the 
" Progressives ’’ and of a small fac- 
tion of what was the " United Order 
Carpenters." These impracticables 
want “ to build a wall around NewYork 
city," but are not in position to cany 
out that exclusive plan. They how- 
ever, admit members for any initiation 
fee at all and are not over particular 
as to enforcing the Union scale of 
wages. Our New York Unions are now 
engaged in a contest against these 
disturbers of trade unity. 



Padgett’s Breezy Letter. 



Editor of The Carpenter: 

*• There is a maxim in the schools 
That flattery is the food of fools M 

Johnnie Bull, in November Car- 
penter, touched my vanity by re- 
ferring to me as an "expert." I may 
tell you (in strict confidence) that I 
know better, if he don’t. But my 
feelings are touched ; and, disregard- 
ing the fate of the frog whose ideas 
of expansion were on a par with those 
of some people whom I have heard 
advocate spreading the United States 
over the rest of the earth, I will fire 
in all directions, as usual. And, if 1 
fall too far short of the mark, kindly 
bestow at least a portion of the blame 
on him who incited me. To one of 
my tender years, it is a serious thing 
to be overrated, the more so when my 
untaught efforts may appear in the 
same issue with articles by men who 
really are experts, men whose ample 
mechanical bumps seem to have been 
supplemented by professional expe- 
rience as architects and contributors, 
besides "book laruin' " in plenty. 

So please caution your readers not 
to do it again, Mr. Editor. "Just 
tell them ’’ that, far from pretending 
to expertness, I am but the voice of 
one crying in ignorance, hungering 
and thirsting for truths — and the 
whys. That is something funny about 
me, must have the whys or I can’t 
progress. Kind Nature dealt gen- 
erously by me in some respects (feet, 
for instance) ; but she entirely omitted 
my monkey bump. I cannot ape. I 
was always a great hand to ask ques- 
tions ; so much so that, when I was 
knee breeches size, my mother became 
apprehensive lest I would grow up 
crooked, like this (?). Sometimes I 
feel resentful toward Nature for the 
omission aforesaid, because it leaves 
one under certain disadvantages. 
Thus, he is generally on the less 
popular side of a new question ; he 
can get neither his politics nor his 
religion from the daily papers ; and, 
when they try to " work ’* public 
sentiment in behalf of some fraud or 
other, as likely as not he takes the 
other track, and absolutely declines 
to be enthused. And then, in 
mechanical work, he is slower than 
the superficial man, the one who still 
retains the more prominent traits of 
his prehensile ancestry. There is a 
man in one of the St. Louis Locals, 
whom nature designed for a philoso- 
pher ; he is a reasoner ; good mechanic, 
too, but he cannot do enough to suit 
some foremen. Then, there is — but 
I had better “mosey back" to that 
board measure, it keeps bobbing 
up one way or another, and I am 
glad it does, because it shows that 
Mr. Wood’s articles get the close 
attention of which they are worthy. 
Like any other man, Mr. W. has a 
right to put his own construction on 
his ambiguities, real or seeming. In 
"figuring ” a board it is no trick to 
get the integral square feet, and the 
practical value of a process depends 
much on the accuracy and speed with 
which the fraction is obtained. So I 
said, and still say, that the process is 
interesting. The pencil is preferable 
in practice as it is much quicker and 
gives accurate results. The fractional 
error in question is about 9 per cent. 



as I iemember it, remarkably close 
for such a method. 

This brings to mind another of 
those disadvantages consequent to 
having greatness thrust upon you. 
My diagrams are not critically viewed. 
I’m so “expert," you know, ’tisn't 
worth while ; yet I blundered in 
tower- framing, Fig. 2. page 13, May 
Carpenter, where I said make 
H J.=G. I., should be H J.= H I. 
The whys were omitted to save space ; 
therefore the error was not easily seen 
by the reader. 

I like to see appreciation expressed 
for The Carpenter. It is well earned. 
Even where on-* is paid cash fordoing 
his part, that doesn’t discharge our 
whole obligation to the well doer. 
An editor isn ’t insensible to a heart- 
felt "thank you,” and it should be 
given when merited as a matter of 
honesty. Among other good things 
spread in the November Carpenter, 

I like the fatherly, practical, sensible 
articles by Mr. Leffingwell. They are 
rather more than we might expect in a 
trade journal, a trifle out of place some 
may think, but I’m grateful for the 
dislocation. But he says, " Try to be 
somebody and you will succeed " How 
does he know but what we are already 
"somebody?" Try! Howf Don’t 
we spend our leisure (for instance) 
like we are somebody ? People who 
are just ‘ trying to be somebody ’ read, 
study, think every chance they get, 
but most of us just " gab," can or do 
play cards or checkers when we have 
spare moments. Guess I know what 
I'm talking about, for wasn't I up in 
the "reading room " of our District 
Council one day and there saw twenty- 
two men playing cards in tobacco 
smoke thick enough to cut, while two 
others were arguing something about 
" taxation ” ? Mr. L. might have seen 
with one eye (through a crack in the 
smoke) what fraction of that sample 
gathering felt the need of being 
somebody. Come again, Mr. L , but 
don't put it quite so fiat, for though 
some of us may not be much "pump- 
kins ’’ we don’t want the neighbors to 
know it ; moreover, naked truth our 
modesty offends. 

Earl Padgett. 

Union 257 , St. Louis, Mo. 



A Closet Around a Wash Basin. 



The above sketch shows a very 
handy arrangement for going round 
a wash basin, where the space or room 
Is big*cnough to allow it to go in, and 
any of the carpenters can make it at 
home. On each side of the wash 




basin and plumbing are three drawers, 
and a door covers the plumbing in the 
centre ; a solid board partition }i 
thick should separate the drawers 
and plumbing on both sides. 



* 





8 






THE CARPENTER, 

OFMCHL jorKNA! <>F THE 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America, 

fMbhskeit MontHlx <•»« thf Fijtttnih ofrn% h wott th. 
AT 

144 IV. Ninth St., Pltlltt,, Pa. 

P. J McGriRP.. Hditnr and Publisher. 

Kntered at the Post* O (Tice at Philadelphia, Pi , 
ns seco ml -class matter. 

SruscRiPTioN Prick : — Fifty cents a year, in 
Advance, postpaid. 

Addtes^nll letter*, am! money to 

P. J. McGriRF, 

Ho* >*l, Philadelphia, Pa. 



PHILA , FEBRUARY, i8gg. 



Trades Unionism— Its Detractors. 



BY SAM. L LKFFJNC.WEM.. 

S HERK is no difficulty in con- 
vincirg any trade union- 
ist of his improved condi- 
tions compared with 
those existing before his 
entry into and connection with this 
most holy of labor alliances. Any 
reflection which will excite the faint- 
est inquiry will be conclusive in its 
results that, In his former unorgan- 
ized state, he was as helpless as the 
infant newly born. Groping in the 
darkness and gloom of his hopeless 
surroundings the light of delivery 
came as a dawn of promise, inspiring 
new hopes and aspirations in a strug- 
gle against an apparently inevitable 
fate, /.wakened thought infused by 
enlightenment heightened the expec- 
tation of a brighter destiny. 

“ For all who sigh 

In servile chains, whate’er their caste 
or creed ; 

For all mankind from bondage si all 
be freed, 

And from the earth be chased all 
forms of tyranny, 

God never made a tyrant or a slave.” 
Some there are who say, “ Your 
trade unionism will accomplish noth- 
ing. It is too slow. You are wasting 
your time. Come, join with us and let 
us revolutionize the world. Let us take 
possession of all the things that be 
and are to be and divide up, so that 
all will have an equal share.” 

But, with the enlightenment of rea- 
son, the more conservative man thinks 
better of the possibilities It is the 
“now "he is interested in. He has 
no room in his thoughts for the wild 
freaks and vagaries of a whimsical 
philosophy which he can neither com- 
prehend nor utilize. He is up against 
a condition. It is the surroundings, 
the environments, the tyranny of cir- 
cumstances that confront Mm. Re- 
lief from the ills th?t oppress him is 
what he most desires. And if he is slow 
In the progress of his accomplish- 
ment, he reasons, with the philoso- 
pher, that ” No great thing cometh 
suddenly into being ; not even a 
bunch of grapes can, or a fig. If you 
say to me now, ‘I desire a fig,’ I 
answer that there j need of time; 
let it first of all flower, and then bring 
forth fruit, and then ripen. When 
the fruit of a fig tree is not perfected 
at once, and in a single hour, would 
you win the fruit of a man’s mind 
thus quickly and easily ?” 




THE CARPENTER. 



Poverty Is a fact ; wealth is a fact. 
These facts are factors that go to make 
life endurable and enjoyable. With 
advancing civil! '.ation the pauper and 
the millionaire go hand in hand. 
The wage labor class support both ; 
the pauper by taxes, the millionaire 
by tithes. The trad#* union move- 
ment is a war against poverty. It is 
a true leveler. It levels up. The power 
of organiz ition is beginning to dawn 
upon the long betrayed and robbed 
masses. The producers are following 
in the pathway of light which will 
lead them from bondage to freedom. 
The trade union is the school of the 
mechanic in the science of govern- 
ment, fitting him for leadership in the 
army of labor, skilled and unskilled. 

Labor is an article of merchandise, 
bought and sold under the same rule 
of supply and demand as any other 
commodity in the market. Labor — 
strength — is ware; but it is more 
valuable than any other ware, because 
it is the ware that creates wares. Like 
any merchant that puts a price on his 
goods, the laboring man has a right 
to put a price on his labor. If the 
seller of any kind of goods cannot sell 
at his own price, he can keep his 
goods until a favorable chance comes 
to hand. Not so with the seller of 
labor-strength. If he cannot sell at 
his price, he is forced to sell below 
cost, which is the cost of living, or 
the expense of reproducing his labor- 
ing power from one day to another For 
his commodity will not keep, it will 
perish ; and, inasmuch as he cannot 
separate bis goods, or hir ware, from 
his body, it means physical decay to 
the owner. This is the position of the 
working man individually. Single, 
he is helpless Only by a combina- 
tion of many or all workingmen is it 
possible for them to withhold their 
ware from the market and to force up 
its price. This is practically the idea 
of trade unionism. 

Associations for the purpose of 
regulating the wages of their mem- 
bers by voluntary combined action are 
not of new discovery, but are as old 
as civilization. In the earliest times 
we find instances of such organiza- 
tions formed from motives of interest 
and policy, and the better to secure 
an adequate return for services ren- 
dered. 

The guilds of the Middle Ages 
limiting the number of apprentices to 
each artisan, and determining the 
period a man should serve before he 
could become a master, are examples, 
and from these, varying in many im- 
portant particulars, the trades unions 
of our day and time have sprung. 

There can be no question about 
their utility. Whatever adverse views 
on the subject may be entertained by 
interested capitalists, there can be no 
doubt that the general results of trade 
unions have been, on the whole, con- 
ducive to the permanent moral eleva 
tion and physical well being of the 
laboring classes. The matter has 
passed beyond the domain of hypothe- 
sis or speculation . A thousand specious 
arguments, designed to prove trade 
unionism illusory and of no practical 
benefit, are demolished by the simple 
fact that trade unions are no untried 
theory, but subsisting and unques- 
tionable facts. 

With such substantial encourage- 



ment to increase our zeal in the work 
before us ; w ith the spread of enlight- 
enment to capitalism as w’ell as in the 
field of labor ; with the improvement 
of conditions felt by every trade union- 
ist on his return to his home after his 
w’eek of toll, in increased remuneration 
and fewer hours of labor and less strug- 
gle for existence — a new menace has 
sprung up in his path to thwart his 
purpose, and undo possibly the good 
which it has taken years to accom- 
plish. It is not a new combination 
of capital that thus threatens the 
progress of this great conservative 
movement, though the greed of 
monopoly w’ould fill to satiety and 
gluttony upon the offals of a dead 
trade unionism No, it is of men 
claiming to be of our own class but not 
of ou*- own family. Men who profess 
to fa '’or reforms, the adoption of 
which would gladden the hearts of 
sensible trade unionists. Such as 
include state and municipal ownership 
of all public necessities. These mea 
are flattering and enticing in their 
proposals. Hting neither of us nor 
for us, they wo»ild have us set aside 
our well-builded fabric and follow* 
them into a fanciful and chimerical 
Utopia, with the promise of enjoying 
the greatest perfection in politics, 
laws, etc. These new dispensers of a 
balm (from (Ulead, no doubt) for the 
suffering ills of oppressed labor call 
themselves socialists Now, there is 
nothing new or destructive in social- 
ism. liven a trade unionist is a 
socialist in that he joins with his 
fellow’s in methods for the betterment 
of his condition. But the class here 
spoken of has as many names and 
presents as many fronts as those of 
the inconstant moon in her recurring 
flirtations. It is purely political in 
its methods, and as often as defeated, 
so often changes its name— now 
Socialist Labor Tarty, then Social 
Democratic Party, then some other 
new fangled catch penny name— to 
capture the unw’ary. “cornin’ and 
goin\” just the same. One of its 
remedies is a “ co operative common- 
wealth ” another the abolishment of 
the “ wage system ” for the “ co-opera- 
tive.” To the writer the “co opera 
tive” suggestion is so unreal in 
imagery, so chimerical such a mockery 
on common sense and judgment, as to 
be distrusted, even as an illusion, 
except in a condition beyond the 
grave, where co-operation will be the 
rule, universally, and without excep- 
tion. 

As to substituting a cooperative 
system for a wage system, it will 
require ages to convince the ordinary 
mechanic that any stronger competi- 
tion than he lias now to contend with, 
to maintain the scant wage of his 
laboi, will better hiscondition. What, 
with the rats and scabs and non-Union 
competition he is now striving to 
outlive and outdo, he can find no use 
for a system of glitter and tinsel so 
indefensible and untractable as Is pro- 
posed by the class of star gazing 
•* Socialists ” and which is one of 
problematic conjecture. 

Trade Unionism, pure and simple, 
is good enough for any honest mean- 
ing man. Nearly one million of its 
organized forces in this country to-day 
can attest the beneficence of its power 
and influence. There is nothing to 



prevent a trade unionist from endors- 
ing any method of economic reform, 
national, stave or municipal, nor 
from voting for what man or what 
measure his choice may lead him, 
only don’t solicit him to absolve 
himself from the pure, conservative, 
unadulterated principles of an organi- 
zation wdiich brings him pleasure in 
its fellowship, affection in its frater- 
nity and happiness in a realization of 
hopes secured in a unity as sacred as 
the Cxospel or the Church. 



American Federation of Labor. 



III. 

KXTF.KNAL POLICY. 



BY MORTON A. A Li »RICH, I’ll I». 

0 I 1 K exertions of the Federa- 
tion to bring order and 
unity into the Trade Union 
movement have all been to 
one chief end — to develop 
a Trade Union organization, which 
would give greater force to its 
demands. It remains to consider 
what these demands are. To under- 
stand the full significance of the 
policy of the Federation, one must 
bear in mind that it not only reflects 
the attitute of a large number of trade 
Unionists, but that, viewed from a 
political point of view, it is fairly 
typical of the opinions and desires of 
a large and active class of voters in 
our body politic. The chief external 
activities of thr American Federation 
of Labor may be grouped under two 
main heads ; first, the promotion of 
trade matters w*hich are ordinarily 
reserved to the individual Trade 
Unions, and secondly, the attainment 
of labor legislation. 

Certain departments of Trade Union 
activity lie, strictly, outside the scope 
of the Federation. The Federation 
has nothing to do w*ith the insurance 
of workmen by Trade Unions, further 
than to suggest its value. The power 
of initiative in such trade matters as 
boycotts, the use of the Union label, 
and strikes, is also reserved to the 
individual Trade Unions. Vet the 
Federation gives its support to the 
policy already fixed by the Unions; 
and this suppoit may be very con- 
siderable. 

Boycotts, which the Federation had 
once or twice endorsed in the preced- 
ing years, first began to occupy an 
important place in its policy in 18N7. 
When the Federation approves a boy- 
cott, it undertakes to make the fact 
that the employer in question has 
been declared unfair, as widely known 
as possible. Lists of such employers 
are printed each month in the Ameti - 
can Fedetationist under the heading, 
“We don’t patronize. ” Kspecially 
in cases where a strike is impracti- 
cable, for example, when an employer 
refuses to employ workmen who are 
members of a Trade Union, the 
Federation regards the boycott as an 
effective means of warfare. While all 
Trad'* Unionists support the boycott 
in principle, there is a strong feeling 
that it is most effective when used 
sparingly. At first the number of 
firms boycotted was so great that 
workmen could not remember them ; 
but since 1893 the Federation has 



\ 

d 





THE CARPENTER. 



9 



General Officers 

OK THR 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 

124 N. Ninth St , Philadelphia, Pa 



General President —John Williams, Utica, 
N. Y. 

Genet at Secretary-Treasurer.— P J. McGill »R, 
I*. O, Ho* HH4, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ghnkkal Vick-Pw i sihknts. 

First Vice-President. W. !> Hu!*er, »5 Waverly 
st., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Second Vice-President. — William Hauer, 2010 
W. Polk st., Chicago, III. 

Gh. MURAL FXKCCTIVK R<»A*D. 

(All correRpoudeoce for the G. F. II must l*e 
mailed to the General Secretary-Treasurer.) 

James M I.aue,2lW W 124th st., New York, N.Y 

|. K Miller, 211* Olive st., SI. I.ouis Mo. 

A C. Cattrrmull. 101» W. KHthst.. Sta. P., Chicago. 
Fred. C. Wal/, 111112 flroad st., Hartford, Conn 
W J. Williams, 170 Mills st., Atlanta, Ga. 



American Federation of Labor. 

( Continued ) 

attempted to concentrate the atten- 
tion of itvS members on I he boycotting 
of a few leading firms. It should be 
added that the Federation does its 
best to administer this system of boy- 
cotts fairly. Its executive council 
never approves the application of a 
Trade Union for a boycott until the 
firm involved has been given oppor- 
tunity to present its side of the case. 
The executive council also attempts to 
bring about a settlement of the dis- 
pute leading to the boycott— with 
such success that President Gompers 
reports that fully one-third of the 
cases are thus adjusted without its 
becoming necessai/ to put the firm on 
the “ unfair list.” 

The use of the “Union Label ” to 
designate goods manufactured under 
conditions satisfactory to the Trade 
Union, originated by the cigar makers 
in 1874, has since become very gen- 
eral. In 1897 the Federation, besides 
having its own label, endorsed the 
labels of twenty-seven National 
Trade Unions. The “Union Label,” 
like the boycott, is a means of dis- 
criminating against “ unfair ” firms, 
but its efiectiveness goes farther. By 
promoting the demand for goods 
marked “Union made,” it is calcu- 
lated to lead employers to give the 
preference to Trade Union workmen 
in order to secure the right to use the 
“ Union Label.” The absence of this 
label from an article of common use, 
and especially from articles like beer 
or tobacco, seriously interferes with 
its sale among workingmen. “This 
weapon [the Union Label],” says 
President Gompers, “is productive of 
good results with the expenditure of 
less energy than any other at the 
command labor.” While the 
establishment and control of “Union 
Labels ” is wholly in the hands of 
the National Trade Unions, the 



Federation does what it can to encour- 
age the purchase of “Union Label” 
goods. 

The Federation regards stiikes, in- 
cluding ‘sympathetic ’ strikes, as in- 
evitable under present conditions. 
Those strikes in which the employers 
refuse to treat with committees of 
their workmen appeal especially to 
the workingman. The president’s 
annual reports, however, urge the 
Trade Unions to show discrimination 
and learn when not to strike, — when 
they are improperly organized, or on 
a falling market, or when they have 
an empty treasury. The ordering and 
conduct of strikes is a power which 
the individual Trade Unions prefer to 
keep in their own hands. Strikes for 
the enforcement of the eight hour 
working day. however, while ordered 
as usual by the Unions, have been 
planned in conference with the Fed- 
eration. The eight ho *r day is so 
universally desired by Trade Unionists 
that the Federation, by general con- 
sent, has assumed the leadership of 
the eight-hour movement. 

At the Federation convention of 
1884, a general strike for the eight- 
hour day was planned to take place 
May 1, 1886. Fach organization was 
to determine for itself whether it 
would join the movement Four of the 
national Trade Unions affiliated with 
the Federation entered the fight for 
the eight-hour day. Of these, the 
cigarmakers and the German printers 
were successful; the furniture workers 
compromised on nine hours ; and the 
carpenters won the eight hour day in 
seven cities, and compromised on nine 
hours in eighty-four cities. 

Two years later the Federation be- 
gan a renewed attempt to secure the 
eight-hour working day in 1890, by 
devoting the year 1889 to such system- 
atic preparation as had never been 
known in the American Trade Union 
movement before. It collected in- 
formation from the various Unions as 
to their strength, especially their 
financial resouices, and their readi- 
ness to strike for the eight hour day 
and it threw its whole strength into 
a vigorous campaign to make more 
real to the woikmen the ideal of eight 
hours for work. It distributed eight- 
hour tracts by Messrs. Lemuel I)an- 
ryid, George Gunton and George K. 
McNeill ; it sent out several speakers 
and appointed four days on which 
mass meetings in favor of the imme- 
diate enforcement of the demand for 
the eight hour day should be held all 
over the country. On September 2, 
1SS9, such meetings were held in four 
hundred and twenty cities and towns. 
It may be worth while, even at the 
risk of undue digression, to consider 
the arguments for the eight hour day 
which were advanced in this campaign 
of the Federation. 

Great stress was laid, as might be 
expected, on the social value, as well 
as the value to the individual work- 
man, of increased leisure. But another 
argument was given prominence, well 
calculated to make the eight-hour 
movement popular. All the writers 
of the eight-hour tracts proclaimed 
that shorter hours brought higher 
wages. As the rhyme expressed it, 

“ Whether you work by the piece, or work by 
the day, 

Decreasing the hours increases the pay." 



Up to this time workmen in Americ 
had usually been more ready to strike 
to maintain or increase wages than to 
reduce the hours of work below ten, 
at the ri3k of any reduction of wages. 
But here was a mode of reasoning 
which avoided this disagreeable 
dilemma by telling the workman that 
he could have at once more leisure 
and more pay. The argument in sup- 
port of this statement was as follows: 
“The adoption of an eight-hour day 
would tend to increase wages in two 
ways, first, by reducing enforced idle- 
ness; second, by increasing new wants 
and raising the standard of living.” 

All the Federation writers distinctly 
repudiated the assertion, made so 
much of by many economists, that a 
workman would do as much work in 
eight hours as he now does in ten. 
They maintained, on the contrary, 
that the shortening of the working 
day would lessen the amount produced 
daily by each workman, and, therefore, 
lead generally to the employment of 
more workmen, — as it undoubtedly 
would in the case of many workmen, 
such as railroad employees, whose 
work is of the nature of personal ser- 
vices. This increased demand for 
labor would, it was argued, result 
both in a rise in wages and in a reduc- 
tion of the number of the unemployed. 

Workmen believe that this increased 
demand for labor under the eight-hour 
system will help counteract the im- 
mediate effect of the rapid introduc- 
tion of machinery, which operates to 
throw workmen out of employment 
not only directly, but, as they believe, 
indirectly also, by causing overpro- 
duction and industrial depression. 
They demand the eight-hour day, 
therefore, as a form of compensation 
for the hardship which they believe 
the rapid introduction of machinery 
brings upon them. In another way 
workmen see a close relation be- 
tween the introduction of machinery 
and their demand for shorter hours. 
They base the demand on their right 
to share in the increased production 
which the invention of machinery has 
made possible. Contrary to the general 
belief, the American Federation of 
Labor has never opposed the intro- 
duction of machinery. Of course, 
individual trade unionists protest 
against the machines which have 
made their skilled hand labor worth- 
less, as other people oppose legislation 
which interferes with their personal 
or corporate interests. Even these 
workmen feel, however, as one dele- 
gate expressed it, “We could not go 
on record as fighting machinery,” 
and every workman realizes that the 
introduction of machinery is inevit- 
able. The Federation, therefore, in- 
stead of entering upon a Quixotic 
fight against the introduction of ma- 
chinery, seeks to obtain for the work- 
man a greater share in the resulting 
increase of national wealth, in the 
shape of better conditions of work, 
higher wages and shorter hours. 

The Trade Union arguments for the 
eight-hour working day stand thus : 
it will benefit society as well as the 
workmen ; it will make it easier for 
workmen to find employment ; it will 
increase wages ; and finally, it is 
only “fair” that in this way the 
workmen should share in the progress 
due to the genius of invention. 



In good degree owing to the eight- 
hour agitation of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, the workman’s latent 
desire for the eight hour day is becom- 
ing what Mill would have called 
“ effective. ” Already President Gom- 
pers can say with truth, “The fore- 
most demand of the organized labor 
movement is for a shorter workday 

In the eight hour strike of 1886 the 
Federation had merely given its moral 
support to all the striking Trade 
Unions; but in 1890 it adopted a far 
better strategic plan. It singled out 
the carpenters as the trade in which a 
strike for eight hours gave the most 
promise of success, and concentrated 
its efforts in the financial support of 
the strike of the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners. For the 
first time the Federation levied a 
strike assessment, which enabled it to 
give the carpenters over twelve thou- 
sand dollars toward the expenses of 
their strike. As a result of this strike, 
46,197 carpenters enjoyed shorter 
hours of work and the eight hour day 
became the general rule in several 
large cities. At the same time eight- 
hour strikes were also successful in 
several other industries. Ti e plan of 
the Federation was to continue to aid 
eight-hour strikes of one National 
Trade Union after another, as they 
became strong enough to demand the 
eight-hour day. Further effort has, 
however, been frustrated by the in- 
dustrial depression since 1893. 

Workmen may obtain the eight-hour 
day, not only by voluntary concession 
of employers and by direct Trade 
Union action, as in the eight hour 
strikes of 1886 and 1890, but also by 
legal enactment. The Federation has 
done much to secure the enforcement 
of the Actot 1869, granting the eight- 
hour day to most government em- 
ployees, and to secure extensions of 
this law to apply to letter.carriers 
and to workmen employed by govern- 
ment contractors. It also urges the 
passage of similar laws for state, 
county, and municipal employees. 

The convention of 1894 indorsed 
the demand for a national law, limit- 
ing the daily hours of work of all 
workmen to eight. It was recognized 
that an amendment to the Constitu- 
tion to permit Congress to legislate 
on hours of labor would first be neces. 
sary. This waa the first time that the 
Federation had given its support to 
the proposal to limit the hours of 
labor of adult male workmen, in all 
occupations, by law. 



Impressions. 

The tnuch of A hand, the glance of an eye, 

Or a word exch.it ged with a passerby , 

A glimpse of a face in a crowded strett 
And afterwards life is incomplete ; 

A picture painted with honest seal 
And we lose the old for the uew ideal ; 

A chance remark or a song's refrain. 

And life is never the same again. 

An angered word from our lips is sped 
Or a tender word is left unsaid. 

And one there is who, his whole life long, 

Shall cherish the brand of a burning wroug ; 

A line that at.vea up from an open page, , 

A cynic smile from the lips of age, 

A glimpse of loving seen in a play, 

And the dreams of our youth are swept away. 

A filendly smile aud love's embering spark 
Leaps into flame aud illumines the dark ; 

A whispered “ He brave *' to our fellow men 
Aud they pick up the thread of hope again. 

Thus never an act or a word or a thought 
But that with unguessed importance is fraught, 
For small things build up eternity 
And blason the ways for a destiny. 







I 




1 



10 



THE CARPENTER. 



Agitation for Model Tenement build- 
ings at Cincinnati, Ohio. 







N our days of extreme poverty 
of the great masses and great 
wealth for the very few, 
together with our unjust 
system of landlordism, which 
enables a few persons of wealth to 
buy up all desirable lots and land, in 
and around all large cities, deprives 
many of us toiling workmen from 
ever owning a home, and so many of 
us who have families and must have 
a suitable place to live in, must de- 
pend upon landlords for living places, 
and their sole object seems to be to 
exflct from us as much rent as they 
possibly can, and insist that two bare 
living rooms are good enough for a 
common workman to live in. But we 
are not satisfied with this, and should 
not be. Since new inventions and 
cheap production have brought many 
other things within the reach of the 
poorer chases, so can also comfortable 
living places, with a few of the most 
modern conveniences, be brought 
within ou r reach, if it is gone about 
in a proper and business-like manner 
in providing them. 

One great trouble in providing 
tenement buildings is, that every 
little landlord who has a small lot of 
his own, puts up a building according 
to his own queer design, and the 
result is an arrange ment of odd shaped 
houses as varied as the ideas of the 
different owners, all of whom may 
have been anything else but a practi- 
cal builder. 

The greatest part of our city is 
built up of just this kind of buildings, 
and our Carpenters’ District and 
Building Trades Councils have deter- 
mined to overcome some of these 
difficulties, and bring about the erec- 
tion of a better class of tenement 
buildings in which nice, new, clean 
four-room living apartments, with 
bath and closet, can be rented at 
about the same rate of rent which is 
now charged for two or thre* We 
rooms. 

A joint committee was appointed, 
consisting of five of the ablest mem- 
bers from each council, and this com- 
mittee of ten set to work at once by 
providing themselves with the plans 
of about twenty different enterprises 
that are now providing comfortable 
homes for thousands of families in 
Boston, Brooklyn, New York and in 
the principal cities of ICurope. After 
selecting the good features from many 
of these plans, and in compiling them 
into one plan we found that buildings 
of this character must be erected upon 
a large scale for several reasons, 
namely, it gives more scope in plan- 
ning the apartments to the very best 
advantage, it makes it possible to 
give outside light and air to all the 
rooms, halls and bath rooms in the 
entire building. One central light 
court, or one stairway, or one light 
shaft will answer for two distinct 
parts of the building. An ordinary 
priced inside lot will answer the pur- 
pose just as well as a high priced 
corner lot, and that building materials 
can be purchased at much less cost 
when ordering in large quantities. 
Guiding itself by these rules the 
committee drafted a plan and received 
estimates for its construction and then, 



making liberal allowance for taxes, 
insurance, repairs, etc , and 6 per 
cent, profit for the money invested in 
both building and lot, it was found 
that the rent that would have to be 
charged for the living apartments 
would be astonishingly low. 

The committee is now in communi- 
cation with parties who intend to 
erect buildings of this character in 
the coming season, and we are recom 
mending the adoption of our plan, 
which, if it will be done, the committee 



If this work can be extended to 
supply the demand for homes of this 
kind, with possibly the cooperative 
feature added, it would do a world of 
good to our toiling masses of deserv- 
ing workers, many of whom are 
devoting their entire lives to pro- 
ducing the comforts and luxuries of 
others and yet have nothing them- 
selves. 

The sketch here shown is that of 
the lloor plan ol the second story and 
all doors above, it being optional with 




Model Tenement Building. 

PLAN PREPARED AND RECOMMENDED BY THE JOINT INDUSTRIAL 
HOMES COMMITTEE OF THE CARPENTERS' DISTRICT AND 
BUILDING TRADES COUNCILS, OF CINCINNATI, O. 



[ I til* plan provide» for two »tores mid ten lour-room living »p.itni'iit». and t. ile»iKtie<l for 
a -rfiiHIO foot in.ifie lot. fla.niHl will cover cost of tot mid building. on which •» per cent pr fit 
cmi he reallteil by the »tores renting .t |r> . month .ml the liviux •pmtntenl» at the low rate 
of an averatte of |x a month each | 



will require that none but Union me- 
chanics be employed In its construc- 
tion. This work which the two coun- 
cils have undertaken, Is distinctly of 
the progressive kind, for, instead of 
waiting for work to come to us, we are 
going ahead and creating work to do, 
and when the work is done we can 
move our families into better homes. 
Not only we building mechanics, but 
men of any other calling have the 
same opportunity of securing living 
apartments that are pleasant, cheer- 
ful, comfortable and which make life 
worth living. 



owner to add as many stories as 
he :uay desire. 

The entrance to the open light court 
:s through a 6*foot hallway running 
the entire length through the center 
of the building, giving access to the 
court Irorn the street or from the rear 
yard. 

Joint Industrial Homes Committee 
of Carpenters' District and Huild- 
ing Trades Councils. 

J. H. Mrykr, Stc’y, 

23 Meicer street. 

Cincinnati, O, Jan. 10, i8yy. 




El*. .-Hour Cities. 



Below is it li»t of Ihr cities and towns whrr- 
carpenters make ii a rule to work only eiKht 
hour* a day : 



Alnmrdn, Cal . 

Atlrt Lomu. IV« 
Ashland, Wis 
Austin, 111. 

B tkrtshrld. Cal 
Bedford Dark, N Y. 
hrt k«*lry, Cal 
Bessemer Col. 
Brighton I'atk 111. 
Brooklyn. N V. 
Caromfrlrt. Mo. 
Chicago, 111 
Chicago Heights, III. 
Clrvcla ml, < >. 

Corona, N. V. 

Cripple Cr« rk, Col. 
Denver, Col. 

Detroit. Mich 
Hast St. Louis. Ill 
Kl D .rn Col. 
Klmhnist, 111. 

Engle w«hmI, 111. 
Euieka, ChI 
Kvaii'ton. Ill 
Flush! ng. N. Y. 
Fremont. Col. 

Frrsno. Cal 
t*Hlveston, Tr«, 
r.ilette, Col. 

(»rand Crowing. 111. 
Haughvillr. Ind. 
llaulord, ChI 
Highland Park, 111. 
Hitchcock. Tex. 

Ilvde Park. III. 

I «dependence. Col. 
Indian i |olis. Iml 
I rvingt on N I 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Kensin gtoii. III 
Kingsbridge, N. V 
La Junta, Col. 

Lake Forest. Ill 
Leadville, Col 
Long Island City, N Y 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Lvnn, Mass. 

M.tvwisid, III. 
Memphis, Trim. 
Milwaukee Wis. 
Mooreland, 111. 

Mt. Vernon, N. Y, 

Mt. Veruon, Ind. 



Murphysboro, III. 
Nrwitr k ( N J. 

; .rw lit igliton N. Y 
Newtow » 1 . N. V 
New Vor k. N. Y. 

( »aklaml, Cal. 

O.i k l*at k. 111. 

Omaha, Neb. 

< Hange, N. J. 

O.n ay. Col 
Pasadena, Cal • 

Por! Richmond, N. Y 
Pueblo, Col 
Kand'hiirg . Cal 
Rochester, N V 
Roger** Park. 111. 

Sat r.mn rito Cal. 

Salt L « k«\ I tah. 

San Antonio Te« 

San Francisco, Cal. 
San Luis < >tn*po, Cal. 
Situ Jose, Cal. 

San Rafael. Cal. 

Santa Bar hat a, Cal. 
Seattle, \Va*»h 
Sheboygan Ml*». 

Soil! h Chicago, 111. 
South Deliver, Co? 
South F.\nnston 111. 
South Fug!« w- öd III. 
Sou» It < Mliaha Neb. 
Spokane, W'a-h. 
Springfield. 111. 

St. I.ouis, Mo. 
Stapleton, N Y. 
Stockton. Cal 
Swampscott Mass. 
Syracuse N Y. 

T'-xas City. T» « 

Town ot Lake. III. 
Tremont. N Y. 
t nioti port, N Y. 

Van NeM N. Y 
Venice. III. 

Victor, Col. 

Waco, Tex. 
Washington, I) C. 
Westchester. N. Y. 
Whatcom. vVash 
Willtamshridge. N. Y. 
Wood lawn, N Y. 
Yonkers, N. Y. 



Total 105 cities. 

— — 

Rules Regarding Apprentice*. 



At the Detroit Convention of the United Broils 
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, 
held August i l . Ihhh, tne following rules in rela- 
tion to apprentices were approved anti the L«^cal 
UnionN are urged to secure their enforcement : 
Whe*tai s Tile rapid Influx of unskilled and in- 
eonnxrterit men in the carpenter trade has had 
of late yeara, a very depressing and injurioua 
effect upon the mechanics in the business, and 
has a tendency to degrade the standard of skill 
and to give no encouragement to young men to 
become apprentices and to master the trade 
thoroughly; therefore, in the best interests of 
the craft, we declare ourselves iu favor of the fol- 
lowing rules : 



Section 1 The indctituring of apprentices ia 
the best means calculated to give that efficiency 
which it ia desirable a caipeuter should \*o *»«***, 
and also to give the necessary guarantee to the 
employers that some return will be made to them 
for a proper effort to turn out competent work- 
L.xHi ; therefore, we direct that all l/x:al Unions 
under our jurisdiction shall use every |>o«sib!e 
means, wherever practical, to introduce the sys- 
tem of indenturing apprentices. 

8kc 2. Any boy or person hereafter engaging 
himself to learn the trade 1 1 carpentry, shall be 
required to serve a regular apprenticeship ol 
four consecutive years, and shall not he consid- 
ered a journeyman unless he hat* complied with 
this rule, and is twenty one years ol age at the 
completion of his apprenticeship. 

Bkc. 3 AH boya entering the caipenter trade 
with the intention of learning the business shall 
be held by agreement, Indenture or written con- 
tract for a term of four yeara. 

Hkc 4. When a boy shall have contracted with 
an employer to serve a certain term of yeara, he 
shall, on no pretense whatever, leave said em- 
ployer and contract with another, without the 
full and free conaent of said first employer, 
unless there is just cause or that auch change is 
made in consequence of the death or relinquish 
ment of business by the first employer ; any ap- 
prentice so leaving shall not be permitted to 
work under the jurisdiction of any Local Union 
in our Brotherhood, but shall be required to re 
turn to h*s employer and serve out hia appren- 
ticeship. 



Sec. 5. It Is enjoined upon each Local Union 
to make regulations limiting the number of ap- 
prentices to be employed in each shop or mill to 
one for auch number of journeymen as may 
teem to them just; and all Unions are recom- 
mended to admit to membership apprentices In 
the last year of their apprenticeship, to the end 
that, upon the expiration of their terms of ap- 
prenticeship they may become acquainted with 
the workings of the Union, and be better fitted 
to appreciate its privileges and obligations upon 
assuming full membership. 





11 



THE CARPENTER. 



A Series off Drawing Lessons. 



IiV O. L. STODDARD. 

Lesson No. I. 

RAWING Is of 
great value 
to the entire 
human race. 
But u n - 
doubtedly of 
more value 
to the car- 
penter than 
any other trade, calling or profession, 
except the artist that makes big 
money and his life’s work of drawing 
alone, 




. _ _ ^ 

i 



\ 



many difficulties. A man in a job 
shop that can at once take out his 
pencil and nicely show* the customer 
just what they want, will have a great 
deal more to do than the man that 
cannot draw at all. 

The Carpenter has had many 
valuable lessons on drawing, ex- 
plaining in full the drawing board 
and instruments and illustrating 
plans and elevations. That ground 
has been so thoroughly covered that 
I will not touch it, only lightly. 

Again the carpenter sees so much 
of houses he likes to see something 
else in the way of education through 
his official organ, and I have tried to 
arrange a series of practical lessons 




[ 






I finished my time as an apprentice 
and voted several times before I ever 
had any knowledge of drawing what- 
ever. 1 learned the necessity of 
drawing in the carpenter trade, there- 
fore commenced to gather here and 
there a knowledge of what I had so 
long neglected. 

Soon after I gained some knowledge 
of drawing I was paid 50 cents an 
hour to prepare drawings for the 
World’s Fair. I then thought that a 
great price, but since then much of 
my time has brought me that 
imount. 

A carpenter with a knowledge of 
«rawing can see much further in his 
rork than the uneducated in the art, 
and, therefore, saves getting into 



for the carpenter and his family, 
entirely practical and yet far away 
from the real house, enough 30 the 
carpenter can educate and yet not 
Lave his mind on a house all the 
time. 

I have spent much time and thought 
in preparing something educational 
and interesting to the carpenter’s 
family, and I firmly believe that any 
one that follows these lessons through 
the different lines of drawing, includ- 
ing freehand, mechanical, geometri- 
cal, outline, detail, object, perspec- 
tive, architectural, etc., will gain a 
knowledge that will always be of 
value to them. 

In my little freehand sketch I show 
the position of hand and pen ; when 



making finished drawings with India 
ink use Gillott’s 303 pen. 

Practice the line exercises and then 
make the drawings complete with ink 
or pencil and send to me for examina- 
tion and I will try and help you from 
time to time. Some may say they 
can never learn to draw, but don’t 
give up until you try. Remember, 
house drawing is easy, fruit is harder, 
animal harder still, and the human 
face hardest of all. Now let us get 
right down to work and make the 
hardest first and then take up easy 
carpenter drawing later on. Remem 
ber, there is no danger of learning too 
much, and there’s always room at 
the top. But there ’s not much room 
for the man that can only saw to 
someone else ’s line, we must learn to 
do something ourselves. Practice all 
these drawings, then draw everything 
you can see. Get T square and draw- 
ing board and be ready for our next 
lesson which will be mechanical. 



A Plea for the Locals. 

O let us keep the Locals up, 

Aud push th' m with a song ! 

Til noble hearts and toilers’ hands 
That move the world along 

On Honor s aide we’ve aet our staff . 

Now struggle to be free 
Ficin Mammon’» grasp, who^e Gorgon eye 
Hut shackle Liberty. 

’Tia Love alone will win the day ; 

Cnharrassed by a fear 
She binds the wounds we feel the most 
And checks the rising tear. 

When arm in arm we feel the sway 
Of Unity’s embrace 
We 11 dare to speak and act like men» 
Proud of a toiler’s face. 

When anger dies, aud with it fails 
All cowardice, Hope laves 
Within the gorgeous beam« that rise. 

Ami thine across their graves. 

’Tin only then that we can win 
From foes behind the shield 
Of slinking justice, free to bind 
And force the poor to yield. 

So let us keep our Locals up, 

And rally in our might. 

And show the bosses th it the men 
Are heroes in the right. 

In unity there lies our hope ! 

’Tis plain before our livea 
We must unite, if we attempt 
To guard our homes and wives. 

JtiHN II. Farrell. 

/oca/ vj. 




Carpenters* Tools and Mow to Use 
Them.— III. 



BY OWEN B. MAGINN1S. 



(1 Copyright , ) 

D N sharpening a plane iron on 
the grindstone the beginner 
must guard against giving 
too long a bevel to his plane 
irons, that is, making too 
thin an edge ; for, although a thin 
edge cuts well, some steel is very apt 
to break at hard knots in the wood ; 
and if we have a thin edge, it may 
take a long rubbing on the oilstone to 
take out the nick, or we may even 
have to resort to the grindstone 
again. 




Fig. 12. 



The edge is made keen by holding 
the iron between the fingers of both 
hands and keeping it at the cutting 
angle, to rub it gently back and for- 
ward on the surface of the stone, until 
it has the edge turned over on *he 
face of the iron ; the face is then 
lightly rubbed flat on the face of the 
oilstone, and the iron has the wire 
edge or burr remaining, removed by 
whetting it on the hand in the way 
shown in Fig. 12, thus making the 
edge clean and keen. 




Fig. 13 . 



Concerning the method of setting 
the iron in a plane, the following will 
explain it : To loosen the iron in a 
jack plane, fore plane or jointer, the 
front of the plane must be struck 
with the hammer on the ebony sharply 
or boxwood plug Inserted on the top 
of the plane to receive the blow. This 
will loosen the wedge and release the 
iron. To insert and set the iron place 
the iron in the throat and the wedge 
upon it gently, tapping the wedge to 
hold it temporarily. Now proceed to 
turn the plane upside down as in Fig. 
13, and sighting with the eye across 
the sole or bottom face, proceed to 
adjust the iron until the desired pro 
jection is obtained. 

PATENT ADJUSTABLE WOOD PLANES 

These planes are adjusted by a 
lever, are especially adapted for work • 
ing on soft woods, and they are re- 
markably simple in their parts, not 
more expensive to purchase than the 
ordinary w^ooden planes, and have 
( Continued on next page.) 









12 



Carpenters’ Tools. 

( Con tin Ufd f ront page / / - ) 



THE CARPENTER. 










■t 






■ 



been so improved that the artisan 
has found them to be excellent on 
both hard and soft woods. They can 
be purchased from the publisher of 
this little boo*. Figs, 14. IS. 16 and 
1 7 are excellent cuts of these planes 




Fig 14 - 

Smooth plane, S inches In length, 
1 4 Inch cutter. 

4* 




Fig 15 

Handlesmooth, 10 iuches in length, 
2 'h inch cutter. 




Fig 16. 

Jack plane, 15 inches in length, 2 'h 
inch cutter. 

Fore plane. 20 inches in length, 2 
inch cutter. 

Jointer plane, 26 inches in le -gth, 
2 J* inch cutter. 




STANLEYS PATENT LATERAL 
ADJUSTMENT. 

Fig 17. 

The sectional view of a plane Illustrates the 
new methyl of adjusting a plane iron, udtwt t, 
to *et the cutting edge exactly square with the 
face of the plane. 

At the lower end of ihr lever, a revolving 
( *nti friction) iliac lit* into the alot in the plane 
Iron, thus furnishing an easy sidewise adjust- 
ment, entirely independent of the forward aud 
backward adjustment of the cutter. 

This lever for sidewise adjustment, as shown 
above, ia attached to all patent iron planes aud 
patent wood planes, except Nos. 1, 9 aud 11. I 
will also be found attached to block planes, see 
further on. 




IRON OR STEEL PLANKS. 

Fig. 18 

smooth Planks. 

Jton . — ( Bailey Pattern.) 
inch long, IV* inch cutter. 
\ inch long, !*>» inch cutter. 

H inch loug, 1% inch cutter. 

II inch long, 2 inch cutter. 

10 inch long, 2>* iuch cutte*\ 

S/ el.— (Stanley Pattern ) 

9 inch long, 2% inch cutter. 




Fig. 19 

Jack Plank.- (Bailey Pattern ) 

1 1 ituh long, 2 inch cutter. 

Jack Plank.— Stanley Pattern.) 

II Inch long. *2 iuch cutter. 

Pork Planes. 

IS inch long. 2 >t inch cutte r . 

Jointer Plane. 

21 inch long, 2 inch cutter 
24 inch long. 2V inch cutter. 

Steel and iron planes are now in 
use, and are favorably received and 
having a large sale. We show a jack 
plane of this manufacture in Fig. 19. 
Fore planes, jointers and smooth 
planes as Fig. 18 are also made. 
The advantages claimed for them are 
beauty of style aud finish, great con- 
venience in operating, economy in 
use and the fact that they are self- 
adjusting in every respect, and each 
part interchangeable sc that should 
any part be broken or lost a new 
duplicate part may be obtained at a 
small cost, thus maintaining the 
efficiency o r the plane. 

Fig. 20. 

The planes which are most in de- 
mand next to the bench planes are 
termed as Fig. 20. The sizes of the 
beads used by the carpenter vary 
by }£ of an inch from a plane which 
forms a bead an inch in width, to 
of an inch in width. When a bead is 
worked entirely round the edge it is 
said to be “returned.” The edges of 
window and door casing.® are often 
beaded, as are also the joints of nar- 
row boards in partitions, ceilings, and 
wain8cotings. They may be pur* 
chased in sizes as 

• i, 3-16, M, 5.16, V , 7-16, }*. < 4 , 1 inch. 

G« »0*1 bead planes have the edgt s of the groove 
which is to make the bead reinforced lor lined) 
with hard Boxwood, or as Haneniakers would 
say ; ‘‘Good Bead Planes should be ftoxrd." 

Single boxed bead planes have a prot cting 
strip of Boxwood on one side of the bead 
groove. 

Double boxed bead planes have two pro* 
tecting strips of Boxwood, one on each side of 
the bead groove. 

Solid box '‘dovetailed" head planes have 
their bead groove cut out of the solid Boxwood, 
a solid piece of which had been "dovetailed " or 
mortised iuto the length of the plane. 

These planes are held in the same 
way as the smoothing plane but care 
must be taken so as to prevent the 
cutter from slipping oft the edge and 
marring the work. The cutter or bit 
of these planes is sharpened with the 
set slip which will be explained 
further on. 




Fig. si. 

The rebate or rabbet plane, Fig. 21, 
is used for sinking rebates. The 
fillister may be classed as a rebate 
plane. In Fig. 24 is shown one with 
a stop and cutter; the stop is the 
guard on the side, which is secured in 
its place in the side by a screw and 
can be moved up and down by means 
of the slot in the guard ; it regulates 




The No. 5 Union Combination Self- 
Fe J Rip and Cross-Cut Saw. 



IS machine is almost a 
complete “workshop” in 
one machine. It is suitable 
for ripping up to 3 yi inches 
thick, also for cross cutting, 
mitering, rabbeting, grooving, da- 
doing, edging up and with the extra 
attachments, boring, scroll sawing, 
edge moulding, beading, etc. 

It has a large adjustable combination 
wood and iron table, 28 x 36 inches. 
Steel shafts and Babbitt metal lines 
cap boxes, adjustable for wear. Ad- 
justable extension rolls for long work. 
Three changes of feed. Four changes 
of speed. Foot power with a walking 
motion. Hand power at rear of ma- 
chine, leaving a free table. Quick 
change from self feed ripping to cross- 
cutting. Two, each, rip and cross-cut 
gauges. Every machine and attach- 
ment guaranteed practical and accu- 
rate. Send for Catalogue “A” which 
fully describes a complete line of wood 
working machinery. 

Manufactured by the Seneca Falls 
Manufacturing Company, 22 Water 
street, Seneca Falls, N. Y., U. S. A. 




the depth of the rebate, for of course 
when the iron has cut down the wood 
till the stop touches the top surface 
of the stuff, it is prevented from cut- 
ting deeper. The cutter is a little 
knife point just under the left end of 
the guard. As it runs before the cut- 
ting edge when the plane is in use, it 
prevents the iron from leaving a furry 
side to the cut. The piece below can 
be moved by means of the two slots, 
and set by the screws so as to regu- 
late the width of the rebate. A com- 
mon instance of rebating is in the 
jamb of the ordinary door frame to 
which the door is hinged, and into 
which it closes. 

Rabbet planes are used by holding 
the rear part as in the case of the 
smoother and the front with the left 




Fig. 22. 

Plain. 

Plain with cutter. 

Plain with cutter brans side stop. 

Plain with cutter brass screw stop. 

Plain with cutter brass screw stop ) 
Plain with cutter and boxwood screw arms J 
Solid boxed, dovetailed. 

hand fingers and thumb. The fingers 
a being undermest. It must be held 
perfectly upright. 

Skew fillisters and rebate planes, or 



“A GREAT SUCCESS” 

Hundreds of Carpenter* tiralsc the best ImmjW 
priti tea. 

HOW TO FRAME A HOUSE, 

or House and Hoot Framing 
By OWRSf . MAC 4 INNIS 
It Is a practical treatise on the latest and b«**t 
method* of laying out. framing ami raising tim- 
ber houses «mi the balloon principle, toge i»er 
with a complete aud easily understood system 
of Hoof Framing, the whole makes a handy ami 
easily applied book for car|>ontcr* ( both fore- 
men aud journeymen. 

OON TENTH. -Part I. 

Chapter I. General description of Balloon 
Frames, Framed Hills and their construction. 

Chapter II. First Floor Beams or .lotst*, Story 
Sections. Second Floor Beams. Studding Pram 
lug of Door ami Window Openings, Wall Plates 
and Roof Timbers. 

Chanter III. Ikying out and Working Bal- 
loon Frames, Girders, Sills, Posts and SI uddtng 
Chapter IV. laying out First an < Second 
Floor Joist* or Beams, Celling Joist* and Wall 
Plates. 

Chapter V. Laying out and Framing the 

Roof. 

Chapter VI Raising. 

PAKT II —"Roof- Framing " 

Chapter I. Simple U«x>fs. 

Chapter I I. Hip Hitd Valley Hoof* 

Chapter III. Roofs of Irregular Plan. 

Chapter IV Pyramidal Roofs. 

Chapter V. Hexagonal Roofs 
Chapter VI. Conical or Clreular Roofs, etc , etc. 
FART III 

Flow to Frame the I miners for a Brick House. 
Chapter I General Description First Htorv 
Fireproof Floors, Studding ami Wood Furor 
Hearns. 

Chapter II. Second and Upper story Beams, 
Partitions, Bridging and Angular Framing. 

Chapter III PI reproofing Wood Floors, 
Partitions and D »or* 

Chapter IV. Roifs. Bulkhead- and Fronts. 
Chapter V Wood and Iron Uon-tru« tion. 
Chapter VI. Heavy Beam* and Girders and 
Raiali.g Same. 

Chapt«*r NIL How to F nine a Log l ’shin. 

The work Is Illustrate«! ami explained by over 
s 0 large engravings of houses, roofs, etc., and 
bound In cloth. 

PHICK, ONLY - - 21.00 

ALSO 

"ROOF FRAMING MADE EASY.’ 

This splendid book contains 27 chapters and 
76 engravings and cover* the entire subject. 
It* price Is only $1 (JO. Bound in cloth with gilt 
title. Kverjr Carpenter ahould have one. 

A practical and onsllv comprehended system 
of laying out and framing roofs adapted to mod- 
ern building construction The method* are 
made clear aod Intelligible with extensive ex* 
planatory text. 

Send C ash or Poet Ofllce Ord« r to 

OWEN B. HAÜINN 15 , 

2io West 128th St.. New York City. 



tho:;e in which the cutter is set on the 
angle are mostly employed for re- 
bating across the grain, though often 
used with it. 

( To be continued .) 



LMON MAlik hiUVKM. 

1 Ikn f trllflft •••• *«• 










The above Label is Issued by the Iron Mould- 
ers’ Union of North America, and can be found 
on all union mode stoves, ranges and iron cast- 
Inga. It la printed in black ink on white paper 
and parted on all union made atoves, ranges 
and caatiuga. 




jg ffi UrM OW OrTHEUNITEDaWEW o,^.-^ 

jk fR ' 



The United State 



TftAOC MAOK aCOIfiTCSCO. 









THE CARPENTER. 



13 



Recent Economic Changes. 



(For Tiik Cakfknfkk.) 

F WE take up the history of 
America, from the time of 
its discovery by Columbus, 
it seems but yesterday when 
this great continent was to all 
appearances a vast and pathless wil- 
derness. In the one hundred and 
twenty odd years the United States 
has traversed as a nation, we have 
outgrown in the production of wealth, 
in the development of art, science and 
literature, monarchies of over one 
thousand years standing. 

How it came about that a nation of 
free born people, intelligent, indus- 
trious and aspirant ; in a land richly 
endowed by nature with inexhausti- 
ble natural resources, possessing at 
this age the bullion, the breadstufl, 
and well nigh the brains of the world, 
find themselves deprived of the land, 
destitute of the means of production, 
and possessing only the right to sell 
their labor, or the power to labor in 
their bodies to those who are in pos- 
session of the land, and the means of 
production and distribution, is a page 
in American history, a chapter in eco- 
nomics on which the polite politician 
keeps as mum as ft petrified oyster. 
It would be almost impossible to give 
a complete analysis of this phenom- 
ena in such a limited space Never 
before in the history of man was so 
great a change brought about in so 
short a time. The development may 
be said to divide itself into two pe- 
riods In the first period co operation, 
or social production for exchange, was 
gradually substituted for individual 
production mainly for use. This 
change was accompanied by a grad- 
ual growth of the purely wage- 
earning class ; also by the expan- 
sion of trade and commerce and 
the replacement of the local market, 
first, by the national market, then 
by the international and world 
wdde market. The second period is 
essentially the age of machinery, in 
which, that is to say, steam, elec- 
tricity and improved machinery dom- 
inate the whole industrial system. In 
the first period spoken of the clti/.en 
became accustomed to look upon him- 
self a9 a wage worker for life; in 
the second period he becomes accus- 
tomed to look upon himself not 
only as a wage worker for life, 
but as an appendage to a mon- 
strous machine for the production and 
distribution of wealth. We cannot 
here discuss the question in full as to 
the many changes that have taken 
place during the past fifty years in the 
industrial arena. The object of this 
N article is simply to show how the 
carpenter’s craft has been affected. 
It is often claimed by our employers, 
and by well meaning men whose sym- 
pathy we court, that our demands are 
unjust; that wages are higher now 
than they were fifty years ago, that a 
dollar will buy more nowadays than 
two dollars would fifty years ago, etc 
Yet, admitting this is so, we have 
still great reason to complain. 

First, the standard of living is 
higher to day than it was fifty years 
ago. 

11 If few tht-ir wauls, their pleasures are but few ; 
For every wautthat stimulate* the breast, 
Becotnea a source of pleasure w’.cn redressed.'* 

— Go/dsmith . 



Hence, as Bro. McGuire said in his 
speech, delivered in this city January 
17th, 41 The store windows in all their 
glittering generalities, set the stan- 
dard of living.” 

Second, the social conditions sur- 
rounding the daily lives of the car- 
penters have changed. Fifty years 
ago, when an employer hired a car 
penter, he would, as a general rule, 
send his team after his chest and have 
it taken to the shop. And as long as 
the man worked for him the employer 
felt himself under a moral obligation 
to keep him employed steadily, and 
when a rainy day came he always 
provided for him in the shop or else- 
where But conditions have changed. 
Then it was necessary for a carpenter 
to carry around a chest of tools ; to- 
day the majority of carpenters cany 
their tools around in a ‘'collar box.” 
It is a common thing to see, between 
6 and 7 A. M., several of these boxes 
going, not to the shop, as fifty years 
ago, but direct to the job ; not in 
the employer s team, but on the backs 
of the carpenteis ; not to work as a 
permanent employee, but simply to do 
a “job”; to put a floor on a brick 
block, or nail up some trim that has 
been already fitted together in the 
factory, after which he has to wait 
until the masons have gone up another 
floor, or another lot of trim arrives 
from the factory, and after a couple of 
weeks picking at such a job, he packs 
his “collar box” and takes up his 
march again. 

Third, the introduction of im- 
proved machinery into the carpen- 
ter's trade, and the displacement of 
carpenter work on large buildings by 
the application of steel, brick, stone, 
terra cotta and other chemical com- 
pounds, has so simplified what was 
fifty years ago the most difficult part 
of the work, that a man of average 
intelligence, who is willing to work 
hard, and also willing to work for a 
quarter or a half dollar less than the 
carpenter, can most always get a job 
with some one or other of our unscru- 
pulous employers ; such a man will 
hire the “hatchet and saw M man for 
two reasons ; first, he gets him cheap, 
he can work him in on the exterior or 
rough work necessary in large con- 
struction, and second, because heran 
use him later on as a weapon to cut 
down wages. From this point our 
craft has suffered the greatest. 

It actually has become the catch- 
basin for mechanics who have been 
displaced by the introduction of im- 
proved machinery in other industries. 
Fifty years ago, only the unemployed 
in our trade could endanger the jobs 
of those at work. But to-day (virtu- 
ally) the whole army of the unem- 
ployed bear down upon the carpenter’s 
trade. And I have kuown of stove 
makers, machinists, hatters, (who 
were not Union men) weavers and 
farmers taking the place of carpenters, 
so easy has it become to learn what 
is now needed to be known to work 
at the trade. And lastly, our trade 
suffers greatly on account of the lack 
of interest displayed on the part of the 
carpenters themselves, first, as to the 
time honored position our craft has 
held in the past, and second, becaqse 
of the utter indifference to the present. 
In no other craft in the building trade 
is there such a lack of interest, nor is 



this only realized in the craft itself, 
the fruits of our negligence is also 
reflected in the daily lives and homes 
of the craftsmen. Two striking illus- 
trations were seen in this ci’y between 
two crafts in the building trade with- 
in the past few days. One was a 
44 Smoker ” given by the Brick Masons, 
the other a “Smoker” given by the 
Carpenters. The former entertained 
their guests with musical selections 
on several instruments, songs and 
recitations of an up to da # e character 
were rendered in artistic manner. 
There were poets, orators, elocution- 
ists and singers which, in all, spoke 
well of the intellectual aspirations of 
the men of that craft. 

The latter tried to entertain their 
guests with songs and jig dances five 
hundred years old. Unable to grasp 
the natural impulses of the more re- 
fined age, indifferent ss to the present, 
and without a hope for the future, 
they seek to drown their sorrows by 
stirring up the emotional feelings of 
the dead past and while away the 
evening singing “Jack and Jill went 
up the hill,” etc. The former is 
vigilant as to the best interest of his 
trade. He attends the meetings of 
his Union, and through his fidelity to 
the Union has woven a cordon of 
Trade Union principles around his 
craft that protects the individual 
memLjr against the encroachments of 
the botch. He pays a high due to 
keep his Union in good financial 
working order, he demands good pay 
and backs up his demand with an 
organized force of intelligence, and 
wins. And, as a result, is enabled to 
partake of the fruits of the nineteenth 
century. 

The latter is neglectful of the best 
interests of his craft. He never stops 
to consider whether or not a higher 
due would place the craft in a better 
financial condition The majority 
never pay their dues except when 
forced to do so, they seldom attend 
the meetings, they are indifferent as 
to whether the man who works beside 
them carries a Union card in his 
pocket, and as a natural result, and 
to the shame of the carpenters them- 
selves, our much time honored craft 
sinks below the level of all others in 
the building trades. Not only socially 
and financially, but morally and in- 
tellectually as well. 

And now in conclusion, and in 
justification of the Trade Union prin- 
ciple, and in reply to all critics, I beg 
leave to spike one gun, which, although 
charged with an unexplosive com- 
pound, and which, if fired would harm 
no one, yet, while held in abe}ance 
with a burning match in the nipple, 
has a tendency to keep away those 
who would otherwise approach the 
business end. 

The question is repeatedly asked : 
44 What are you going to do with the 
incompetent man in your Trade 
Unions? ” To which I answer, if he 
is an “incompetent man ” then he is 
not a carpenter. Therefore let him 
go back to his own trade from which 
in all probability he has been displaced 
by the introduction of machinery. 
There let him organize his craft, 
and demand of the owners of the 
machine a shorter work day sufficient 
to employ the whole. This is the key 
to the labor problem. 

J W Brown. 

Hartford , Conn . 



How to Measure up Woodwork for 
Buildings. 

BY OWEN B MAGINNiS. 



LIST Ol STUFF CONTINUED. 



COVERING 

S OUGH boarding or sheath- 
ing. window and door 
frames, water tables, corner 
_____ boards and band courses ; 

panelling, if any. Clap- 
boards or siding and shingling. 

ROOF. 

Shingling, cornices, gutters, ridge 
boards, hip boards, finials. 

PORCHES AND PIAZZAS 
Rough timber posts for floor and 
roof, finished posts, cornices and 
shingles for roof, etc. 

Weather boarding, clapboarding 
or siding must be figured for as de- 
scribed in the last section, that is by 
calculating the areas of all the square, 
rectangular and triangular surfaces 
to be covered, and then adding them 
together for a whole amount, allowing 
25 per cent, extra for overlap and bad 
ends. 

Shingles are calculated according 
to the weather or length of surface 
exposed. Nine will cover one square 
foot if the weather is 4 inches ; eight 
if it is \ x £ inches, and seven if it 
is 5 inches. As the bunches of 
shingles average 250 to a bunch 
it is a simple matter to figure up 
the entire roof surface in square 
feet and divide by the number of 
shingles to the weather which will 
give the entire quantity required 
Great care and accuracy is required 
in calculating all details, so in closing 
these articles I would recommend 
constant checking so that none may 
be omitted or forgotten. 

1 abor News from Old Albion. 

ROSPERITY in the build- 
ing trades in and around 
Manchester is so great that 
in some districts they are 
agitating for a further ad- 
vance in wages. 

The Amalgamated Society of Car- 
penters and Joiners has decided to 
ballot whether they are in favor of 
paying a levy of not more than one 
shilling per week (twenty-four cents) 
for the purpose of establishing a build- 
ing corporation and joinery works on 
the co-operative system, the Executive 
Council to find a suitable locality, 
the w’orks to be managed by a small 
committee to report quarterly to the 
Council. The capital required will 
be raised by this levy, so that the 
general fund of the Society will not 
be affected. 

Of the wdsdom of this step I have 
some doubts, as the competitive spirit 
in the building trades is so very keen. 
It will, however, provide an opening 
for employing the members when out 
of work, who would otherwise be 
receiving out of-work benefit, and 
thus save the funds of the Society in 
that way. 

As to the shipyards on the Clyde, 
the state of trade is unprecedented, 
and the joiners, carpenters, pattern- 
makers and woodworkers, or the 
44 white squad,” as they are called to 
distinguish them from the “black 
squad ” of ironworkers, are exceed- 
ingly busy. Wages are going up and 
( Continued on next page . ) 








14 



THE CARPENTER 



'V 

j 

I 




s 













there is a great demand for men, and 
the supply is small. The white squad 
is getting about nine shillings per 
week of fifty-four hours, or one and a 
half hours more than in the Bolton 
district. The black squad is said to 
be getting anywhere from twelve to 
thirty* five dollars per week. There 
is one thing though that is most re 
markable, and that is, under the most 
favorable conditions of trade, both at 
home and abroad, the carpenter is 
always in the rear of the other trades 
in wages. 

The monthly report of the Boiler 
Makers and Steel Shipbuilders Asso- 
ciation is a glowing account of the con- 
dition of trade for some time past. But 
the Executive seems to consider there 
is a rather queer aspect in the number 
of members on the funds having 
incrersed by 485 in one month, and 
now T the current report shows a 
further increase of 14 1. After stat- 
ing this, it proceeds' to point out that 
any one of the principal shipbuilding 
districts could give employment to 
almost all who are on donation benefit, 
and it advises its branches to cease 
paying out-of-work benefit, and send 
the men to work. Such conduct is 
not very commendable on the part of 
the men, and if persisted in they 
will “keep cutting the wool off 
the sheep that has given the golden 
fleece.” 

Mr. G. Ritson, an official of the 
“Free Labor Association,” an anti- 
Trade Union body, states that the 
Manchester branch is making rapid 
progress both in numbers and intel- 
ligence, conveying the idea that the 
latter quality is much needed among 
them, a truism so apparent that there 
is not room for the least doubt. This 
“Free Labor Association” is mani- 
festly intended to Injure Trades Union- 
ism. It has extended its operations, I 
understand, even to Fall River, Mass. 
The very name of this association is 
anomalous ; the members being regis- 
tered and governed by officials con- 
stitute it an organized body, and it is 
no more free than other organizations. 

Its avowed object is to co operate 
with capital in weakening and destroy- 
ing the results that have come through 
Trade Unions and are enjoyed by the 
toiling millions. It seeks to put labor 
in a more abject and subordinate con- 
dition, and place it in the power of 
capital. There is this consoling 
thought, however, they are starting 
late in the race. They are handicapped, 
for wherever men unite together to 
confer mutual benefits, to prevent or 
redress wrongs, and promote each 
others’ happiness, the doctrines of 
this Free Labor Association will not 
be accepted. 

There is, however, one thing about 
its inception that cannot be passed 
over lightly and that is, it is hostile 
to Trade Union principles and we can- 
not regard it with either complacency 
or kindness ; it is bound to engender 
mental caloric, and ebullition of feel- 
ing, by reason of its being an inno- 
vation on the firmly established cus- 
toms of this country. We owe more 
to Trades Unions for what they have 
done for the wage* earner than we are 
disposed to pay to any other move- 
ment, and it concerns us very mater- 
ially to maintain their present high 
standard of perfection, and by hercu- 





lean eflorts sustain their vigor. It is 
true, and “pity ’tis, ’tis true” that 
in all reforms effected by concerted 
action the undeserving share in them. 
Were it otherwise, probably, it would 
in some measure influence many to 
identify themselves with some com- 
bination for their own welfare, they 
would realize the necessity of it, they 
would see the wisdom of it, and un- 
derstand the justice of it. 

Let us just look at the peculiar 
position in which “jfree labor” places 
itself, it has assumed an attitude of 
resistance to Union labor on the one 
hand, and it has entered into an un- 
holy alliance with capital on the other, 
virtually to assist capital when the 
opportune moment arrives in its ne- 
farious designs on united labor, and 
as a consequence likewise on itself. 
Could folly any further go? It is 
hardly possible. It is cherishing a 
fatal error if it expects to receive bet- 
ter treatment at the hands of capital. 
To make this plainer let us just sup- 
pose a case. A large employer of labor 
has a strong force of free labor men 
employed by him, as well as members 
of Trades Unions, but these former 
are in a minority. Notice is given of 
a reduction in wages, or some alter- 
ation in working hours or rules, 
inimical to the men’s interests. In- 
structions are given to the unionists 
to resist to the utmost, such a de- 
mand being incompatible with Union 
aims. The free labor men either have 
to tamely submit, or act in conjunction 
with the unionists. If they bow and 
cringe to the selfish demands of the 
boss, they show a cowardly spirit, and, 
if, on the other hand, they act with 
the unionists, they stultify themselves 
because their object is to promote the 
bosses’ interests, not to injure or ob- 
struct them. 

Justitia. 

Horwich , Lanc. % Eng . 



An Improved and Patented Universal 
Wood-Worker. 



Three adjustable hearing* to Mandrel— Slotted 
steel head Mandrel! with bearing!« adjust- 
able horizontally across face of taM»-* 
Table» on incline» improved for perfect 
alignment— Table» adjustable independent- 
ly, hotizontally, vertically or to the circle of 
the heHd ; also adjustable together, verti- 
cally. or to the circle of the head, or drawn 
hack to give free access to mandrel. 

This newly improved No. 1 Universal Wood- 
Worker built and de*dgued by the Fgan Com- 
pany MMi to 426 Weal Krönt »tieet, Cincinnati. 
Ohio, baa advantage» and convenience» pos- 
•eaaed by no other wood wo*ker. For ita match- 
lea* simplicity and easy adjustment, U auperior 
to any other in the market. The itnmenne vari- 
ety of work it will do, and different waya it can 
be adapted to varioua kind« of work, has earned 
for it the tide of “ Universal, " or “ Variety Wood- 
work» r." We enumerate a few of the dlflerent 
kind» of work that can be done on it to advan- 
tage, in fact the variety of work ia limited tnly 
by the ingenuity of the operator. It will make 
glue joint»; plane "out of wind;" chamfer; 
cross-gain; groove; cut straight; circular or 
elliptical molding»; tongue and groove ; corner; 
plane taper; raise panels; miter; rabbet; will 
rabbet and joint window blinds at one opera- 
tion . make serpentine and wave molding , table 
joints ; fluting and heading on corners or face of 
baluatera ; plowing ; rip and cross-cut sawing; 
h <ring ; routing, etc., etc. 

The column is cored out and cast in one piece, 
and very heavily braced, widening very much 
at the haae, making a very solid beating for the 
machine to »’and on, preventing all poaaihle 
vibration of i he mandrel and heads when run- 
ning at the very highest speed. One particular 
poiut in which this machine excels all others ia 
the patent connected and movable hearings, 
which are adjustable laterally across the 
machine in square gibbed slides, by the small 
hand wheel in front. Thus, when the operator 
has his fence set for doing work, he can adjuat 
the head with the greateat rapidity to the exact 
line wanted- a point which ia much appreciated 
by all classes of wood workers. 

The spindle has an outside bearing which can 
be instantly removed by loosening one hand- 
holt, giving free access to the head. It is of the 
best steel, 1 7- hi" in diameter, runs in three self- 
oiling bearings, lined with the best material and 
with the driving pulleys between bearings. All 
cutter heads u.sed are made of* the very best 
material, adapted to the highest speed. The 
convenience of all adjustments on this Wood- 
Worker is a point of superiority over any other, 
and a point that we feel, when taken into con- 
sideration in connection with the strictly first, 
class material, and high grade of workmanship, 
will commend this machine as superior to any 
ther that has ever been designed. 



Noth tables may be adjusted vertically, hori- 
zontally. and to the circle of th*- htnd independ- 
ently, or may b* drawn char bat k from the 
cutter head, giving free at ce*H to the mandr«’ 
to put on any cutters, heads, or saw», and »my 
be moved back »gain without disarranging the 
tables. Moth may 1 *• raised and lowered to- 
gether, following the circle of the head, by the 
hand wheel at the working end of the machine 
or both table« mav be raised and lowered to 
gether vertically by the large h <nd wheel nt the 
front, lloth of th' <*e adju* merit* will be found 
very convenient, a* the relative position* of the 
tables are not change«, and the adjustme t I« 
accomplished in either instanre by means of 
a single hand wheel. The convenience of th*-*e 
adjustments will t>e very much appreciated in 
gaining, rabbeting sawing, etc. There are four 
Incline» to each tanie, one at each corner 
arranged so that all wear mav he taken up and 
the tables always kept m perfect alignment , not 
withstanding any wear that may take place. 

The gaining frame is of very superior con- 
struction, something new and novel. The tan 
eling frame, saw board*, throat irons for ten« n- 
ing, etc., or cutter heads complete for difleient 
kinds of work, can all be fiiruished with the 
machine when required. 

For pmel raising, they furnish two panel 
heads, w th a special fence. Doth aides of any 
do^r panel, of any shape, can he raised at the 
same time 

The putent adjusts!) e bevel fence can be set 
to any angle desired by loosening one clamp 
holt, and has a free movement across the table 
for the different kinds of work to tie «lone. The 
face of this fence is planed petfecily true, and 
is very accurste. 

The taring aide can be used for all kind* of 
boring or muting. The table is raided and 
lowered independently by the cranks shown in 
cut A fence for angle boring is fitted on t ’»e 
table with stops for spacing the holes and rout- 
ing 

This wood worker was awarded a medal it 
the Cincinnati Industi ial Imposition, over sev- 
eral competitors, October :i, 1MCJ , October 
l*#j; also Cincinnati reutennial F.xpoaiti n. 
1HH8; World’s Fair, Chicago, 1M0:,; Antweip. 
Belgium, 18H;i ; and Santiago, Chile, 1MIH. for c«*n 
venience of adjustment ami originality of con- 
atruction and the reliable mid thorough w ik- 
manship displayed throughout. 

A countershaft with improved floor hanger* i* 
furnished wheu needed, and the T. & I,, pulley* 
are 10" x 5*^. 

The Kgaii Company, KXJ to 42*1 West Front 
street, Cincinnati. Ohio, have had a special cofp 
of expert mechanics and draughtsmen si 
work for the past year, designing and perfect- 
ing new and improved wood working machine*« 
and this isone of those that they have just 
brought out, and which surpass'*» anything ever 
before placed on the market of its kind. 

This company make a full and complete hnf 
of high grade machine* for manufacturing »’ti- 
des of every description, out of wood, and thry 
can furnish single machines or complete outüt* 
for any kind of plant with their make of 
machinery, and they will be pleased to give voll 
full information anu quote you apecial prices "* 
this or auy other improved wood-workiuf 
machinery. 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



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flrmrguug. 



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•Jl ben 8er. Staaten finb tunb eine 
fltiüion Arbeiter in (3<iuertfcH>aften 
tmeinigt. fcieroon ftnb jitfa <>0 
'Uroj. in bem ©efammtoerbanbe 
ber American Federation of 



1 .abor, 10 8n>J. in ben Betbänben 
ber (Jifenbabnanflefteflten, ltt Brog. ftnb in 
ben totalen Bauarbeiterorgan. r ationen, unb 
20 ^Uoj. in anbeten, unter fi(b oereinigten 
Organifationen, bie gum Zl/etl ben bittern 
bet Strbeit (Knights of Labor) angeljören. 

liefe gabion finb gufammengetragen au« 
ben Berieten ber Bfljörben für Äibeit«» 
ftatiftif unb ben Berieten ber »ergebenen 
ilanbee* unb Ortflgewerlftftaften unb Biber* 
ter- Berbänbe. 

Watft ber lebten BolWgaljlung fmb 22,000* 
000 fletfonen in ben Ser. Staaten, weltfte in 
(Srwerbeoerftaltniffen fteben Jjietoon finb 
4 000.000 weiblitfte Betfonen, 7,000,000 
Sanbarbeiter, gelernte fcanbroerter Bant* 
unb fcanblungigeftitlfen, 2.000,000 SI t better, 
welt&e fein ©ewetbe erlernt Ijaben, unb 
2,000 000 Dienftboten unb Berfonen in aljn* 
lieben Stellungen, roeldje ficb ju grwetfftftaft* 
lidjer Diganifatton m<bt eignen. Bon ben 
übrigen 5,0i)0,ooo fmb oteQeitftt 50,000 lr* 
beitgeber, unb reenigften« 2,000,000 leben in 
Sanbftäoten unb in ben bünnbeoölferten 
Diftrilten be« fiiblicben unb weftlieften ®e* 
biete«, aufterftalb ber BUttelpunfte ber ge* 
wetflitften Betriebe, be« Bergbaue« unb 
anberer Jnbuftrie. (Gebiete, weldje ba« ftelb 
für Ärbeiteroerbänbe barbieten. £>iernatft 
oerbleiben ungefähr 2,500,000 reel dje bie 0e* 
werbe unb bie ©ebiett umfaffen, in welcften 
bie ©ewerfftftaUen ihre Zftätigleil entfalten. 

Jn manchen ©ewerben ift bie Organifation 
»oUftänbig oollgogen, in wenigen nahem 
DoUftänbig, unb m einem ©enterbe nach bem 
anberen beginnen bie ©eroertftftaflen einen 
entfebeibenben (Sinfluft gu gewinnen. (Sin 
grower Zljeil ber 'Jhcftiorganriirten ift ben 
Berbmbungen wohlgeneigt unb gebt bi« gu 
einem geioiffen ©rabe mit ihnen, unb aufter* 
bem fmb bte Bortbeile ber Betbinbungen 
berartig, baft bie Blidion ber Drganifirten, 
tu-ldje fte ficb ju einem gemeinfamen 3n>ede 
oereinigt, tftre fforberungen erjtoingen tann, 
obgleich bie IRtftifjeit ber Arbeiter nnbt 
organifirt ift. 

Tie ttrt unb SBeife ber Berbinbung in ben 
oerfibiebenen ©eioetben richtet fi<b nach ben 
Berbältniffen, toirb aber in ber §auptfa<fte 
non einem ©runbfafte geleitet. Bl« eine Brt 
ber Berbinbung nehme man |. B. biejenigen 
be« Bucb&rucferaetoerbe«. Jn biefem fianbe 
befinben ft<b mehr al« -too Berbänbe oon 
Severn unb fiorrettoren, in jeber Stabt ein 
Betbanb be« ©enterbe«. Diefe ftnb ju einem 
nationalen Berbänbe, mit bem &auptfi|e in 
Jnbianapoli«, oereinigt. 'Jiatft biefem Blit* 
telpuntte fenben bie oerfibiebenen Crtfloer* 
bänoe ihre Berichte unb bann tauften fte 
ihre Bibeiterfarten gegenfeitig au«, wobureft 
ein Arbeiter, nteliber in einer Stabt woftnt, 
fl <b leinen Jtameraben in einer anberen an* 
fiblieften tann. 

Die Biitgliebergaftl biefer O'ttoerbanbe ift 
febr oerfebieben. (Sinige hoben 10 Btitglie* 
ber, einige 100, einige ntenige f>00 bi« 1,000 
unb ber Berbanb in Stere florfftat ttber5,(KK) 
Btitglieber. 

HUe Zagefljcitungen Bern flotf«, mit Ru«* 
nähme einer, gehören tum Berbänbe, eben* 
fall« ade größeren Buibbrucfereien unb bie 
Dtucfereien für ©efdjäftSformulare. Die 
beften Dtutfer gehören gu bem Berbänbe. 
Brbeiter, ntelche niiht tum Berbänbe gehören, 
nterben in bem ©enterbe nicht al« oodnterthig 
angefehen, ausgenommen ntenn fte ein Brbeit* 
geber gegen ihre Mitarbeiter gebraucht, um 
tu oerjuchen, ben feftgeftedten Boftrtfaft ftet* 
untertubtücfen. 

Die Btitglieber ftimmen bei nichtigen {$ta* 
gen in ben uerfchiebenen SBerfftattoerbänben, 
genannt Äapeüen, ab, mobureb übereilte 
SRaftnaftmen oerhinbert »erben, bie im ©e* 
genfafce tu bem Urteile unb ber Steigung 
ber groften Mehrheit ber Berbanbtmitglteber 
flehen. Jn gleicher SBetfe nirb bei bem 



internationalen Ztjpograpftiftften Berbänbe 
bie Berichterftattung unb bie Buffteilung oon 
Sorberungen gehanbbabt, rooburdj fämmt* 
liebe Btitglieber bie Zftätigfeit be« 'national* 
oerbanbe« tontrodiren unb nichtige fragen 
unb beabftebtigte Btaftregeln, roeltfte tuerft 
aden Ort«oerbänben jur Besprechung oorge* 
legtnerben, entlcbeib*n. Diefe Brt ber Ber» 
binbung, nie fieberZtjpograpljiftfte Berbanb 
hat, biente al« Borbilb bem fiotomolio* 
führer* unb Sotomotioheiteroerbanbe unb 
eigentlich auch ber IReljrgatjl aller National* 
Berbänbe. 

Die American Federation of Labor ift 
eine Berbinbung, nicht eine Berfcbmeltung 
ber meiften National <©ero -fiebaften, fenohl 
bie 3mtral< nie ber Ort«o:rbänbe. Sie halt 
ade adgemeine 3ufammentunft oon Bbge* 
oroneten einmal im Jaljre ab. Buf biejet 
3ufammenfunft nerben bie eintufchlogenben 
SBege unb bie Brbeit be« Berbänbe« für ba« 
tommenbe Jaftr befcbloffen, unb fte bient al« 
Mittet, bie Bemühungen Bder in Ueberein* 
flimmung gu bringen. 

Die meiften ©enertfehaften hoben Unter* 
flüftung&taffen unb bebeutenbe Summen 
gehen bei ihnen für biefen 3<uecf oon $anb ju 
$>anb. Die 3oh(ungen für Begtäbntffe be« 
internationalen ?ppographif<ben Berbanb* « 
betragen fährlicb f 14 000, unb mehr toie 
jährlich >20,000 »erben für Unterhaltung 
ber Bucbbruder Heimat ju Solorabo Spring« 
für alte, arbeit«unffth>ge Dtuder au«gegcben. 
Der Zppographifcbe Berbanb in Sie» 2)ort 
oerau«gabte in ben leftten oier iahten burch* 
fchnittlich jährlich £25,000 für unbefebäfttgte 
Bern florier Bucbbruder unb £9,000 jährlich 
für Unterftüftungen bei Zobe«täHen. Bufter* 
bem ftnb bie alten unb tränten Mitglieber oon 
ber 3*blung oon Beiträgen unb ©ebühren 
befreit unb freie Betten toerben für bie Mit* 
glichet in ben oerfibiebenen $ofpitäUrn 
unterhalten. 

Buch bie ftapeden hoben Unterftüftungo» 
taffen. :Kt<3) nichtiger Schäftung oerauogabt 
ber Bern florier Zopograpftifcfte Betbanb 
über £öO,0<X) jährlich adein für oerfdoebem 
artigjte Unlerftüftiingen unb Beiträge Die 
örtliche unb internationale ©efammtauegabe 
für »ohlthätige 3mede beträgt bei ben Bet* 
einigungen ber Zopographen jährlich £i00,» 
OOÜ bi« £350,000. 

Der internationale Berbanb ber 3igorren* 
machet gemährt ftrantenunterftüftung oon 
nöchentluh £5 Unterftüftung, bei Begräb* 
niffen oon £*>0 bi« £500, unb tm iahte 1893, 
jur 3*it be« adgemeinen ©efehäftonieber* 
brange«, oerauogabte ber Berbanb £ho,OC(> 
gut Unterftüftung Bibeitelofer. Die ©e* 
fammtfumme für Darlehen, Beiträge, Be* 
gräbniffe unb für Unterüüftung Brbutelofer 
unb Rranter beträgt meftr toie £250,000 
jährlich- 

Die Sotomotioführer jablten mährenb ber 
leftten fünfjehn iahten burchfchnittliih jähr* 
lieb £176,000 für Unterftüftung bei Zobct* 
fälle", unb bie feiger £150,000 jährlich- 

Diefe siet Berbänbe, »eiche roahtfcbeinlich 
120,000 Mitglieber gählen, geben jährlich 
ben Betrag oon £1,000,000 ben Bebürftigen. 
Bei ben mitteüoferen Berbänben ift ber Be* 
trag ungereift, aber ber Bericht ber 8’bÖrbe 
für BrbeUerftatiftit be» Staate« Stere flott 
für 1894 geigt, baft bie oerfchiebenen Ber* 
äbnbe be« Staate« in biefem iaftre £-511,000 
für gegenfeitige Unterftüftung auflgaben. 
Stach biefem Safte mürben bte jährlich in 
biefer SBeife non ber SRidion organiftrte 
Brbeiter abgegebenen Beträge gretfeben 
£3,000,000 bi« «4,000.000 auomachen. 

Den ©eroert jehaften ift e« gu banten baft 
bie Beftörbe für Brbeitetftatiftif unb bie für 
Sabrittnfpettoren, foroie auch bie Schiebtge* 
richte gefchaffen würben. Biel ift oon ihnen 
für bie Berbefferung non SQertftätten unb 
gut Unterbrüdung ber ftinberarbeit gethan. 
Die ©efefte gum Schufte ber Brbeiter unb bie 
fanitären (Einrichtungen ber Betriebe finb in 
ben Begirten roeit beffer in »eichen bie Br* 
beiter organifirt finb, ul« in benen reo e« an 
Drganifation mangelt. 

Da« BCfttfiunbengefeft für bie ber Begier* 
ung befeftäftigie Berfonen, u. B. für bie 
Briefträger, ba« ©efeft über reöchentli^e 



Sobnjahlung, bie flbfehaffung ber ©efäng* 
niftarbeit al« Jtonturreng ber freien Brbeit, 
bet geregelte Arbeitstag unb ber halbe 
Seiettag am Sonnabenb, finb in ber erflen 
Sinie ber Zhätigteit ber ©ereertfehaften gu 
oerbanten. 

Die Bern flnter Beftörbe für Brbeiter* 
flatiftit fagte in ben Berichten für bie Jahre 
1885 bi« 1893, baft roähtenb bieler 3*»t mehr 
roi> 17,000 BuSftänbe, betreffenb 2I.5H7 
Betriebe, n>n (Erfolg waren, 5 707 waten 
ohne (Erfolg unb I ,«♦»*» waren iheilreeife er* 
folgreich, ober e« fanb eine Betftäabigung 
ftatt. 

Die BationaLBrbeiterbehörbe führte 
Statifiit über bie Bngabl ber Brbeiter welche 
non 1881 bi« einfcblieftlich 1894 anBuSfiän« 
ben bitheiligt waren, unb ftedte oie 3ahl »on 
3,7(H i,00() feft. Bon biefen hatten bei ben 

Bu«ftänben oon IhH! bi« 1887 47 Btog. unb 
non 188h bi« 1894 41 Brog. ooUen (Erfolg. 

Biele ber Bueflänbe waren nicht organifirt. 
SBürben nur bie organifirten berechnet wer« 
ben, fo bürfte ft<b ergeben, baft ca. 75 Bieg, 
biefer Butftänbe erfolgt eich waren. 

Die Berichte ftiden feft, baft bie 3®hl ber 
Bueftänbe fleh nerringert- Sie oerminbert 
ftch mit ber wachfenben Stätte ber ©ewett* 
jehaften. Bu«g*nommen biefe haben in ben 
Jahren ihre« Beftehen« baftin gewirtt, baft 
bie Söhne ber Blidion organirirter Brbeiter 
um £2 wöchentlich gewaebfen ftnb, fo hätten 
bamit biefe Brbeiter fleh jährlich £1,000,000 
nt jftt non bem ©efammtertrage ber Brbeit 
gefiebert.— American Federationist. 

— Ueber ba« Beebt, gu flreifen, läftt 
ftch ein gut ftaatSerbaltenber Wann, Dt. 
Bohnert, in Drebben, wie folgt au« : „Wan 
tann gereift bamit eirnrrftanben fein, baft 
jebe Buofchreitung ihren flrengen Bichter 
finbet. Bber auf Streitoergehen angewenbet, 
wirb man nicht oergeffen bürfen, baft oielen 
Brbeitern, fofetn fte einen au8tömmli<ben 
Sohn erhalten woden, thatfächlich oft nicht« 
weiter übrig bleibt, al« gu ftreiten, fobalb 
ihnen oom Brbeitgeber eine Sohnerhöhung 
regelmäftig oerweigert wirb. Jn Seiten 
günftiger ©e<chäft«lage fucht jeber Unter* 
nehmer für feine SSaare einen höheren Brei« 
gu erhalten ; in Seiten teurer geworbener 
Sebentunterholiung wenben ftch um bie (Er* 
höhung ihre« dintomtirn« felbft Bfarrer unb 
Sehrer unb Sanbtage unb ©emeinben, ben 
Beamten wohlwoden ©ehalKgulagen be* 
widigt. Wan tann e« bcljer auch bem Br* 
beiter nicht nerargen, wenn er bei bem 
Steigen bet Wiethpreife unb ffleifchpreife 
eine Berbefferung feine« Sohne« gu erreichen 
fucht. Wir erinnern an ben Streit ber Bon* 
fettiorearbeiterinnen oor mehreren Jahren, 
beffen Berechtigung bon einfluftrcichen Wän» 
nern aller Barteitn anettannt unb auch non 
bet Beich«rtgierung im mefentlichen niiht be* 
ftritten würbe. Der beutfefte Brbeiter muft 
Wart in ben flncclien b.holten. wenn feine 
$anb einfl mit Jtraft unb Wutl) ba« Baler* 
lanb fchirmen fod.“ 



BRTAIL njRXl' LABIL. 

Thin In a facsimile of 
the badge worn by all 
members of the Retail 
Clerk«»' Nations! Protect- 
ive AHNcK’lutloU Of til# 
United Hinten Hoe that 
all salemnen and clerks 
wear thin badge, and you 
may Iks sure they are 
union men. 



cm AC K mi IAKBKI' LABIL. 




STAlftl 



UNION PUINTKKH LABEL, 



UNION-MADE COODSCr^ 

tn a» OirttBCB rw *. tmrnm m* 







This Label is 
issued uuder 
authority of the 
Internal lontl 
Typographical 
Union and ot the German Typographia. The 
labe' ia used on all newspaper and book work. 
It always bears the name and location of where 
the printing work ia done. 



Constitution for Building Trades 
Council. 



ARTICLE I. 

Simon l. This organ! /.ail on shall be known 
aa the Amalgamated Council of the Building 
Trades. 

Hr.c. 2. This council ahall b© composed of dele- 
gate»« duly chOHcti from all node ilea in the build- 
ing trades, u bo shall, before being admitted, 
produce credentials signed by tlio president and 
recording »«eeretary of their society, and ahall 
have the seal of their union attached. 

8*c. 8. In case of a secret society, the seal of 
the lodge attached shall be a sufficient guarantee 
of their genuineness 

Bar. 4. The officers of this society shall consist 
of a chairman, vice-chairman and recording sec- 
retary, correspond lug secretary, financial secre- 
tary, treasurer and sergeant-at-arms. 

Hbc. 6. The chairman and vice-chairman shall 
be elected at each meeting, »«rid shall he nomi- 
nated from delegates of different societies, nor 
shall any chairman sit in judgment on any case 
affecting the union he belongs to. 

Hie. 6. The recording secretary, corresponding 
secretary, financial secretary, treasurer and ser- 
geaut-at-arins shall he elected quarterly; the re- 
cording secretary shall receive such salary as 
this council shall deem advisable. 



▲BTICLB II. 

Biction 1. The executive functions of this 
council shall l»e vested in the officer« and dele- 
gates while In session, and in such committees 
hs this council may hud necessary to conduct Its 
business under this constitution. 

Bbcl 2. The objects of this council shall be to 
centralise the unhed efforts and es perlene© of 
the various lOfliotiM engaged in theerectiou and 
alteration of buildings, and that they may form 
one common council, and with common ' uteres* 
lo prevent thut ffhioh may he injurious, and 
properly perfect and carry into effect that which 
they may deem advantageous to themselves, and 
for the common good of all. 

Bec. 3. All trade and labor societies repre- 
sented in this council, when desirous of making 
a demand for either sn advance of wages or an 
abridgement in the hours of labor, shall, 
through their delegates, report the ssme to this 
council prior to the demand being made, when, 
if concurred In by a two-thirds vote of all the 
societies oresent, at any stated meeting, the 
a* Jtlon shall be binding. This nection shall not 
prevent a» y society from acting on Us own re- 
spousibility. 



ARTICLE III. 

Bbction 1. No trad© shall be entitled to more 
than three votes on any question that directly 
affects the material interests of any trade society. 

Bkc. X All trades or societies represented shall 
be entitled to three delegates. 

H«c. 8. Any society having three or mors 
branches shall be eutitlcd to one delegate for 
each brauch. 

** ARTICLE IV. 

Section 1. Any trade or society represented 
In this council that mav desire material aid, 
shall state their case to this council and, if ap- 
proved by the delegates, shall bring the matter 
before their respective organizations for Imme» 
dtale action. 



ARTK LI V. 

Section 1. It shall he the special duty of this 
council to use the united strength of all the 
societies represented therein, to cum|iel all non- 
union tuen and " scabs " to conform to. and 
obey the laws of. the society that they should 
properly belong to. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of any trade or 
labor society to us« every lawful means to in- 
duce all nou-uniou men or scabs to become 
members of their respective unions, and any 
trade society billing in their just ©Horts, shall 
bring the matter before this council through 
their delegates, with all the facts in the case, 
with the names of the men if possible, where 
employed, and the name of the employer, the 
same to be present©* In writing, with the signa- 
ture of the president of the society affected, 
when this council shall take immediate action In 
the matter, and if deemed advisable, this couuoll 
may, by a two-thirds vote of the delegates then 
present, forming a quorum, order a withdrawal 
of any or all trades or aocUdiett wto may l>e on 
any bul'dlng where said non-unlou men or 
scabs mar be employed. This order shall l»e 
carried Into effect through the agency of thf 
UusIdcbs Agouti of the various societies. 

A BTICLB Vf. 

Bection 1. All socistles represented In this 
council shall pay the sum of two dollars each per 
month. 



A BTICLB VII. 

Bection 1. On demand of a union represented, 
A general strike shall he ordered to reinstate a 
member or members who have struck and are 
refuse«! employment on the Job that was struek. 

8kc 2. Any Business Agent or Agents of any 
society ordering a strike without tho consent 
of this council, the tratle he r. presents shall 
be held responsible f' r the wages of the men on 
strike. This shsll not prevent an Agent from 
ordering a strike of the members of the socn ty 
ho represent* to adjust Its own Internal atfalrs 
without the assistance of tills council. 

Rbc. 3. Members of a union seceding from a 
parent organization and forming a separate 
union shall be excluded from this council. 

8 EC. 4 . All branches of a union ahall demaud 
the same wages and the same hours of labor. 

ABTICLB VIII. 

Bection 1. When the member* of two unions 
represented in this coiim.ll work at the same 
trade, it shall he unlawful for one to take the 
place of the other when on strike. 



ABTICLB IX. 

Bbction 1. No society or branch of a society 
shall bo allowed to strike more than one em- 
ployer at a time, tinleta there are two or more 
employers on the same Job. 

ABTICLB X. 

Bbction 1 Two-thirds of all the trade repre- 
sented in this council shall form a quorum. 

Bb«'. 2 I> shall take two weeks* notice of mo- 
tion and two-thirds majority to alter or amend 
any article of this constitution. 



k 











16 



THE CARPENTER 




ALABAMA. 

89. Mobile — D. French, 601 Charleston st. 
y2. “ (Col.) W. G. Lewis, 751 St. Louis st. 

ARKANSAS. 

248. Fayetteville— M. F. Cunningham 
86. Ft. Smith— H. G. Reed 

CALIFORNIA. 

194. Alameda — C. H. Thrane, 2975 Johnson ave. 
332. Los Angeles- S. Gray, Box 224. 

36. Oakland — Chas. J. Jacobs, 1767 Grove st. 
235. Riverside — Chas. Hamilton, Vine and 
Sixth sts. 

San Francisco— Secretary of Dist. Council, 
Win. J. Kidd. 220 3d st. 

22. N. L. Wandell, 1133 % Mission st., Sta. B. 

95. (Latin) L. Masarie, 14% Erie st. 

304. (Ger.) Win. Jilge, 405 Ellsworth st. 

483. Guy Lathrop. 915 % Market st. 

316. San Jose— W. J. Wilcox, 525 W. Julian st. 

35 San Rafael— J. J. Sheils. Box 194. 

CANADA. 

14. Brantford— I. W. Taylor, 158 Terrace Hill. 
83. Halifax, N. S.— Geo. Browne, 12 Willow st. 

18. Hamilton — W. J. Frid, 25 Nelson st. 

134. Montreal— (Fr.) E. Frechette, 231 Ban- 
gui net. 

376. “ Allan Ramsay, 157 Quesnel st. 

255. Rat Portage, Ont. Jas. T. Marzetti. 

38 St. Catherines— James Hindson, Henry st. 
27. Toronto— D. D. McNeill. 288 Hamburg ave. 
617. Vancouver, B. C. — Alfred E Coffin, 1213 
Richard st. 

343. Winnipeg, Man. — R. Bell, 76 Schultz st. 

COLORADO. 

264. Boulder— E. Lindborg. 
ol5. Colo. Springs— F rans Sawyer, Elk Hotel. 
Cripple Creek— S ec. of D C., P.N. McPhee, 
Box 476. 

547. Cripple Creek— Will. Smith, 569 E Myers. 
55. Denver— L. B. Reeder, 1332 California st. 
244 El Dora— J. H. Rehm. 

178 Independence — T. W. Reid, Macon, P. O. 
Box 5. 

234. Ouray— John Kirby. 

584. Victor— C. E. Palmer, Box 384. 

CONNECTICUT. 

115. Bridgeport— J. C. Booth, 770 Norman st. 
127. Derby— Geo. H. Lampert, 36 Bank st. 

43. Hartford — Alex. McKay, 57 Wooster st. 

97 New Britain— A. L. Johnson, 114 Franklin. 
79. New Haven— Wm. Wilson, 508 Chapel st. 
1:33. New London -A G. Keenev. 1 W. Coit st. 
137. Norwich— F. S Edmonds, 293 Central ave. 
746. Norwalk— William A. Kelloeg, Box 391. 
210. Stamford — R. B. McMilliu, 176 Pacific st. 
216. Tor rington— L. Hotchkiss. 25 George st. 
260. Waterbury— Jos. E. Sandiford, 27 N. Vine. 



INDIAN TERRITORY. 

162. Muskogee— J. P. Hosmer. 

IOWA. 

315 Boone— G. L. McElroy. 

534. Burlington— j . Hackman, 905 S. Central av. 
5-54. Davenport— W. C. Meyers, 432 Brady st. 
106 Des Moines— U. S. G. Badgley, 1303 21st st. 
678 Dubuque— M. -R. Hogan, 299 7th st. 

767. Ottumwa — J.W. Morrison, 110 S. Jefferson st 

KANSAS. 

138. Kansas City— M. E Holland, 508 Tauromee 
ave. 

499. Leavenworth- J no. E. Crcssley, 9th and 
Sherman. 

158. Topeka- A. M. H. Claudy, 408 Tyler st. 

201. Wichita— J. L Taylor, 520 Osage st. 

KENTUCKY. 

712. Covington— C. Glatting, 1502 Kavanaugh st. 
785. “ (Ger.) B. Kampsen, 262 W. 13th st. 

442. Hopkinsville— W. O Hall. 

103. Louisville— H S. Pluffman. 1737 Gallagher. 
214. “ (Ger.) J. Schneider. 1136 E. Jacob av. 

698. Newport — W. E. Wing, 622 Central ave 

LOUISIANA. 

New Orleans — Secretary of Dist. Council 
F. G. Wetter, 2220 Josephine st. 

76. Aug. Limberg. 714 Foucherst. 

704. F. Duhrkop, 617 Cadiz st. 

739. M. Joaquin. 1304 St. Roche ave. 

85. Shreveport- L. Malkus, Box 261. 

MAINE. 

407. Lewiston— C. F. Tinker, 19 Turner st.. 
Auburn. 

MARYLAND. 

29. Baltimore— W. H. Keenan. 1519 W. Mul- 
berry st. 

44. “ (Ger.) H. B. Schroeder, 2308 Canton ave. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston— Secretary of Dist. Council, H. M. 
Taylor, 116 Whitfield st., Dorchester. 
33. “ C. J. Gallagher, 8 Rand PI., Roxbury. 

218 E. Boston— C. M. Dempsey. 272 Meridian st. 
223. Fall River— Isian Dion, 162 Suffolk st. 

82. Haverhill- R. A. Clark, 36 Dudley st. 

424. Hingham— H. E. Wherity, Box 113. 

123. Holyoke — F. Marchand, 46 Cabot st. 

400. Hudson — Geo. E. Bryant, Box 125. 

111. Lawrence— Wm, C. Gem mel. 17 Crosby st. 
370. Lenox — P. H. Cannavan, Box 27. 

49. Lowell— Frank A. Kappler. 291 Lincoln st. 

221. Marblehead— R. H. Roach, 9 Elm ct. 

154. Marlboro — J. O. Donohue, 37 School st. 

409 New Bedford— C.G. Francis, 216 North st. 
275. Newton— C L. Connors, 82 West st. 

193. North Adams- G. W. Houghton, 1 Ryon’s 
Lane. 

4-14. Pittsfield — Chas. Hyde, 16 Booth’s Place. 
67. Roxbury— H. M. Taylor, 116 Whitfield st., 
Dorchester. 

96. Springfield— (French) P. Provost, Jr., Box 
485, Merrick. 

177. “ P. J. Collins. 1365 State st. 

222. Westfield— W. J Parenteau, 87 Orange st. 
23. Worcester- W.A Rossley, 5 City View ave 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

190. Washington— J. T. Kenyon, 1415 Rhode 
Island ave., N. W. 

FLORIDA. 

224. Jacksonville— (Col.) J. A. Sampson, 26 W. 

Union st. 

605. “ F. E. Houghton. 917 E. Church st. 

74. Pensacola— J. A. Lyle. 317% W. Zawagossa 
696. Tampa- C. B. Hester, 2407 Tampa st. 

GEORGIA. 

439. Atlanta— T. H. J. Miller, 16 Venable st. 
136. Augusta— (Col.) l\ P. Lewis, 1309 Philip st. 
144. Macon— G. S. Bolton, 520 Elmst. 

261. Valdosta— S. W. Booker. 

ILLINOIS. 



MICHIGAN. 

105. Alpena— B. D. Kelly, 416 Tawas st. 

J 16. Bay City— E. G. Gates, 218 N. Birney st. 

19. Detroit — T. S. Jordan. 427 Beaufait ave. 
196. Grand Rapids— A. De Boer, 217 E. Grove st. 
130. Hancock — Louis Verville. 

173. Munising— A. L. Johnson. 

100. Muskegon — Harley W. Starke, 11 Marshall 
59. Saginaw — P. Frisch, 501 Ward st., E. S. 

334. “ Henry Wettlaufer. 1807 Madison st. 

46. SaultSt. Marie — A. Stowell, 282 Portage av. 

MINNESOTA. 

861. Duluth— John Knox, Box 283, W. Duluth. 

7. Minneapolis- Henning Stubee, 2303 E. 22d 
266 Red Lake Falls— N. Holberg. 

87. St. Paul — Nels Johnson, 707 Martin st. 



433. Belleville— Henry Steiner, 605 S. Illinois 

street. 

70. Brighton Park— O. Gratton, 3809 S. 
Albany Ave. 

41. Champaign — O, F. Miller, 407 Thomas ave. 
Chicago— Secretary of District Council, 
Thos. Neale, 187 E. Wash st., Room 7. 

1. W. G. Schardt, 189 E. Washingt’n st. , Room 2. 
10. J. H. Stevens, 6029 Peoria st. 

13. T. J. Lelivelt, 1710 Fillmore st. 

21 (French) P. Hudon, 207 S. Center ave. 

54. (Bohem.) John Dlouhy, 1222 W. 21 PI. 

58. William W. Bennette. 1(111 Roscoe st. 

181. (Scan.) J.C. Johnson. 889 N. Washtenaw ave. 
242. (Ger.) Hermann Voell, 4825 Paulina st. 

416. A. A. Mitchell, 282941st st. 

419. (Ger.) Tohu Suckrau, 3253 S. Oakley ave. 

521. (Stairs) Gust. Hansen, 732 N. Rockwell st. 
204. Coffeen— 

295. Collinsville— Jos. Vujtech, Lock Box 471. 
169. East St. Louis— K. Wendling. 512 111. ave. 
62. Englewood— A. Wistrom, 6150 Aberdeen st. 
360. Galesburg— C. J. Johnson 879 Wash’n ave. 

141. Grd. Crossing— J. Murrav, 1299 E. 71st st. 
174. Joliet— G D. Kauagv. 305 Richm' jd st. 

434. Kensington — (Fr.) Ed. Lapolice, 214 W. 

116th st. 

159. Kewanee— Chas. Winqui«t, B x 11. 

250. Lake Forest— Chas. Dean. f 

241. Moline — John Carlson, 1203 7th ave. 

80. Moreland— H. J. Sharp, 2449 W. Ohio st , 
Chicago. 

183. Peoria— J. H. Rice, 405 Behrends ave. 

195. Peru — H. J. Baldeschwieler, Box 550. 

189. Quincy— F. W. Euscher, 933 S. 8th st. 

166. Rock Island— Wm Krueger, Jr., 11014th. 
199. South Chicago— J C. Grantham, 8023 Ed- 
wards ave., Sta. S, Chicago. 

16. Springfield— T. M. Blankenship, 724 S.14th 
448. Waukegan— J. Demerest, 719 County st. 



INDIANA. 

352 Anderson— Geo. Woodmauser. 235 W. 11th 
652. Klwood— W. H. Shaw, 1350 S. A. st. 

90. Evansville— F. W. Klein, 513 Edgar st. 

213. Hartford City— H. S. Patterson. 

Indianapolis— Secretary of Dist. Council, 
D. D. Stoddard, 144 E. Washington st. 

60. (Ger ) Jno. E«ser, 1824 Singletonst. 

28 L J. T. Goode, 308 W. Maryland st. 

215! LAFAYETTfe— H. G. Cole, 2113 South st. 

365 Marion — T. M. Simons, 609 E. Sherman st. 
592. Muncie-H. P. Baker, 412 S. Franklin st. 

48. Terre Haute— A. Valentine. 724 S. 10th st. 
658. Vincennes— Levi Taylor, 1205 Perry st. 

220. Washington— Jaa. Ramsey, Jr., 0 S.E. 7th st 



MISSOURI. 

Kansas City— S ecretary of Dist. Council, 
John Kirk, 404 E. 12th st. 

75. J. E. Chaffin, 2220 Troost ave. 

160. H. S. Thayer 205 W. 29th st. 

249. E. H. Price, 1716 Michigan ave. 

110. St. Joseph— Wm. Zimmerman, 1223 N. 13th 
St. Louis— Secretary of District Council, 

R. Fuelle, 604 Market st. 

5. (Ger.) Wm Lammert, 1910Lamist. 

45. (Ger.) W. Wamhoff, 1416 Montgomery st. 

47. (Ger.) A. Hoffmann, 2121 Victor st. 

73. Geo. C. Newman. 703 N. 15th st. 

257. J. A. Steininger. 3635 Lucky st. 

578. (Stair Bldrs.) Edw. Bruggemann, 2624 Madi- 
son st. 



MONTANA. 

88. ANACONDA— C. W Starr, Box 238. 

256. Belt— Andrue Eckerson. 

112. Butte City— C. F. Nugent, Box 623. 

286 Great Falls— O. M. Lambert, Box 923. 

153 Helena— Jacob Spindler,1323 Mackinaw st. 
28. Missoula— M. C. Pepple. 

NEBRASKA. 

427. Omaha— J. H. Maus, 831 S. 28th st. 

NEW JERSEY. 

750. ASBURY Park— W m. H. Carr, Box 897. 

486. Bayonne— P. A. Miller, 13 E 53d st. 

121. Bridgeton— J. H. Reeves, 145 Fayette st. 

20. Camden— T. E. Peterson, 430 Walnut st. 

217. f:. Orange— L. P. Sherrer. 34 Bedford st. 
167. Elizabeth— H Zimmerman 240 South st. 
687. “ (Ger.) John Kuhn. 11 Spencer st. 

265. Hackensack— T. Heath. 312 Union st. 

391. Hoboken — A. Crothers, 131 Jackson st. 

467. “ (Ger.) H Sievers, 400 Monroe st. 

57. Irvington — C has. Van Wert. 

139. Jersey City— Jos G. Hunt, 440 Communi- 
paw ave. 

482. “ L. F. Ryan, 181 Ninth st. 

564. (J. C. Heights) John Handorf, North st. and 
Boulevard. 

151. Long Branch— Chas. E. Brown, Box 241, 

• Long Branch City. 

232 Milburn— J H. White, Short Hills. 

305 Millville— Jas. McNeal. 622 W. Main st. 
429. Montclair— Jas. McLeod, 141 Forest st. 

638 Morristown — C. V. Deats. Lock Box 163 
Newark — Secretary of District Council, W 
M. Shaw, 415 Plane st 



119. H. G. Long, 10 Davis st, E. Newark. 

120. (Ger.) Fred. Teile 639 S. 18th st. 

143. Herrn. Henri, 427 S. 7th st. 

306. A. L. Beegle, 120 N. 2d st\ 

723. (Ger.) G. Arendt, 584 Springfield ave. 

319. Orange— M. Morlock, 17 Parkinson Ter. 

32 3. Paterson— P. h,. Van Houten, 713 E. 27th st. 
4)). Passaic— Geo. A Quimby, 326 Montgomery 
63. Perth Amboy — W. H. Bath, 33 Lewis st. 

3')). Phillipsburg- W. S. Garrison, 8 Fayette st. 
155. Plainfield -Wm. H. Lunger, 94 Wester- 
velt ave., N. Plainfield. 

31. Trenton— J. J. Rourke, 25 Market st. 

612. Union Hill — (Ger.) J. Worischek, 721 Adam 
st., Hoboken. 



NEW YORK. 



274. Albany- l. B. Harvey, 492 3d st. 

659. “ (Ger.) Wm. J. Franklin, 450 Elk st. 

6 Amsterdam— Lester Covey, 20 Milton st. 
453. Auburn — E. B. Koon, 116 Franklin st. 

2-1. Batavia— F. S. Booth. 142 Harvester ave. 
233 Binghampton— F. W. Sicklor, 42 Walnut st. 
Brooklyn— Secretary of District Council, 
Chas. Friedel 58 Himrod st. 

12. Otto Zeibig, 1432 De Kalb ave. 

32. (Ger.Cab. Mkrs.) H.Munster,371 Palmettost. 
109. Edw. Tobin, 502 Schenck ave., SubSta. 43. 
126. M. J. Casey, 85 Newell st. 

147. C. E- Brown, 272 Howard ave. 

175. W. F. Bostwick, 333 Roebling st. 

217. Chas. D. Monroe, 42 St. Mark’s ave. 

2 i8. M Spence, 15 Pulaski st. 

29 L. (Ger) F Kramer, 290 Harmann st. 

381. S. E Elliott, 1295 St. Mark’s ave. 

451 Wm. Carroll, 792 Bergen st. 

471 H. S. Thurber. 318a 15th st. 

639. Jos. Mitchell, 311 53d st 

Buffalo— S ecretary of District Council, 

W. Wreggitt, 78 Edward st. 

9 W. H. Wreggitt, 78 Edwaid st. 

355. (Ger.) Jno. Groele, 536 Doat st. 

374 E. O. Yokom, 19 Ferguson ave. 

440. J. H. Myers, 83 Landon st. 

99. Cohoes— A. Van Arnam. 22 George st. 

640. College Point — G. A. Pickel, 5th ave and 

11th. st. 

81. Far Rockaway— E. Ward, P. O. Box 119 
323 Fishkill on-Hudson— W.W.Rowe, Box 215. 
714. Flushing— F. S. Field, 154 New Locust st. 
187. Geneva — G.W. Dadson, 26 Hollenbeck ave. 
229. Glens Falls— E. J. White, 10 Gage ave. 

68. Hempstead— S. B. Chester, Box 82. 

149. Irvington— Robert Brown, Hastings-ou- 
Hudson. 

603. Ithaca — E. A. Whiting, 8 Auburn st. 

66. Jamestown— O. D. Smith, 794 E. Second st. 
40. Kingsbridge— John E. Forshay, 864 Union 
ave.. New York City. 

251. Kingston— E. C. Peterson, 207 Smith ave 
591. Little Falls — T. R. Mangan, 142 W. Mon- 
roe. 

34. Long Island City— W. FuTman,531 Jamaica 



157 

212 . 

493. 

301. 

42. 

507. 



51 

56. 

64. 

200. 

309 

340. 

375. 

382. 

457. 

464. 

468. 

473. 
476. 

478. 

497. 

509. 

513. 

707. 

715. 

786. 

474. 
101 
163. 

77. 

203. 

72. 

179. 

231. 

146. 



606 

567. 



15 

26. 

192. 

78 

125 

580. 



172. 



128. 

593. 



273. 

726. 



a 



ave. 

Mamaroneck- Chas. E. Tooker. 

Mt. Vernon— A. H. Parker, 273 W. Lincoln 
avenue. 

“ Jas. Beardsley, 32 N. 6th ave. 

Newburg — John Templeton, 159 Renwick. 
New Rochelle — J. V. Gahan, 30 Birch st 
Newtown, L. I.— Peter A. Anderson, Box 13, 
Corona, N Y. 

New York— Secretary of District Council, 
D. F. Featherston, 309 W. 143d st. 

J. Hewitt, 595 E 133d st. CareNeilan. 
Floor Layers) J. Hefner, 411 Steinway ave., 
L. I. City. 

Thos. P. J Coleman, 7886th ave., Care Molle. 
(Jewish) John Goldfarb, 84 E. 113th st. 

(Ger. Cab. Makers) Simon Kuehl, 224 1st av. 
D. Vanderbtek, 259 W. 128th st. 

(Ger.) F. W. Mueller. 635 Morris ave. 

H. Seymour. 166 E. 67th. 

(Scan.) O. Wallin, 24 W. 118th st. 

(Ger.) Vincent Sauter, 677 Courtland ave. 
Jas. Maguire, 223 Delancey st. 

Wm. Trotter, 754 9th ave. 

Wm. E. P. Schwartz, 2 Brown’s Point, 
Astoria, L. I. 

J. J. Plaeger, 3417 3d ave. 

(Ger.) Gto. Beithold, 321 E. 12th st. 

John McGrail, 174 E. 82nd st. 

(Ger.) Jno. H. Borrs, 1571 ave. A. 

(Fr Canadian) Geo. Menard, 157 E. 76th st. 
Chas. Camp, 5223 W. 148th st. 

(Ger. Millwrights and Millers) Henry Maak, 
357 Linden st., Brooklyn. 

Nyack — R F. Wool, Box 493. 

Oneonta — C. W. Burnside, 9 Walling ave. 
Peekskill— C. T. Powell. 306 Simpson pi. 
Portch ester— Frank Stepnen, 213 Madi- 
son ave. 

Poughkeepsie— J. P. Jacobson, Box 32. 
Rochester— H. M. Fletcher, 5 Snyder st. 

“ (Ger.) Frank Schwind, 4 May PI. 
44 John Buehrle, 30 Buchan Park. 
Schenectady— Henry Bain, 326 Craig st. 
Staten Island — Secretary Dist. Council. 

J. W. Sheehan, 174 Broadway, West New 
Brighton 

Port Richmond— J. Keenan, 238 Jersey st., 
New Brighton. 

Stapleton— P. J. Klee Box 545. 
Syracuse— Seci etary of Dist< ict ( ouncil, 

D C. Pat ke, 537 Renwick ave. 

(Ger. ) J. R. Ryan, 125 Gebhardt ave 
E E Battey, 517 E. Genesee st. 

A. J. Lamirande, 250 Gertrude. 

Troy — David King. Box 65. 

Utica— G. W. Griffiths, 240 Dudley ave. 
Watertown— W. J Mullen, 121 A. Main st. 
Westchester County — Secretary of Dis- 
trict Council, Jas. Gagan, 110 Hugenot, 
New Rochelle. N. Y. 

Westchester— Frank Vanderpool, Blon- 
dell ave. 

Whitestone— Geo. Belton, Box 8. 
Williams Bridge— John Edgley, White 
Plains ave , bet. 1st and 2nd sts. 
Yonkers — E. C. Hulse, 47 Manie st. 

< 4 F. M Tallmadge, 216 Elm st. 



692. J. P. Luckey, 2427 Bloom st. 

Cleveland— Secretary of District Council. 
P. A. Moran. 158 Superior st., Room 10. 
11. H. L. Lepole, 18 Poe ave. 

39. (Bohem.) V. Plecnacy, 45 Jewett st. 

39 i (Ger.) Theo. Welhrich, 16 Parker ave. 

449 (Ger.) Albert Karp. 953 Claik st. 

61. Columbus— A. C. Welch, 1127 Highland st. 
104 Dayton— W. c. Smith, 132 S. La Belle st. 

346 (Ger.) Jos. Wirth, 311 Clover st. 

328 E. Liverpool— W. w. Patten. 128 Third st. 
617. Hamilton— W. C. Musch. 529 Heaton st. 

182 Lim\-D. E Speer, 114 E. Second st. 

701. Lockl and- Charles E Hertel. Box 182. 

356 Marietta— J. W. Forester, 2 Woster lane. 
650 Pomeroy— E. D. Will 

437. Portsmouth- C. Thoman, 110 Canrpbell 
ave. 

186. Steubenville— D. H. Peterson, 706 Adams. 
243 Tiffin— R. S Dysinger, Hedges st. 

25. Toledo- Martin Terwilliger, 1080 Door st. 
168 ** (Ger.) P. Goetz. 236 Palmer st. 

171. Youngstown— W. S. Stoyer, 715 Augusta st. 
716. Zanesville— Fred. Kappes, Central ave., 
10th Ward. 



OREGON. 

50. Portland — David Henderson, Box 548. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Allegheny City- 
211. J. W. Pitts, 181 Washington ave. 

237. (Ger.) A. Weizman. 66 Troy Hill road. 

135. Allentown— A. M. Moyer, 136 N. 5th st. 
246. Beaver Falls— A. uurry, Box 611, New 

Brighton. 

406. Bethlehem — I. M. Swinker 412 Broadway, 
S. Bethlehem. 

124. Bradford — W. H. McQuown, 55 Wash'n st. 
207. Chester— Eber S. Rigby, 316 E. Fifth st. 
219. Easton — Frank P. Horn, 914 Butler st. 

122 Germantown— J. E- Martin, 126 E. Duval. 
462. Greensburg— J H. B. Rowe, 236 Concord. 
287. Harrisburg — W. Bohner, 2522 Peffer st. 

12) Hazleton— Chas. Sloyer. 440 W. Green st. 
288 Homestead — Edwin Row** Jr., L. Box 527. 
2)3. Lancaster — Jos. Smith, 229 Chester st. 

206. New ' astle — Wm. VV hite, 35 Carson st. 
333. New Kensington — C. S. Aulenbach. 

262. Peckville-T. U. Spangenburg. 

Philadelphia— Sec. District Council, John 
Watson, 2618 Jasper st., Station K. 

8. W. C. Hall, 1433 S. Nineteenth ft. 

227. (Kensington) John Watson, 2618 Jasper st. 
Station K. 

238. (Ger.) Joseph Oyen, 814 N. Fourth st. 

359. (Mill) J. Dueringer, Jr., 1909 K. Huntingdon. 
Pittsburgh— Secretary of District Council, 
J. G. Snyder, 412 Grant st. 

142. H. G. Schomaker 126 Sherman ave., Alleg. 
164. (Ger.) P. Geek 2133 Tust in st. 

165 (E. End) H. Robertson. 322 Princeton pi. 
202. G. W. McCausland, 130 Lambert st., E. E. 
230. W. J. Richey, 1601 Carson st. 

402. (Ger.) Louis Pauker. 63 Eureka st., 31 Wd. 
150 Plymouth — G. H. Edwards, Box 1040 
563 Scranton— H. C. Scott. 737 Lee Court. 

484 S. Scranton— (Ger.) T. Straub, rear 109 S. 
Main ave. 

37. Shamokin— H. A.L Smink. 510 E. Cameron. 
268 Sharon— R. H. McCleery, Box 504. 

757. Taylor — G eorge Wicks, Box 45 

93. Wilkes-Barre — D A. Post, 17 Cinderella st. 

102. “ A. H. Ayers, 51 Penn st. 

191. York— C. Snydeman, 301 N. West st. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

176. Newport— P. B. Dawley, 18 Levin st. 

342. Pawtucket— J. B. Parquet, Box 183, Valiev 
Falls. 

94. Providence— P. Dolan, 9 Lawn st. 

117. Woonsocket— J. A. Praray 84 Orchard st. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

52 Charleston— (Col ) John Pinckney, 17 H st. 
69. Columbia— (Col.) C. A. Thompson, 1523 E. 
Taylor st. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

197 Lead City— R. M. Spink. 

TENNESSEE. 

259. Jackson— D. E. Holland, 303 Long st. 

225 Knoxville— W. W. Ramsey, 310 Fousha st. 
152 Memphis— (Col.) H. C. Ellison, 24 Dupree st. 
394. “ J E. Wright, 82 Manassas st. 

TEXAS. 

300. Austin— J B. Webb, 505 W. 11th st. 

185. Cleburne- J. C. Green, L. Box 300. 

198 Dallas— Wm. Watkins, Box 299 
371. Denison— W. W. Neighbour, 1315 W. 

Gandy ave. 

Galveston— Secretary of District Council, 
M. C. 3owden, 609 9th st. 

526. J. E Proc or, 1414 19th st 

611. (Ger.) Charles L. Walter 2116 Ave. M 

114. Houston— E Shoop, 710 Capitol ave. 

53. Orange— C. B. Payne. 

460 San An roNio— (Ger.) Aug. Ries, 302 Plum. 
717. “ *• A G. Wietzel, 135 Cent ie st. 

622. Waco— A. E. Widmer, Labor Hall. 

UTAH. 

184. Salt Lake City— F. C. Hodder, 1111 E. 5ih 
So. Bt. 



VERMONT. 

263. St. Albans Geo. W. Bromson, 12 Lower 
Weiden st. 



WASHINGTON. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

384. Asheville— G. C. Lumley, 51 Blanton st. 



OHIO. 

84. Akron— A. H. Bates, 189 N Howard st. 

17. Bellaire — G. W. Curtis, 3638 Harrison st. 

170 Bridgeport— John D Glenn, Box 41. 

140 Bucyrus— Wm. Rein, 622 E Rensselaer st. 

245 Cambridge— V. C Ferguson, 937 E. Stuben- 
ville ave. 

143. Canton— Chas. A. Riramel, 525 N. McKinley 
ave. 

Cincinnati— Secretary of District Council, 
J. H. Meyer, 23 Mercer st. 

2. J. E Overbecke, 2622 Hackberry st., Walnut 
Hills. 

209. (G~r.) August Weiss, 969 Gest st. 

327 (Mill) H. Brink worth. 1315 Spring st. 

628. A. Berger, 4229 Fergus st. 

667 D. J. Jones, 2228 Kenton st . Station D. 

676. Jos. Lang, Box 301, Carthage. 



131. Seattle— Fred. Blenkins, Fremont. 

98. Spokane— J. A. Anderberg, E. 524 Blaine. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

236. Clarksburg— J. W. Stealey. 

428. Fairmount— W. R. Hickman, 428 Benoir 
ave. 

3. Wheeling— A. L. Bauer, 1619 Jacob st. 

WISCONSIN. 

688. Green Bay— H. Meister, 1128 Cherrv st. 

161. Kenosha— H. C Goseline, 73U Park ave. 
Milwaukee— Secretary of District Council 
Charles Heuer, 501 Twenty- fifth >t. 

30. (Ger.) John Dettman, 1148 17th st. 

71. (Millwrs.) W. Trautmann ,1221 Vlietst. 

188. Aug. J. Hagen, 781 34th st. 

228. (Ger.) R. Meyers, 768 19th ave. 

522 (Ger.) Chas. Runge. 1325 Lloyd st. 

252 Oshkosh— Casper Fluor 69 Grove st. 

91. Racine— M. G. King. 1517 Phillips ave. 



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Worcester, Mass 



i FOX'S LOCK MORTISING! TOOL. 




rhl*UtheToolth.t*.*e.one.h.ll the time in pnttinc in Door Lock*. If. the cnrre th.t 
jSl* •/^^^Sl.<wf^Wriu*io?c1rcul«!r t . er * *** ^ P ° r "' e b * ‘ he ‘~ d *. on 

P. L. FOX & CO., SOLE MANUFACTURERS 

BRIDGEPORT. CONN. 



P. C. ECKHARDT 

General Contractors Builder 



693 Ninth Avenue 



Between 47th and 48th Streets 

TELEPHONE 1050-38 NEW YORK 




Adjustable end Folding H’dle 0. K. 
MANUFACTURED BY 



A. J. Wilkinson & Co. 



180-188 Washington St. 

BOSTON, MASS. 




We will make you to order a penknife 
like cut above, with your picture and 
name theieon, with chamois case, forooe 
dollar, or a big two-bladed Carpenter’s 
Knife with German silver cap, black 
handle. 75 cents, or tortoise shell handle, 
one dollar. Blades warranted to stand 
hard wood coping. 

E LOCKWOOD 

100 Poplar St, Chelsea, Mass. 



Sworn Circulation of THE CABPENTER 
19,000 COPIES MONTHLY 



^ Advertising Msdlaa for Tool Maanfaetnrers, Wood Working Machinery, 

lard ware, Limber aad Boildlag Materials. Also of Special Advantage to 
or»« Architect« and RuImu Iii. 





ANO 

OVERALLS 



ARE 

YOU 

A 

UNION 

MAN? 

THEN 

STAND 

UP 

FOR 

THE 

PRINCIPLES 

OF 

OROANIZED 

LABOR 

AND 

WEAR 

UNION 

MADE 

CLOTHINQ. 



n 



Gfot your dealer to buy these goods — he'll do it for the asking and you'll help the UNION 
cause— or we'll send you tape measure, samples and self measurement blank, with a 
dainty gilt edged Russia leather pooket memorandum book free. 

HAMILTON CARHARTT * COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIMN, 

The arm that is making UNION UADI Clothing popolar. 









V V > 






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5 



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CD 



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= Q£ 



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ANCHOR BRAND 
Adze Eye Nail Hammers. 



LARGEST MANUFACTURERS IN THE WOHLS. 

Fnynttn R. Plumb, Fhlla. 

INCOMPOM ATBD. 



PATENTS 



QaUklr Men red. 
OSTADflD 



otra res düi wni parurr 

Hand model, «ketch or photo with 
description for free report*« to patentability AS -PASS 
■AHD-BOOE FU1 Contain« r*f*r»n.'*« and foil 
information. WAITS POE OOPT OP OVA SPECIAL 
OPPKA. It it th* tuoat liBrrnl propnaltlo» «r«f mad« br 



V ro^.uttion *v«ir road* br | 
__ IW VI If TO A SHOULD | 



IT b«for« appl/iof for patent. Addreee t 



H.B. WILLSON &C0. 



uhr.it si«, . WASHINGTON. O. C. 



For Advertising Rates 

IN 

THE CARPENTER 



apply to 

P. J. JUcdUIRE, 

IJ4 North Ninth Street, 
PHILADELPHIA, PA, 




W. S. Thomson 


M 


m 


Menufactarer sod Dealer in 




WOOD WORKERS’ SUPPLIES 


«• v- 

% 


Belting, Belting Hooks, Lacing, Band 
and Circular Saws, Files, Emery Wheels, 
Babbit Meta], Planing Machine Knives, 
Cutters, Etc. 


* 

* i ’ 

. . 

•r- v 


418 and 420 Wtet 27th St. New Y«rk 


r.Z%: •'» ' 


▲11 Orders by Mall Promptly Attended Te. 








1 






Sc 



— 







VOL. XIX.— No. 3, 
Established 1881. 



PHILADELPHIA. MARCH, 1899. 




Fifty Cents Per Year 



Staple Copies, 5 Cts 



Hptirv Hk^fon & Sons ESTAELIS " ED 18,0 keystone 

’ SAW, mu steel ANO 

SAWS, FILES AND TOOLS FOR THE MARKETS OF THE WORLD. 



»«***« 1*4*, A 
\Jmb H VM )§*» »« 






Our Saws have all the Latest Improvements, and are warranted superior to all o 

Thev have no rival in quality, finish, and general utility, and are made from the best ateel, and of superior temper. 
Imoroved Machinery, in use only by us, makes them the easiest running Sews in. the woHd. They have gained a universal 
anifare sold by all the prominent Wholesale and Retail Hardware Dealers in America and Europe. The manufactures of this 
Premiums at all the World's Great Fairs, where they have been exhibited. 

And we Guarantee a Detter Article, at the same Price, than any other House In the World 

ALL OOOD8 BEARINO OUR NAME ARB FULLY WARRANTED 



TAINTOR 
POSITIVE 
SAW SET 



*r tie«« not hoodie them, 
don't Lake an Inferior set 
henati«« ion« one mji, 
•• lt*n Ju»t a» food." 



TAINTOR MFQ. CO 

9 to 15 MURRAY ST. 

NEW YORK. 



Thousand* of %Ma tool 
here been »e’d, and they 
are highly commended by 
ALL u ho u«e them. 



UNION CARPENTERS ASK FOR— ^ 

NEWBURGH, KEYSTONE, UNION-MADE 

Overalls, Coats, Pants -< Carpenters’ Aprons 



Your dealer will giaaiy 
furnish you these ex- M ! _ 

cellent goods if you ask 
for them. bo,d * 

CLEVELAND & WHITEHILL CO 



“PRACTICALLY J 
UN BREA KALKEI 
Says the World's Fair Award (c. 



Right. 



THE ONLY ABSOLUTELY NOISELESS 
DOOR HANGER ON THE MARKET... 



MOORE’S 

IMPROVED WROUGHT STEEL STORM 
tm WINDOW FASTENERS 



The McCabe Parlor 
Door Hanger, No. a 



For Bottom Price# 

Mention thia Paper 

The McCabe Hanger Manufacturing Co 

532 W 22d Street V* * 



PIKE’S LILY WASHITA 



With these fasteners, storm windows can 
be*ad justed more easily, and held in place 
more securely, than in any other way yet 
invented. 

NO LADDER REQUIRED. 

Fastened from the inside, the only tool 
necessary being a small hammer. 

Send for Circular «. 



The BbbI DilstnnB on Earth 

and guaranteed to give absolute aallafactlon. The aame atone made in Rouge 
klip, and all special ,hape# All leadiog hardware dealer.. 

Send for Catalog of Scythe stones, Ollotonoo, Razor Honet, Kolfo Sharpeners, oto. 

THE! PIKE MFO. CO. PIKE STATION, N. H. 



:aniey worKS, ».»<- *. 

NfcW BRITAIN, CONN. 

79 Chambers St., N. Y* 








h 

1 



THE CARPENTER. 

HIGH GRADE MACHINERY STANDARD WOOD WORKING MACHINERY 




No 1 Varikty Wood Woikik. 

A ruost valuable machine for Carpenters, 
Builders, Sash, Door and Blind Maker«, etc., 
•a on It you can perform a variety of work 
which would otherwise require the use of 
••veral machines. 



CARPENTERS, SUILDERS, SASH, 

DOOR, BUND MAKERS, ETC. 

Betlmatee on Single Machine« or Equipments 
cheerfully famished. 

Ask for “Wsod Worker” Catalogue. 

J. A. Fav & Co.. No. 2. Pla!(ik, Matcher asd Moui.i»ik. 

w 1 Planes, one side, 24 Inches wide by G lushee 

^^^^*“5^*534 W» Front St., Matches 12 Inches wide; 

An Invaluable machine for a small or mediate 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. -Ued shop. 




OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

If In need sf anything In ear line pi— II m% U 
figure with jroa, as we eae most prehahlp 
■ere you money. 

Illustrated 312 page Mtalogue free If ye« 
have good use for K. 

The Egan Company, 

406-43* W, Proof Afreet, 

CINCINNATI, OW, 




FOOTS BAND POWER MACHINERY 

OOMRLETE OUTFITS. 

Carpenters sad Builders without stesm power \ 
esn successfully compete with the large shops ~ 
by using our New Labor Saving rischlnery 

Sold ON TRIAL. 8 ino fo* Cataioouc A. 

SENECA FALLS MFC. CO. ^ 

aa Water 81.. Seneca Pall*, N. V.. U. 8. A. 




J[ (a/ft 

1 C BY 20 IHCMtS, 



No. 128 Outside Moulder 
Built to work 7,8,0, 10,13 ii* wide 




Write for further information 
Also for new catalogue 






"V 











py 


% 








vUf* 






4 UO.ii« 

HANDLES, 

MALLETS, &c. 




Be are the traAe mark CHAMPION la ea each blad» 

Sworn Circulation of THE CARPENTER 

19,000 COPIES MONTHLY 

Best Advertising Medium for Tool Manufacturers, Wood 
Working Machinery, Hardware, Lumber and Building 
Materials, Also of Speoial Advantage to Contractors, 
Architects and Business Men. 




THE SQUARE ROOT 
DELINEATOR 

0 I\ KtY TO THL.STCCL 

OY A.W. WOODS, 

cm* /a rLAui rt§u*e* rne UNcm*. 
/rum, ysti, rmrt, ernes*, cur* ah* 
one l* r*/f even ah a uneven ptmt* i 
Hoeeen cur*, ooA/f* MCAsuffc cmf 



SfNT POST PAS. 



Pmct $ 1,00 



CARPENTER, 



i S. A. W OODS MACHINE CO., South Boston, Mass. 

Harten Doscher 

MANUFACTURER SAUQATUCK, CONN. 

Carpenters’ Bench and Moulding 

PLANES 

Hand Made. 



We Hale 'em, Yon Want ’em 

If you are a carpenter, 
a contractor, a lumber 
dealer, a real estate 
agent, or if you are 
going to build a house, 
send 5 cents for Hicks’ 
Illustrated Catalogue 
of artistic designs. . . 



f What is X 
Tour Work? 



I. P. HICKS 



37 Station A 

Omaha. Nbb. 



E m art* ilmi»« 1 1 ■fin»! ( 1 

ur situation, your •sl-^^KwM " 
rtiam ••• of rottiftlefe^E«! w> 
it»* tu Th»* International 
e MeliuitU, Nrrantuii, l»a ,^M 
ethers NO ait list eil are getting Y 

nation by Mail 

rotir»*« «»f Me. hann al or Klee- i 
ring. Architect ore, or an y of M 
!ntf interring ('«»or»*« are 
lined h*r aalarie«l draft- 
• Ml |x»aitiuus. Writ« ■ — 

isruphleta. jF ; 

kr lM'r«sll«Ril 

r»|innd«M« vkiM.U.jf -e r* • V " * 

Hu i lOtlH F 
frcruMtun, 1 

■*«• ViT J rnr 



YOUR HARDWARE DEALER #»<)* 

DOSCHER’S planes 




Th« largest ««<i most 
esBBlilsllBs sf W«od - 
warklmg ■«•binary I« 

$ha world for Carp««- 



TOWER & LYON, 96 N C Ew m y b oRK S,, ** t ’ 

Naosfaoturars of 

FINE TOOLS. 

Chaplin's Pat. Planes. 

Corrugated Face or Smooth Face. 

Checkered Robber If and lee or Enameled 
Wood Handle«. 

LEVER ADJUSTMENT. 
TOWER'S CHAMPION 8CREW DRIVERS. 

Special Steel. Tested Tough T.mpir. Solid Tasted Boloter. Hetty lfall Penile. Fitted Htndlr, 

»■WIRE or ■ ■ITATIOHA. 



' Jfc-H hrs Md J«Lnsrs and 

Wosd-worksrs ga««r- 

Aasrlsan Wood War king 
MT T Maobla* 0«. 

sc oc moon« to 

I IF F H.ClemsntOa.O iso Cove 
MLh. Co, Lid.. Gowtel) A 
mLijW Wataro, Hoyt A Bro to, 

ICWTMPl Tbs Lsvi Houston Co. 

I WH|j71 Lab man Mcb Co, Mil «an 

VSIDI / km Handor MCg Co , CL B 

«« _ Ra*ere A Oo. Rowley A 

MWKkA Hermanne («.. Williams 

gort Men. Oo., Young Bros. 

Address sisrivt sales room and sUU your require- 
ments : 100 Liberty Bt. New York U S. Canal Ht , 
(*bloaga M Pearl m . Boston Church and Basin 
«to Twilllamoporc Pa. 



ALLEN B. RORKE 
Builder 

% w 

Contractor 

Offices I — 

Philadelphia Bourse, 

..^.PHILADELPHIA 






21 



V Design. 



Satisfaction 

Is given all around when the house Is 
trimmed with Sargent’s Hardware. The 
Architect is pleased because he speci- 
fied it ; the owner Is pleased each time 
he looks at the trimmings because they 
add so much to the beauty of the home, 
and everybody is pleased with the work- 
ing of Sargent’s Easy Spring Locks. 

Sargent & Company, 

Maker* of Artistic Hard ware aad Fine L*6a 

Hew York ; aad New Hates, Com. 



r 





A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 



VOL. XIX.— No. 3. 
Established 1881. 



Removal of General Office. 



The headquarters of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Join- 
ers will, by April ist, be removed to 
more commodious and much better 
equipped rooms in the Lippincott 
Building, Twelfth and Filbert streets, 
Philadelphia. This change is ren- 
dered necessary because of largely 
increased business in connection with 
the duties of the General vSecretary- 
Treasurer, and of the rapid and steady 
accumulation of valuable records and 
data, which have cramped and over- 
crowded the present quarters. The 
Lippincott Building is fire-proof and 
the change of quarters became all the 
more necessary to secure the safety 
of the documents and records of the 
organization. That the Order will be 
much benefited by the change is not 
a matter of speculation. 



Meeting of G. C. B. Next Month. 

G. E. B. will meet in this city, 
April 10th, next. Plans for organizing 
work and to send out speakers should 
be sent this office for consideration of 
the Board. 



PHILADELPHIA, MARCH, 



Passwort», blanks, etc., for current 
quarter have been sent all LocalUnions 
in good standing this month. If not 
received, notify the G. S.-T. 



A large number of our Ixxrala will 
demand the eight-hour day this 
spring. Trade la improving quite 
generally In every section except In 
the larger cities and on the Pacific 
coast. Many of our Locals have more 
than doubled their membership the 
past few months. 



British Carpenters and Joiners. 

BV THOMAS REECE, 

According to a paper read before 
one of the sections at the British 
Scientific Association’s meeting at 
Bristol last year (a meeting held at 
about the same time as the annual 
Trade Unions Congress), it was 
averred that wages in the group of 
industries known generally as the 
building trades had risen 50 per cent, 
since 1840. This rate of increase, 
while inferior to that exhibited in the 
cotton trade — where wages have 
doubled — is superior to the increases 
registered in such other selected 
groups of trade as those of printing, 
iron and wool to choose three fairly 
distinct and representatives branches. 



Organization has been the chiefest 
factor in compelling this great in- 
crease. There are about 220,000 
workers combined in the 138 Unions 
coming under the general designation 
of the “ building trader. ” Of these 
80,000 are in the five carpenters and 
joiners societies. By way of com- 
parison some of the other branches’ 
figures are as follows : Eight Unions 
of bricklayers muster 35,000 mem- 
bers ; nine unions of masons have 
32.000 ; five plasterers’ unions have 
about 13,000; twenty-nine painters' 
unions are credited with a total of 
about 20,000 members ; four plumb- 
ers’ unions have 11,000 on their rolls. 
There are about 3,000 platers and 
tilers organized, and most of the re- 
mainder of the building trades total 
is made up of the membership of a 
number of builders laborers’ unions. 
It would thus seem very probable 
that it is to the carpenters and joiners 
societies that the rise in wages has 
been largely due. 

During the year 1898 trade was 
very kind to the section of industries 
of which this paper is a mouthpiece. 
Whether it is going to continue so 
throughout 1899 is another and a 
doubtful question. There are many 
threatening factors looming ahead, 
and not the least among these is the 
secretive federation that is going on 
among a great number of employers 
of labor. This it is openly said in 
many responsible quarters is aimed 
at either the gradual annihilation of 
trade unions or else the destruction 
of all the wige-changing and other 
similar functions they may have, so 
that if they continue to exist they 
will only be associations for providing 



sick, superannuated and similar 
friendly insurance benefits. 

It has long been on the books that 
the building trades were to be attacked 
as soon as the amalgamation of mas- 
ters’ associations took up a firm posi- 
tion and no doubt the present crisis 
with the plasterers is a preliminary 
sortie. Just at present the Master 
Builders’ Association has entrenched 
itself behind an ultimatum and the 
plasterers are threatened with a lock 
out over a very trivial matter. 



However, since the adjourned con- 
vention on federation held by the 
Trade Unions at Manchester in Janu- 
ary, a new force has been introduced 
into the eternal agitations of labor. 
The convention decided to form a 
general federation of all Trade Unions 
and as it is probable that quite 800,000 
workers will be federated under its 
rules, it will give belligerent emp’oy- 
ers pause. I know that Secretary 
Chandlerof the Amalgamated Society 
of Carpenters and Joiners is not very 
favorably struck with the idea of a 
general federation but the whole ten- 
dency of the time now is towards 
greater cohesion. Besides plutocracy 
is busy with it — and labor must not 
be left. There is some hard fighting 
to be done in the immediately ap- 
proaching years. A huge federation 
will undoubtedly act as a pacifying 
factor to a very great extent. That 
would indeed be a foolhardy combine 
of masters which should needlessly 
provoke the retaliation of 800,000 
united workmen, who had, besides 
the moral force of so gTeat a mass, 
something like ten million dollars in 



The lock out in the Scottish furni- 
ture trade is now happily finished 
with considerable advantages to the 
men. This result might have been 
very different had it not been for the 
prompt and fraternal support of socie- 
ties like those of the carpenters. The 
Amalgamated Union sent $2,500 down. 
This was raised by a levy of six cents 
per member in work at the begin- 
ning of January. 

London house carpenters’ and join- 
ers’ wages are twenty cents per hour, 
and the full week 50 hours. Members 
of the Unions working on ships get 
twenty-one cents per hour and work 
the 48-hour week. At Liverpool, 
house carpenters work 49 % hours at 
nineteen cents, and ship carpenters 



Fifty Cents per Year 
Single Copies, 5 Cts 



get paid by the pay, $1.75. Theirjweek 
comprises 53 hours. At Manchester 
the hours are 49 % and the rate eigh- 
teen cents. In Devonshire, a typical 
rural district, the hours are 56)^ and 
the rate eleven cents. In the Clyde 
district, which may be taken as fairly 
representative of Scotland, house car- 
penters work 51 hours at eighteen 
cents, and ship carpenters 54 at seven- 
teen cents. The lowest Union rate 
of any earned is that of the Longford 
(Ireland) carpenters who work 59 'A 
hours at ten and a half cents, Johan- 
nesburg’s sixty cents per hour and an 
eight-hour day seems wonderful be- 
sides some of these records. But it is 
very possible that the Longford car- 
penters make a much better living 
than do their Johannesburg brother 
Unionists. , 

There are other pebbles on the beach 
besides high wages. 

American Federation of Labor. 



LEGISLATION SECURED OR DEMANDED. 

B» MORTON A. ALDRICH, PH. D. 

HE most important activity 
of the American Federation 
of Labor, except perhaps 
the attainment of closer 
federation among Trade 
Unions, has always been •* to secure 
national legislation in the interest of 
the working people.” Each convention 
instructs the president and executive 
council to work for the passage of 
certain laws. The executive council 
then causes bills embodying the de- 
sired legislation to be dratted ; and 
does earnest personal work among 
Congressmen, especially the members 
of the House committee on labor, to 
secure their passage. An equally 
important part of this W' ’ has been 
to watch proposed legla a and to 
prevent the passage of laws unfavor- 
able to organized labor. An example 
of this negative work was the activity 
of the officers of the Federation in 
helping defeat bills which were intro- 
duced into Congress and several state 
legislatures, ostensibly to prevent 
conspiracies among employers to 
blacklist workmen. Although the 
Federation desires such legislation, it 
opposed these particular bills on the 
ground that they contained provisions 
which would prove injurious to Trade 
Unions, 

The Federation leaves the work of 
securing state labor legislation to ita 









2 



THE CARPENTER. 




. 

i 




* • 
H 






5 



state branches and to the central labor 
Unions. Occasionally, however, it 
renders some slight aid by sending 
one of its officers to testify before a 
committee of the state legislature, or 
by distributing copies of a state law 
which it deems excellent, as a model 
for legislation in other states. The 
Federation has endorsed state laws 
forbidding the ‘truck* system, and 
making compulsory the more frequent 
payment of wages, laws to secure 
workmen a first Hen upon property 
which is the product of their labor, 
laws compelling better sanitary con- 
ditions in dwellings, bake-shops, and 
factories, and for the protection of 
women workers and of workmen in 
unhealthful trades, and a law to secure 
one day of rest in seven to all workers. 
In regard to the important question 
of the liability of employers for acci- 
dent to tneir workmen ; the trade 
unions in the United States, as in 
England, have long striven to secure 
a reversal by statute of the common 
law rule by which an employer is not 
liable for injuries suffered by his 
employees through the negligence of 
a fellow workman. The Federation 
favors a statute law giving employees 
the same right to damages for personal 
injuries which other persons have, and 
has recommended the Massachusetts 
employers’ liability law for adoption in 
other states. The Federation also pro- 
poses state laws making it illegal for 
employers to discharge an employee 
because of his connections with any 
labor organization or to require their 
workmen to sign a so called ‘ ‘ iron clad 
contract, ” binding themselves not to 
join a Trade Union. 

The national legislation desired by 
the Federation covers a wide range of 
subjects. A few resolutions, while 
less directly affecting the policy of 
Trade Unions, serve to record what a 
large class of workmen think in regard 
to certain questions of the day. In 
political questions the Federation has 
declared itself in favor of the Austra- 
lian ballot, civil .service reform, the 
purification of primary elections, the 
election of United States Senators by 
popular vote, and direct legislation in 
state and municipal governments by 
means of the initiative and referendum. 
Almost every convention has passed 
a resolution in favor of the compulsory 
education of children. The govern- 
ment is also urged to acquire the tele- 
graph and telephone and to establish 
postal savings banks. With the ex- 
ception of these more general reso- 
lutions, however, the Federation has 
confined its attention to laws which 
could be fairly classed as labor legis- 
lation. 

While most of the laws which the 
Federation advocates affect the wel- 
fare of the entire bod,- of trade union 
workmen, it occasionally endeavors 
to secure special laws for certain 
trades. It endorsed the law passed 
in 1893, to prevent accidents to rail- 
road employees by compelling rail- 
roads to provide their cars with auto- 
matic couplers ; and it endeavora to 
secure laws for the improvement of 
the condition of seamen by requiring 
improved forecastles, a better scale of 
rations, protection of seamen’s wages, 
freedom of seamen to quit their em- 
ployment when their vessel is in 
port, and Inspection of seaworthiness 



of vessels. To aid the states in their 
efforts to suppress the sweating sys- 
tem, the Federation has favored a 
national law to prohibit the transpor- 
tation of goods made in sweat shops. 

It remains to consider the more im- 
portant general legislation which the 
Federation has urged upon Congress. 
In the early years of the Federation, 
each convention demanded laws per- 
mitting the incorporation of trade 
unions “ in order that the property 
of the laboring classes may have the 
same protection as the property of 
other classes." Although such laws 
were passed by Congress and by six 
states, very few trade unions have 
become incorporated, and agitation 
on the part of the Federation for such 
laws has altogether ceased. The 
truth is, that almost all trade unions 
have come to believe that incorpora- 
tion would bring them no advantages 
sufficient to counterbalance the added 
responsibilities, such as the liability 
to be sued as a society, which it would 
impose. Trade unions also prefer to 
remain unincorporated in order better 
to avoid the control of the courts, 
which they so much distrust. 

A number of laws which have been 
favored by the American Federation 
of Labor, including laws to restrict 
the number of apprentices, to abolish 
the contract system of convict labor, 
and to prohibit the immigration of 
Chinese laborers and of alien laborers 
under contract, and the proposed law 
for the further restriction of immigra- 
tion, may be classed as attempts of 
the workmen to set bounds to what 
seems to them the dangerous competi- 
tion of “ cheap labor. ” The opposi- 
tion of the Federation to the system 
of letting out national, state, and 
municipal work by contract, on the 
ground that the contractors discrim- 
inate against organized labor in favor 
of inferior workmen at reduced wages, 
may be placed in the same category. 
Legislation restricting the hours of 
labor of women and children, and for- 
bidding the employment of children 
under fourteen years of age, although 
it is also favored on other grounds, is 
at the same time regarded by the Fed- 
eration as another efficient means of 
restricting the competition of cheap 
labor. 

Twenty years ago most American 
trade unionists favored the restric- 
tion of the number of apprentices, and 
the earliest conventions of the Feder- 
ation passed resolutions in favor of 
uniform apprentice iaws throughout 
the country. This demand was soon 
discarded as futile in the face of the 
changing conditions of industry due 
primarily to the rapid introduction of 
machinery. A few trade unions, 
such as the plumbers, steamfitters, 
bricklayers and iron molders, still 
make rules for the regulation of ap- 
prentices ; but most Unions, like the 
carpenters, have given up the old sys- 
tem of indentured apprentices. 

Every convention of the Federation 
reiterates the protest against the em- 
ployment of convict labor in any way 
which brings it into serious competi- 
tion with free labor. This applies 
especially to the contract system of 
Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky and 
Tennessee, which permits mining cor- 
porations and other private contractors 
to hire convicts. The attitude of the 



more intelligent element of the Fed- 
eration is stated in the report of a 
special committee on convict labor to 
the 1S97 convention. The committee 
recognized that to preserve the health 
and morals of the convict, and to re- 
form him, he must be employed at 
some productive occupation, but pro- 
posed the following state regulation 
of prison work to prevent the product 
of convict labor from coming into 
competition with the product of free 
workmen. 

“ 1. Convict labor shall be employed 
in the manufacture of such articles as 
are needed in the state prisons and 
charitable institutions, and also in 
raising farm and garden produce for 
these institutions. 

“«!. All these industries shall be 
carried on by hand labor. 

“3. The convicts shall only work 
eight hours a day.’ ! 

These regulations were endorsed by 
the convention. The committee also 
commended the system of convict 
labor recently adopted in Pennsyl- 
vania, forbidding the use of labor- 
saving machinery, and providing that 
not more than 5 per cent, of the con- 
victs should be employed at any one 
trade. Most states, however, have 
not yet adopted these restrictive laws. 
In order to prevent the competition of 
prison made goods fron these states, 
the Federation favors a national law 
forbidding the sale of the products of 
convict labor of a state in any other 
state. 

Two classes of immigrants, Chinese 
laborers and alien laborers who come 
to America under contract, have al- 
ways been opposed by the Federation. 
Since the date when this immigration 
was forbidden by law, trade union- 
ists have used every means in their 
power to se* that the law is strictly 
enforced. On the broader question of 
the further restriction of immigration, 
the opinion of trade unionists repre- 
sented in the Federation has under- 
gone a great change. Until 1897 the 
conventions voted that no further re- 
striction was necessary, but in that 
year, w' en the question was submit- 
ted to a referendum vote of the mem- 
bers of all trade unions affiliated with 
the Federation, 84 per cent, of those 
voting favored “ a reasonable measure 
of restriction on the lines of the edu- 
cational test as contained in the Lodge 
bill.” The more characteristic argu- 
ments advanced by trade unionists 
for this restriction are that the immi- 
grants, particularly when they are of 
a different race and lower standard of 
living, swell the numbers of the un- 
employed and in other ways render 
the organization of trade unions 
more difficult, and thus keep down 
wages. Nevertheless, a minority in 
the Federation sharply opposes fur- 
ther restriction of immigration. 

A series of resolutions relate to 
labor bureaus and statistics of labor. 
The early conventions urged the 
establishment of the United States 
Department of Labor. After this was 
attained in 1884, the convention 
undertook to promote the establish- 
ment of similar bureaus in the indi- 
vidual states, thirty-three of which 
exist to day. These bureaus are espe- 
cially requested to investigate “the 
influence of labor organizations upon 
the moral and material welfare, both 




of the wage-workers and of the com- 
munity as a whole. ” At present the 
Federation favors the control of the 
United States census by the Depart- 
ment ot Labor ; and also wishes the 
head of this Department to have h 
place in the Cabinet. 

( To be continued ) 




(Tin. department U open lor crttlclim ml 
correspondence from our readers on mechanical 
aablecta In Carpentry, and Idea. a. to Craft 
•rganltatlon. 

Write on one aide ot the paper only. All 
article, should be signed. 

Matter lor this Department moat be In thl. 
»trice by the >sth ot the month.) 



Novel Trim. 



From Trimmer, Brooklyn, N. V. 

I send a ntw idea from trim for craft 
problems, which many of the brothers 
will find very handy. It is the usual 




trim but has the back edge tongued 
to fit Into the back band, which is 
grooved and glued to it. When the 
front edge is nailed to the jamb, a 
smart blow of a hammer on a block 
will drive the sharp edge of the back- 
band Into the aoft plaster and make a 
close Insect-proof joint. 

Bracing a Flag Foie In a Corner. 



From McM., Passaic. 

Will some expert please give the 
framing to stiffen a corner of a flat 
roof where the flag pole comes up on 
a two-story frame store ? 

♦ • ♦ 

Curved Panel Backs and Shutters. 



From M. A. D., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Will some reader please inform me 
the diflerence between an isolated pier 
and one which Is not so J Also the 
best way to get out panel backs, soffit 




and shutters for a window with an 
elliptic chase, like chat I . r.d In the 
enclosed pencil sketch, which has an 
octagon plan and elevation on the 
outside and an elliptic one on the in- 
side, which, I think, is an unusual 
way to build a brick wall ? 



A Suggestion. 



From Handy, Pawtucket, R. I. 

I read the mechanical part of The 
Carpenter, and find it very useful 
for a journeyman, but, like every- 
thing else, it is no use as a help un- 
less you use the tools. Would It not 
be well to give something new about 
ordinary work which we do every day, 
to lessen the labor, which is hard in 
frame work, such as handling heavy 
stufl, climbing and so on, at. i thus 
help out a young fellow ? 



THE CARPENTER. 



Sliding Doors. 



From Oscar B. Brooklyn, Cleveland, O. 

I have a pair of sliding doors set on 
a floor track, and can’t get them to 
come to a joint or close properly, as 
the floor is settled out of level, about 
an inch in the 5 foot width of the 
doors. If any one wants to help me 
out write for next Carpenter, as I’ve 
got to overhaul the house before the 
first of May. 



Bicycle Tool Box. 



From O. L. M., Detroit, Mich. 

The spring is coming on, and most 
of us are looking forward to a busy 
year of work and better times, and as 
many of us live in the suburbs of 
cities and ride some distance to work 
on trolleys or wheels, I think some 
models of portable tool chests or 
boxes would be in order, and would 
be glad to see something of this 
sort published. I send a rough sketch 
of a bicycla box to fit inside the 




frame which is very handy. I made 
this box 2 '/ t inches inside, in the 
clear, of } t inch white pine with oak 
ends hollowed out to fit round the 
tubing of the frame, and strapped to 
the saddle post tube and its weight is 
about 10 pounds loaded with a small 
kit, including a panel saw. I save con- 
siderable car fare with this machine 
and box. The tools ought to be 
wedged in tight with waste or old 
rags to keep them from rattling. I 
would recommend that the bottom be 
made flat. 




Calculating Areas of Surfaces. 



From S. A. B., Camden, N. J. 

Editor Carpenter — I send two 
surfaces, and would be glad if some 
one up in mensuration would calculate 
their areas for floors for me in the 
simplest way. 




Labor and Politics. 



Editor Carpenter : No laws, no 

schemes, can prevent a man whose 
family is hungry from cutting the 
wages of all the rest, the greater the 
number of the unemployed the lower 
the scale of living for those at work. 

We may call the unemployed bad 
names, but that doesn’t prevent them 
from making life harder for all the 
workers. We may send them to the 
poorhouse, but the workers have the 
bills to pay. We cannot get rid of 
them, whether we abuse them or give 
them charity makes no difference. 
We are all chained to the unemployed 
and are going down with them. 

This is what the Iron Age means 
when it says : “ Prosperity has re- 

turned, but it is prosperity based on 
a permanently lower rate of wages. ” 

This is what the unemployed are 
doing for us. What will they do with 
us ? 

It needs no prophet to answer ; read 
history. They will tear down the 
state. Life is good, yes the sweetest 
gift from God to man, but there comes 
a time when life is bitter, when men 
wish they had not been born, when 
men see those they love living de- 
graded lives, cursed with hunger and 
hopeless misery. Tis then Americans 
will grow desperate and impatient ; 
'tis then the blood runs hot in their 
veins. They are diflerent from the 
starving natives of India, who quietly 
lie down in the fence corners and die 
like dogs. Americans, whose lives 
then seem of little value to themselves 
will lose regard for the lives of their 
oppressors. This is commonly called 
revolution. It is useless for us to try 
to look on the bright side of the pic- 
ture, the plain facts are before us we 
must face them. It is useless to shut 
our eyes, yet it would be far more 
pleasant if we could. The French 
tried that before the French revolu- 
tion. 

It is useless to cry out against the 
trusts. The trust was the next step 
which had to come. Men fought each 
other in business until their profits 
in the business were reduced to noth- 
ing ; cut their employees’ wages hired 
children instead of men, but the end 
was ruin. Now they are combining. 

You cannot by law compel two men 
to fight who want to work in peace ; 
you cannot destroy the trusts by law, 
for the trusts are nothing but a group 
of men who have quit fighting each 
other and have agreed to combine. 

To be sure the trusts are ruining a 
multitude of smaller men ; the de- 
partment stores are knocking down 
smaller merchants like ten pins. But 
they are giving the lesson of the most 
economical way of doing business. 
Merchants, clerks, bookkeepers, small 
manufacturers are quietly joining the 
ranks of the unemployed. 

It is said by an eminent writer, 

' • The American people read.” I would 
pause to ask the question, What do 
they read ? The news of the Associated 
Press — news that men are hired to serve 
up to their readers, to lead them in 
paths that are dark, to hide from them 
the real facts as they are, for they are 
fully aware of the fact that a lie well 
told is more plausible than the truth, 
and serves monopoly far better. 
Yes, they read, and when they axe 



hit hard enough they stop to think. 
We have already reached the time 
when the wealth of our land is rapidly 
concentrating in a few hands. 

When the trusts and great combina- 
tions of capital have perfected their 
work, when the mass of our reading 
American people finds that the door 
of advancement is shut, when small 
dealers and manufacturers begin to 
think, when we all realize that we 
have prosperity, if at all, on a basis of 
a permanently lower scale of wages, 
then the American people will say 
competition is ruinous and combina- 
tion is wise. 

Socialism is coming, as the natural 
results of economic forces which we 
cannot stop if we wanted to. It is 
coming as men awaken to the fact 
that the receiver of stolen goods can 
never get a good title to them. What 
are you going to do about it ? You 
can make up your minds that as long 
as you vote or belong to any of the 
leading political parties you will never 
hasten the day. Why cannot we learn 
wisdom from our enemies ? 

The Sugar Trust and Standard Oil 
Company never tie themselves to any 
political party. In Republican States 
they buy Republican legislators ; in 
Democratic States they buy Demo- 
cratic legislators. 

Why can not the labor organizations 
take a lesson ? If the labor organiza- 
tions would make one simple change 
their power would become enormous. 

There has been a constant conten- 
tion that labor organizations should 
not go into politics. Suppose you 
change one word only. 

Labor organizations should go into 
politics — go into politics with heart 
and soul, but keep out of all parties 
that are run for party greed and party 
power, and are controlled by the few 
against the many. 

Did you ever see two boys on a 
teeter, who turn the teeter up and 
down, the boy standing in the center 
or middle ? Think for one minute, 
you will plainly see the two dominant 
parties are the boys out on the end of 
the teeter, the national banks and 
great combines the boy in the middle, 
and they make the party bob up that 
will serve them best. 

What the labor organizations should 
do is to put the banks and trusts on 
the ends of the teeter and stand in the 
middle themselves. Then they would 
have the power to turn the teeter down 
and up at will. Laboring men, stand 
in the middle yourselves. Tear off 
the party collar. Your power is 
gigantic if you will abandon all 
parties ; it is not necessary to form 
new parties. The Standard Oil Com- 
pany is no fool. They never start a 
new party, but get what they want 
from the party in power or the party 
it can use. Let organized labor do 
the salne. Parnell in the British 
Parliament got what Ireland wanted 
in this way. The Irish members did 
not “ care a rap ” for one party nor the 
other, but they had forty votes for any 
party that would give them what 
they wanted ; we should do the same. 
So the first practical thing to do is to 
cut loose from all parties. 

The next practical thing is to work 
for direct legislation. 

As things are now we should get 
all we can by using the parties, but 



we all know that party pledges are 
not always kept. Once let us get 
direct legislation and the power of 
organized labor cannot be thwarted 
by men who make promises only to 
break them. To see how direct legis 
latlon would put power in your hands, 
think of this : Gov Pingree tried to 

get a bill passed compelling railroads 
to pay taxes as do citizens of the 
state ; no more, no leas. The bill 
was a good one, fair to everyone 
alike; »00,000 voters petitioned the 
legislature to pass the bill. Did it 
pass ? No ! Sixteen men in the 
Senate quietly killed the bill. 

Think of it, as things now exist 
sixteen men have the power to set at 
naught the will of all the voters in 
Michigan, and not only in Michigan 
but any state in the Union. It is 
dangerous for a few men to hold such 
power and defy a nation of the most 
intelligent people on earth. 

With direct legislation are we not 
able to see what power we have as an 
organized body ; ’tis true the powers 
of wealth and monopolies are against 
us, but let us go to the polls and 
stand as one man and all the money 
powers of the earth can not defeat us. 

If the labor organizations would 
spend money and time and effort in 
getting an amendment to the Con- 
stitution giving ub direct legis- 
lation they would do a great deal 
for Labor. Let labor organizations 
study what they should do to help 
the cause of humanity at large, then 
they will help themselves. 

J. M. Fowler. 

Union 437, Portsmouth , O. 



Thanks to Louisville, Ky., Typo« 
graphical Union. 

Louisville, Ky., Feb. 12, 1899. 

Editor Cari ENTER : 

Find enclosed these resolutions, adop- 
ted at the regular meeting of Union 103, 
January 28, 1899. These resolutions to 
be printed in our Carpenter Journal in 
next issue. 

H. Ruby, Rec. Sec. 

Whereas. It has been the sense of 
the Carpenters and Joiners Unions of 
Lou sville, Ky., in meeting assembled, 
that a committee be appointed to draft 
suitable resolutions thanking the Typo- 
graphical Union No. 10, of Louisville, Ky., 
for the interest they took in having none 
but Uuion carpenters employed on th e 
Courier Journal Building. 

We, the Committee, wish to offer the 
following resolutions for your approval . 

Resolved. That the thanks of the Car- 
penters and Joiuers Unions of Louisville, 
Ky , be extended to the Typographical 
Union No. 10, of Louisville, Ky , for their 
assistance in having none but Union 
carpenters employed on the Courier 
Journal Building. 

Resolved. That we appreciate the 
spirit of fraternity and the deep interest 
they take in the welfare of organized labor: 

Let it be further 

Resolved. That we extend the thanks 
of the Carpenters and Joiners Union to 
Mr. Cronk and Mr. Cristani for volun- 
teering their services in adjusting the 
difference in wages 

Resolved. That a copy of the resolu- 
tions be transmitted to the Typographical 
Union No. 10, signed by the president 
and secretary. 

Resolved. That these resolutions be 
spread on our journal. 

Committee, 

P. C. Donovan, 
H. Voit.Jr., 

H. Kursr. 




I 



THE CARPENTER. 



THE CARPENTER, 

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 



f*uhli^heti SfonthU on the F'fte**\th of rat h month, 
AT 

144 N. Ninth St., Plilla., Pa. 

P J McGuire, Editor aod Publisher. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Philadelphia. Pa . 
as second-class matter. 

Subscription Price Fifty cents a year, in 
advance, postpaid. 

Address all letters and money to 

P. J. McGuire. 

Bo* >s|. Philadelphia. Pa. 



PhILA., MARCH, 1899. 



Life’s Labor. 



9it not idly down, my Brother, 
There is labor to be done ; 
There are forces to be conquered 
Ere the final triumph's won. 



'Round thy pathway, O my Brother, 
Foes may lurk in wait for thee : 
But with truth and self-reliance 
Thine shall be the victory. 



Wrong may smite thee, O my Brother, 
Lose not heart, truth must prevail ; 
And injustice down must tumble, 
E’en though clad in brasen mail. 



Chasms must be crossed, my Brother, 
Bridge them o’er with faith and zeal ; 
Still press onward iu the struggle 
For the prize on Fortune's wheel. 



\[ friends do ill to thee, my Brother, 

Leave the evil at their doora ; 

Their's the guilt, the shame, the scandal. 
Thine the Justice Time restores. 



Sit not idly down, my Brother, 

Start your labors now— e'en now; 
Work with patience, perseverance, 

'Till victory's wreath is on your brow. 

T. C. Walsh. 

Local Union 64, A ew York City . 



The Construction of Framed Tene- 
ments. 



on a lot ioofeet deep, it will be seen 
there is a 75-foot yard left in the rear 
which is requisite for light and ventila- 
tion. Fig 1 is a plan of one house 
showing the interior light shafts, 
which in the case of framed tene- 
ments are better laid out square or at 
right angles as seen in the engraving, 
in order that the cost be reduced as 
low as possible, as obtuse and acute 



Kittel* 

I 



-Ben 



liCjUT 






i)o 

!\oo f*f 



&r°nE- 



Fig. 1. — PLAN OF STORE FLOOR. 

angular framing is very costly, not 
alone in the labor of the framing, but 
also in the increased cost of the extra 
material. For this reason it is al- 
ways most economical to arrange the 
framing with square joints, as shown 
at Fig. i. In building the stone 
foundations the first house, No. i, 
Fig. 2, or that on the bottom, has the 



Fig. 3.— splicing posts. 

house No. 3 has its right party wall 
4 feet higher still, and house No. 4 
has Its wall 4 feet still higher, thus 
compensating for the pitch of the 
street, which will be seen by a study 
of Fig. 2, which is an elevation of the 
raised and framed principal timbers 
of the front of the houses. But the 
pitch of the street will aflect the 
framing, and unless the right-hand 
stone foundation wall be built up to 
the level of each house to the right, it 
will be necessary to change the sill 
into a girt or tie, and to mortice and 
tenon this girt into the front, rear and 
intermediate posts to properly sup- 
port the first story floor beams which 
rest on then, as seen in this figure. 
Similarly the front and rear sills must 
be framed on the left-hand end with a 
mortise and tenon, so as to tie the 
whole framed construction together. 
From the above it will be seen that 
much study must be devoted to the 
proper laying out of this style of 
buildings by the carpenter in order 
that the timbers may fit when raised. 

Now as to the height, which is of 
course outside the usual limit of one, 
two and three-story cottages and the 



up the whole height, it will be nects- 
sary to join two or more sticks end to 
end, and to brace them in such a 
manner, that there will be no danger 
of their springing or buckling. l or 
the best form of vertical joint for tl is 
I would refer the reader to sketch 
shown in Fig. 3. That splice on the 
left is to my mind the most economi- 
cal and strongest form which can !>e 
used in this class of viork, for the rea- 
son that it consumes only the extra 
length of the joint on the timber, and 
is easily ripped down from the end 
with the saw, and involves no chisel 
work whatever, if done by a careful 
hand. This joint is bolted together, 
and is stronger than that seen on the 
left, which will require more cutting, 
and though it has more bearing sur- 
face, is not as good or cheap as the 
other. 



C'NT- 






FlU. 4.— FRAMING OH »RACK. 

So to the proper bracing of long 
posts, for this the reader would be 
wise to follow the simple corner 
method, which isclearly illustrated in 
Fig* 2 and 4. with the lenon omitted. 
I am entirely opposed to putting 
tenons and mortises on these braces, 




BY OWEN B. M AGINNIS. 

HERE is no class of con- 
structive carpentry which 
requires more care, skill 
and calculation than the 
houses or edifices in which 
a number of families or persons live, 
work or congregate, as in this class 
strength and safety are the most im- 
portant factors to be considered. 

This is especially the case with 
framed houses which are built to 
accommodate three or more families, 
or as they are commonly called 
'* tenements ” of three, four or more 
stories in height, usually running 
from 35 to 60 feet to cornice, and as 
these high dimensions necessitate 
doubling and splicing of vertical sup- 
porting posts and other bearing tim- 
bers, special attention must be given 
to the framing so as to ensure abso- 
lute strength and safety. 

To illustrate this I have in this 
article taken, as an example for illus- 
tration, the practical framing of four 
four-story timber tenements, to be 
built on a street with a hill or steep 
grade (Fig. 2.) The pitch is 4 feet in 
25 feet or 16 feet drop in the whole 
100 foot plot covered by the four 
houses. Each house measures 25 feet 
front by 75 feet deep, and being each 



~1 

1 


n 


n 




1 1 








.m 7^' 






side, rear and front walls level so that 
the sills will be level all around. 
House No. 2 has its right-hand foun- 
dation party wall 4 feet higher, and 



Fig. 2 . — ELEVATION OI- ANGULAR FRAMING. 



like. Aa the corner and inside party 
and gable wall posts are so high that 
it would not be possible to obtain 
single timbers long enough to make 



and, though the method is old, it is 
nevertheless bad, because the mortis- 
ing of the girt weakens it and forms 
a receptacle for dry rot and insects 



THE CARPENTER 



0 



General Officers 

OH THK 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 

134 N. Ninth St , Philadelphia, Pa. 



General President —John William*, Utica, 
N. Y. 

Genets! Secretary-Treasurer — P J. McGttirr, 
P. (>. Box 884, Philadelphia. Pa. 

(iKNHKAL VlCF-PH KSlUKNTft. 

First Vice-President.— W. 1> Huber, 05 Waverljr 
at., Yonkers, N. Y. 

second Vice-President —William Hauer. 2810 
W Polk »t .Chicago, III. 

Gknkkal P.xhi CTiVK Board. 

(All correspondence for the G. K. I». must lie 
mailed to the General Secretary-Treasurer.) 

James M L*ne,2fltt W. 124th at., New York, N Y 

J. K. Miller, 2118 Olive st., St. Louis. Mo. 

A C. Cattermull. 1013 W. S8th »t., Sta. P., Chicago. 
Fred. C. Walx, 1.132 Broad at., Hartford, Conn 
W j. Williams, 170 Mills «t . Atlanta, Oa. 



when the timbers shrink away from 
each other and open the joint. There- 
fore a simple scarf with a spiked joint 
is the best, and the braces are so easy 
to slip in and nail in place, that the 
frame is held rigid and immovable, 
and none of the timbers are weakened 
in the framing. 

This form of building may also be 
framed and raised on the balloon sys- 
tem, but if this be done I would 
recommend that at least girts and 
posts be used to carry the floor beams, 
instead of a ribbon which is a weak 
construction, in fact, the frame should 
be half frame and half balloon, so as 
to make the buildings stiff enough to 
withstand wind pressure, the weight 
of snow or any ordinary strain. 

Fig. 5 is an elevation of a straight 
gable, and showing the braces, and 
this angular framing should be as far 
•s possible Introduced when the ab- 
sence of windows permits it. If pos- 
sible, also, these high framed houses 
Should be sheathed diagonally. Sill 
and girts might also be braced from 
piers and walls for additional strength. 




Mouldings. 

BV A. W. WOODS. 




The Lane Elevator Door Hanger. 

The accompanying cat illustrates a 
new style of hanger which Messrs. 
Lane Brothers Co., of Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., are just placing upon the 
market. It is designed especially for 
use on passenger elevator doors. So 
far as we know at present hangers 
for this purpose are usually selected 
from f.ome of the numerous styles of 
parlor or house door hangers which it 
Is claimed are not well suited for this 
use for various reasons. One of the 
most potent causes of trouble Is the 
fact that the loose or adjustable parts 
of the hanger wear abnormally, on 
account of the slamming of the doors. 
As will be seen from the illustration, 
the hanger in question has a solid 
steel frame that has no joints or 
loose parts and it Is fitted with a ball- 
bearing wheel. Particular attention 
is called to the great amount of use 
to which such hangers are subjected 
and the necessity of thorough dura- 
bility. We present a sectional view 
of the wheel and bearing used in this 
hanger which is the same as that sup- 
plied with the company’s ball-bearing 
parlor door hanger, and it is claimed 
that the cups, cones and balls are made 
in the best possible manner. The 
track is supported at the ends only, 
thus reducing to a minimum the 
work connected with erection. The 
adjustment is accomplished by means 
of the track. 




|N THE August num- 
ber of The Carpen- 
ter Mr. M. S asked 
that we give an arti- 
cle on up-to date 
mouldings. We are a little 
late getting started, but go- 
ing on the old saying of 
*• better late than never ” we 
will, so to speak, come in on 
the eleventh hour and hope 
that we may be able to say 
something that will be help- 
ful to M S. and others. The 
subject is a good one and one 
that would require considerable space 
to do justice to. Nevertheless we 
will try to be brief and to the point, 
but have thought best to divide 
the subject into two parts. The 
first part we will devote principally 
to the origin of mouldings as handed 
down by the old-time masters. The 
Greeks and Romans laid the founda- 



made in all shops worthy the name ot 
planing mill, after patterns adopted 
by the lumber associations and pub- 
lished in book form, and may be had 
of the local lumber dealers. Return- 
ing to the main subject there is no 
such thing as up-to-date moulding, 
that is of late production and univer- 
sally recognized as such. 

Within the last few years a revival 
of classic architecture has swept over 
the country, and the up to-date archi- 
tecture is found to be closely modeled 
along the lines used for enrichments 
by the ancient masters. Thus the old 
saying, “ There is nothing new under 
the sun, " forcibly presents itself. 
The accompanying illustration shows 
the classical moulds together with 
their names as used in ancient times. 

In Fig. 2 is shown the combina- 
tions of the abov“ principles as applied 
to the common stock mouldings in 
general use. 

In part two we will give illustra- 
tions of the grouping or harmonizing 
of mouldings in cornice work. 



LpÄSSlCAL 





bV 

^.W.WOODS, 



flLLEJ. 




Tof^Js. 




On/olo 




/\s>TF^/y_. 




(LOTi^y 




^VLTTO. 





gVfrJA- 



tion, and they laid it well. To-day 
after centuries of time with all of the 
labor saving devices, the present 
moulding«, are found to be modeled 
after the forms adopted by them, 
though as a rule not as methodical as 
were they. 

Machine mouldings, generally 
known as stock moulding, are now 



moil mimi luu. 

TkU Label la 
taaucd nod«( 
I authority aft ha 
1 item it toil! 
Tjpc^npklcil 
Umloi ia4 of tb« German Typographie. Tht 
Ubtl U ased os ill wop* per sad book work. 

H always boon tkc nun« and locoUoi of wkort 
Ike priatlag work li doa*. 






RETAIL CLBRKI* LABEL. 

This lB a fao-slmtlo o4 
the badge worn by all 
members of the Be toll 
Clerks' National Protect- 
ive Association of the 
United State» 8e» that 
all aaleamen and clerk» 
wear this badge, and you 
may bo euro they are 
ualoa bbb, 








4 



THE CARPENTER. 



Proceedings of deneral Executive 
Board. 



January 9th, 1899.— G. K. B. met at 8 A. M. 
All present, with exception of Bro. F. C. Walz ; 
uuable to attend, owing to sickness. 

Audit of books and accouuts of G. S T. taken 
up, and consumed the entire d <y. 



January 10th — Audit ofbooks resumed, which 
consumed the entire day. 



January 11th.— A udit of books resumed 

Communication read from Uro. F. C. Walz as 
to his illness. The Secretary whs instructed to 
express regrets of G. E. B. to Bro. Walz. 

Communication, Union 177, Springfield, Ms*«., 
aa to eligibility of William Kllico to member* 
ship in U. B , he having received disability bene- 
fits. (7. S. T. decided Kllico could not be admit- 
ted, as it appears he was again working nt the 
trade ; therefore he obtained his benefit ille- 
gally. Hence it was the duty of the Spring- 
held Union to see he returned the $200 paid him. 
G. E. B. concurred in decision of G. S. T. 

Disapproved disability claim, Andrew Watt, 
Un on 340, New York, referred to the G. K H. by 
General Convention, was taken up. The G. K. 

B. deeded the new evidence presented does not 
warrant a reversal of the adverse decision of the 
former G. K. B. 

Disapproved claim for wife funeral benefits. 
N. Neu bert, Union 375, Neu York. Aftercareful 
consideration, the G. K. B. decided to .sustain the 
G. S -T. in disapproval of the claim. 

Appeal Union 116 against decision of Chicago 
D. C , in ordering a new trial in the case of F. D. 
L. Austin i/j. Union 410. G. K. B. decide to sus- 
tain the D. C. 

Appeal Unions 309 and 875, New York, against 
New York D. C. in accepting verbal information 
from Union 476, New York, in the matter of 
electing an additional business agent in the Bor- 
ough of the Bronx. The G. K. B. sustains the 
appeal. 

Appeal R. C. Mills, Union 80, Chicago, against 
Chicago D. C. Action deferred, and D C. called 
upon to furnish copy of evidence submitted to 
Trial Board. 

Appeal H. Kruger Union, 875, New York, 
against New York D. C., sustaining action of 
Union 375 in the case of Ch. Muhleman. G K. 

B. decide to sustain D. C. 

Appeal Martin Mlckelson, Union 181, Chicago, 
against fine of $25 imposed by Chicago D. C. G. 
K B. decide to sustain action of D. C 



January 12th.— Disapproved claim wife's 
tuueial benefit, D. S McDouald, Union 35, bus- 
ton. G. S.-T. instructed to communicate with 
Union 33 for further information. 

Appeal Union 173, New York, against action of 
New York D. C. compelling them to pay sick 
benefits to Bro. Geo. Speyer. (7. S -T. instructed 
to communicate with Union 173 requesting cer- 
tain information 

Appeal Union 247, Brooklyn, against Kings 
C mnty D. C., regarding payment of cettain ex- 
penses incurred in election of business agents. 
Appeal dismissed. 

Appeal John Menbach and others against Chi- 
cago D. C., in imposing fines on them for work- 
ing for less than scale of wages. G. B. B. decides 
to call on the D. C. for all information bearing 
upon case. 

Appeal Carl Sarb, Kmll Netsel, Henry Schmidt 
and J. Boldt, against Chicago D. C., in imposing 
fines on them for working below scale of wages. 
In the cases of Smrb, Nitzel and Schmidt, the D. 

C. ia sustained. The appeal of J. Boldt is sus- 
tained and action of D. C reverse 1. 

Appeal Geo. Price, against Chicago D. C. in 
imposing sn excessive fine on him. G. K. B. sus- 
tains the appeal and orders D. C. to reduce same 
to 910. 

G. K. B. received information ths D C. of Chi- 
cago, that iuatmctlona in Kiser esse had been 
complied with, therefore D. C. is entitled to col- 
lect fines from K Anderaou, Chas Johnson, C. 
Swanson, Chits, hoveling Pines were held In 
abeyance pending compliance with decision. 



January 13th. -Appeal T. Smith, Union 600, 
New York, against said Union, for refusing to 
comply with decision rendered by G. K. B. July 
21, 1898. Appeal sustained and Union given 
until Peb. 1st, to comply with said decision. 

Appeal Union 509, New York, against NewY 

D. C. G. K. B. declines to couside” appeal until 
Union 508 obeys laws of U. B., complying with 
decision rendered in Smith case. 

Communication from D. C., Philadelphia, 
requesting presence of representative of G. K. 
B. at meeting held th<*t evening. Bros, haue 
and Cattermull instructed to represent G. K B. 

Consideration of papers submitted by G. tt.-T. 
relative to claim fer disability of K. J. Findlay, 
Union 118, Manchester, N. H. Decision of G 8.- 
T concurred in. 

Appeal C. P. Lind, Union 181, Chicago, against 
Chicago D. C., in imposing fine of $26 and sus- 
pension. Action of D. C. sustained. 

Appeal A. N. Hobbit, against Chicago D. C., In 
imposing fine of 925 for violations of trade rules. 
Appeal sustained, action of D. C. reversed. 

Disapproved claim for wife funeral benefit. 
John Maus, Union 61, New York. Laid over un- 
til April meeting. 



January 14th.— Appeal John Jeckenbach, 
Union 5, St. Louia, against St. IsOuis D. C. in im. 
posing fine of fro for violating trade rules Action 
of D. C. sustained. 

Appeal Jas. Koehler, against Chicago I). C. in 
imposing excessive fine. Appeal dismissed. 

Appeal P J. McCormack and others, against 
Newark D. C. Laid over until appellants comply 
with Constitution, filing copy of appeal w-ith 
D. C. 

Bros. L*ne and Cattermull reported on visit to 
D. C ol Philadelphia. 

Communication from Union 122. Oermantowr , 
requesting permission to withdraw from Phila- 
delphia D C. Request denied. 

Appeal A. K. Anderson against Galveston D. 

C. in impoairg fine upon him. D. C sustained. 

Appeal Union 526 against ruling by Galveston 

D. C. imposing fine of $15 upon non-members. 
Appeal sustained. Action of I>. C. reversed. 

G. S T. laid before the G. K B papers, etc., 
pertaining to strike ordered by New York D. C. 
against N. Y. city carpenters. Strike pay rolls 
were examined and ordered filed. 

Communication from 2nd Gen. Vice Pres. 
Bauer was read and ordered filed. 

Appeal Union 160 Kansas City against Kansas 
City D. C., in sustaining Union 219 in the matter 
of initiating a former member of Union MO. 
Laid over to await reply from D. C. 

Bro. Miller reported on the case of Kx- Union 
4 of St. Louis. Report concurred in by G. K. B. 
and agreement ordered filed. 

January 16.- Communication from Pittsburg 
D. C. preferring charges against Union 165, vio- 
lating Sec. 47 of Constitution. The G. E. B. 
hereupon calls on Union 165 to comply with the 
prov sions of Sec. 47 within 80 days. 

Audit of book* resumed. 

Communication from Geo. D. Gaillard Presi- 
dent of New York D. C. relative to admission of 
English speaking Framers into U. B. Referred 
to G. S.-T. to secure further information. 

Communication from <47 Cripple Creek rela- 
tive to the defense of a member of said Union 
under indictment tor boycott. Referred to G S.- 
T. to secure further information. 

Communication from Newark D. C. asking 
for appropriation of $530 to reimburse depleted 
treasuries. G. K B. decides it has no authority 
to appropriate money for such purposes. 

G. S.-T. submitted papers relative to contro- 
versy between New York D. C and the Batavia 
and New York Woodworking Company. The 
G. P. also presented full report of investigation 
made by him. G. K. B decides that D. C. must 
give specific reasons why product of Batavia 
Company should be declared unfair, and the (7, 
ft.-T. ia instructed to secure a statement on the 
subject from the D. C. Future course will be 
determined by nature of reply. 

January 17.— Audit of books resumed and 
coutinued during entire day. 

January 18.— In compliance with instructions 
of Convention G. K. B proceeded to investigate 
errors reported in books by Committee ou 
Finance. Investigation occupied entire day. 

January 19.— Appeal B. Fitzgerald against 
Chicago D. C in imposing fine on him for 
alleged violation of trade rules. Laid over until 
D. C. files answer to appeal. 

G. S.-T. laid before G. K B. copy of agree- 
ment formulated by Kiu«s County D. C . where- 
by United Order of Stair Builders could be ad- 
mitted into U. B. Referred toG. S.-T. to secure 
more definite information. 

Investigation of books resumed 

Appeal John A. Swartz, Union 24, Batavia, 
read and referred to G. P. 

Application Westchester D. C. for permission 
to strike, with financial aid. Laid over until 
Ap'll meeting, and G. S.-T. ordered to commu- 
nicate with D. C. urging greater eflort to or- 
ganise the trade. 

Report of canvassers of geuersl vote on amend- 
ments to Constitution was examined md found 
correct. G. K. B. requests G. S. T. to call atten- 
tion of Unions through Thk Cahpkntkr to 
changes made requiring amended local laws, 
and especially to changes relating to appeals 
and grievances. 

All documents relating to appeals, and other 
official communications, must bewritteu in Eng- 
lish. 

The G. K. B., G. P. and G. S.-T. discussed ques- 
tions affecting the interests of the U B In view 
of the defeat of proposition to create an organiz- 
ing fund, it was the unanimous conclusion of 
those present that something had to be done to 
strengthen and buil up our organisation. The 
G. B. B. decides that the G 8.-T. and G. P. shall 
prepare a plan of pro'ecutiug this work, to be 
embodied in a circular letter to the Unions, 
whereby their co-operation may be secured in 
this Important work. 

Communication from Union 822, Los AngMes, 
slso from Richmond Borough D. C., requesting 
financial assistance to organize those localities. 
Referred to G. S.-T , with discretionary power. 

January 20th.— Appeal Ball Committee Asso- 
ciated Locals New York against Union 63 for re- 
fusing to meet its share of expenses incurred. 
Appeal sustained, and Union 63 ordered to dis- 
charge its obligation. 

Appeal Union 434, Chicago, against Chicago I). 
C . in the matter of trial of aeveral members 
of Union 484 by D. C. Laid over until D. C. 
could be heard from. 



# Communication from J. D. Cowper relative to 
Union 108, Lynn, Mass. Referred to G. 1*. and 
G. S.-T. 

Appeal Olaf Carlson, against Chicago D. C., in 
imposing fine on him for violating trade rules. 
Laid over until D C. can he heard from. 

Appeal Cleveland D C., against Union 1 19. 
Laid over until l'«*ion 149 files answer. 

Communication Union Ml, requesting French 
translation of Constitution, and that translator 
be chosen in Montreal. Request denied. 

G. E. B. decides the only official and correct 
copy of Constitution is that printed in English. 
Translated copies may be had through General 
Office, on payment of additional c^st of trans- 
lation and printing 

G.S.-T. informed G.K. B that accommodations 
of office had become insufficient, that more con- 
venient quarters are needed. Laid over uutil 
April meeting. 

Investigation ofbooks was resumed. G. K. B. 
decided to refer the whole matter to the G. 1*. 
and G. S -T. with authority to take such steps as 
will protect the intere-ts of U. 11. 

G. E- B completed audit of books aud accounts 
of G. S.-T. from which the following summary 
is drawu. 

Gknkrai. Fund. 

Balance on hand. July 1, 189*« f *8 7 > 21 

Receipts July, August, September . . MM 10 



Expenses for same period . . . 



937.611 ..1 
1 • i 67*f * » 1 



Balance on hand, Oct. 1, 1898 
Receipts October, November, Dec. 



|2l 936 1 4 ) 
20, Inti 88 



Expenses for same period 



$ 12,012 *8 
22 592 <1 



Balance on hand, January 1, 18'.»9 , . fl*t,ft5n .7 



Adjourned to meet Mouday, April lu. 1899. 

J. R. Millkr, Sfc. <J. A. 

Attest : 

P. J. McGuirk, G.S.-77 



What the United Brotherhood Hm 
D one. 



The United Brotherhood of Cirpenters and 
Joiners of America was founded in Convention 
at Chicago, August 12, KM At first it had only 
twelve local unions and 2,142 members Now, in 
seventeen years, it has grown to number 428 local 
Unions in 406 cities, and has over 4o,000 enrolled 
members It is organized to protect the Carpen- 
ter Trade from the evils of low prices and botch- 
work ; its aim is to encourage a higher standard 
of skill and better wages; to re-establish an 
Apprentice System, aud to aid aud assist the 
members by mutual protection and benevolent 
means; it pays a Wife Funeral Benefit of from 
$25 to $50; a Members Funeral Benefit, $100 to 
$200; and a Disability Benefit, $100 to $400. In 
these General Benefits $85,000 have been ex- 
pended the past two years, and J628,708since the 
year 18811, while $683 644 more were spent in that 
period for Sick Benefits by the local Unions. 
This is fully One and a guarter Millions of Dol- 
lars expended for benevolent and charitable pur- 
poses. Such an organisation is worth tne atten- 
tion of every Carpenter. The Brotherhood is 
also a Protective Trade Union as well as a 
Benevolent Society. It has raised the wages in 
hundreds of cities, and placed fully Hive and a 
Half Million Dollars more wage«* annually in 
the pocketaof the Carpenters in those cities. It 
reduced the hours of labor to 8 hours a day in 
105 cities, and 9 hours a day in four hur- 
died and twenty-six cities, not to sptak of 
many cities which have established the 8 and 9 
hour system on Saturdays. By this means 
15 130 more men have gained employment. 
Thia is the result of thorough organiza- 
tion. Aud yet very few strikes have occurred, 
and very little money has been spent on strikes 
by thia society It ia not a secret oath-liound 
organization. All competent Carpeaters are 
eligible to join, and this card is an invitation to 
you as an Intelligent mechanic to stud iu your 
application for membership in the Carpenters 
Union in your city. It is a branch of the 
Brotherhood, its dues are sn* ’’ in comparison 
with the benefits, and it /our iutercat to 

)”<n this growing and powerful body. 



CUSTOM T A M ORS* LAI 



i 

5 






All Trade. Unlontrt. are requested to uk fbr 
th« lab at of Ihe Journeyman Tailora’ Union, and 
laaist on having It when they order any clothing 
from a merchant tailor. It la to be found In the 
Inalde breaat pocket of the coat, on the ander 
•Ide of the buckle atrip of the vert, and on the 

r.* U, an 1,oln * of U>e panta. It la printed la 
black l.,k on white linen, with the word« »Jour- 
Mjrmeo Tailora* Union of Amarlea " lo red Ink in 
the eeatre. »It menu n fklr price for food work 



Eight-hour Cities. 



Below is a list of the cities and towns whrr* 
carpenters make it a rule to work ouly ngfc 
hours a day : 



Alameda, Cal. 

Aita Lomu. Tex 
Ashland, \\ is. 

Austin, 111. 

Bikersfield Cal 
Bedford Park, N. Y. 
Bei keley, Cal 
Bessemer Col. 

Brighton Park 111. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Caro ode let, Mo. 
Chicago. III. 

Chicago Heights, 111. 
Cleveland, o. 

Corona, N. Y. 

Cripple Creek. Col. 
Denver, Col, 

Detroit, Mich. 

Hast St. Louis, 111. 

Kl D Col. 
Elmhurst, 111. 

Engl ewood. 111. 
Kuteka, Cal. 

Evanston, 111. 

Flushing, N. Y. 
Fremont, Col. 

Fresno, Cal 
Galveston, Tex. 

Gilette, Col. 

Grand Crossing, III 
Haughville. Inu. 

Ilauf ird. Cal. 

Highland Park, 111. 
Hitchcock, Tex. 

Hyde 1 ark. 111. 
Independence, Col. 
Indiana polis, Tmi. 

Irvi iRt on. N J. 

Kansas City Mo. 
Kensin gton, 111. 

Kingsh ridge. N. Y 
La Jun ta. Col. 

Lake Forest. III. 

Le idville. Col. 

Long Island Citv. N. Y. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Lvnn, Mass 
Maywood, III. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Milwaukee, Wia. 

Mo treland, 111. 

Ml. Vernon. N. Y. 

Mt. Vernon, Ind. 



Murphysboro, 111. 
Newark, N J. 

New Brighton N. V 
Newtown, N Y. 

New York. N. Y. 
Oakland. Cal 
Oak Park. 111. 

Omaha, Neb. 

< »range, N. J. 

Ouray. Col 
Pasadena, Cal. 

Port Richmond, N. y. 
Pueblo, Col. 
Raiid-hurg, Cal. 
Rochester. N. Y. 
Rogers Park. 111. 
Sacramento, Cal. 

Sait Lake. I tab 
Sau Antonio, Tex 
San Francisco. Cal. 
San Luis Obi*i>o,Cal 
San Jose, Cal 
San Rafael, Cal 
Santa Barham, Cal. 
Seattle, Wash 
Sheboygan Wis. 
South Chicago, III. 
South Deliver, Col 
Soul ti Evanston. III. 
South Englewood. III. 
South Omaha Neb. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Springfield 111. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Stapleton, N y. 
Stockton. Cal 
Swamps*. ntt Maas. 
Syracuse, N Y. 

Texas City. Tex 
Town of Lake. IU. 
Tremont. N Y. 
Unionport, N Y. 

Van Nest N. Y. 
Venice. III. 

Victor. Col. 

Waco, Tex. 
Washington, D C. 
Westchester. N. Y. 
Whatcom Wash. 
Williamsbridge N. Y. 
Woodlawn.N Y. 
Yonkers, N. Y. 



Total 105 cities. 



Rules Regarding Apprentices. 



tract for a term of four years. 



At the Detroit Cooveotlon of the United Broth 
erhord of Carpenters snd Joiners of Anieric* 
held August 8-11 , 1HK8, the following rules in rela 
Lion to apprentices were . ^proved, and the Loca 
Unions are urged to secure their enforcement 
Wheteai, The rapid influx of unskilled and in- 
competent men in the carpenter trade has had 
of late years, a very depressing and injuring! 
effect upon the mechanics in the business, to t 
has a tendency to degrade the standard of skil 
and to give no encouragement to young men tc 
become apprentices and to master the trade 
thoroughly ; therefore, in the best interests ol 
the craft, we declare ourselves in favor of the fol- 
lowing rules : 



Suction 1. The indenturing of apprentices ti 
the best means calculated to give that efficiency 
which it is desirable a carpeuter should posses* 
and also to give the necessary guarantee to the 
employers that some return will he made to then 
for a proper effort to turn out competent work 
men ; therefore, we direct that all Local Union* 
under our jurisdiction shall use every possible 
means, wherever practical, to introduce the ay* 
tem of Indenturing apprentices. 



Rkc. 2. Any boy or person hereafter engagini 
himself to learn the trade of carpentry, shall bf 
required to serve a regular apprenticeship cl 
four consecutive years, and shall not he condd 
•red a journeyman unless he has complied will 
this rule, and is twenty-one years of age at Ihr 
completion of his apprenticeship. 



Rkc. 8. All boys entering the carpenter trad# b 1 
with the Intention of learning the business shall ^ 
be held by agreement, indenture or written cos k% 



bac. 4. When a boy shall have contracted will 
sn employer to serve a certain tenn of years, ht 
shall, ou no pretense whatever, letve aaid em- 
ployer and contract with another, without the 
full and free consent of said first employer, 
unless there is just cause or that such change li 
made in consequence of the death or relinquish 
menl of business by the first employer ; any sp 
prentice so leaving shall not be permitted to 
work under the jurisdiction of any Local Umos 
In our Brotherhood, but shall he required to re 
turn to hia employer and aerve out his apprta* 
tlceahlp. 



Sec. 6. It is enjoined upon each Local Unios 
to make regulations limiting the number of sp 
prentices to be empl .» /ed in each shop or mill W 
one for such number of journeymen as may 
seem to them just; and all Unions are recom- 
mended to admit to membership apprentice* is 
the last year of their apprenticeship, to the end 
that, upon the expiration of their terms of ap 
prenticeship they may become acquainted with 
the workings of the Union, and be better fitted 
to appreciate Its prK'leges and obligations upon 
assuming full membership. 




THE CARPENTER 



7 



Klaffenerfrnnlnjffr 

„ rlfnntnifc feiner Klaffenlage ift für 

h , ■ ben Arbeiter ber SBega>eifer, ber 

1 OH iftm bie Bal>n begeidbnet, auf ber 
er feinen Bormarf# gu beroirfen 
bat unb if)m au<b bie Mittel an 
bie feanb giebt, ben enbgültigen SBeg feiner 
Beftrebungen berbeijufübren. 

Bur ber flaffenbenmfite Ärbeiter ifl in alien 
8eben«lagen guoetläfflg, roetterfeft unb 
R»rmerprobt. Ter Kampf ifl fein element. 
3ebnma! unterlegen, ift fein Utufb ungebeugt, 
Metet er field oon Beuem bem (S'gner muting 
We Stirn. Ter flaffenberoufcte Arbeiter roeifj, 
baft au<b eine erlittene Bieberlage feine B»' 
fttion auf bie Tauer nicht tu ftbmäcben oer« 
mag ; er roeifc, ba§ fte im (Gegenteil ben 
Änfiofc giebt, neue Äiiifte |»eranj|U 5 ie ^cn, bie 
Refetoen mobil gu madden, bie ffm'ftfbtnben 
aafjurütteln, bie ^nbtfferenten bet Drgani» 
fttion gugufüljren. 

Ter Ärbeiter. einmal §ur grfenntnift feiner 
Klaffenlage gefommen, ift gegen alle Gin» 
flflfterungen ober fiiebedeiroerbungen ebenfo 
ewrfinblidj, al# ihn Ttobungen ober gar 
3ltbi».*?5fngen fall laffen. Ter flaffenbe« 
muftte Ärbeiter ift frei oon jeher felbftifdjen, 
etgennüfeigen, nur ber petfönlitben Bottbeil 
»obtnebmenben Begung. Der flaffenberoufite 
Arbeiter lennt nur einen SBeg fein perfönlitfte« 
Jntereffe |U roabren ; am Änfang biefe# 
®ege« flebt ber SBegmeifer, ber bie jnftbtift 
trägt : „Giner für Äüe. unb ÄUe für Ginen." 

Sei flaffenberoufsten Ärbeitern gebt bad 
*Tfönli<be ^ntereffe in bem ^ntereffe ber 
Ugemeinbeit auf, fällt mit biefem innig gu» 
ftmmen. Gine SBaljrung ber perfönlicben 
3ntereffen ift bei flaffenbeoufeten Ätbeitem 
fleicbbebeutenb mit ber SBabrung ber 3n« 
bereifen ber Allgemeinheit. Tie gleiche 9lotb* 
läge führt bie Ärbeiter gum Klaffenberoufet« 
, fein, bie gleite CpferrotQigfeit, ber blühet« 
■* liebe Beifianb, ber gleiche (Genufc eningenber 
1 Bortbeile ftnb ber Äutflufc biefe« Klaffenbe« 
1 »ufitfeind. 

Seiber bat bie gleiche Botblage, ipeltbe 

I Ihren oerberblicben Ginflufe auf ben gefamm» 

* ten Ärbeiterftanb audübt, noch nicht oermocht, 

, tüe Ärbeiter gum Bacboenfen anguregen unb 
„ bie tlaffenberoufcten Äibeiter erjieben. Tie« 

< lommt baber. bafe ed gerabe nicht fo leicht ifl, 

II bie Qrunburfacbe ber Botblage be« Ärbeiter» 
flanbe« — bie tapitaliftifcben Brobuttion in 
•Den Sbafen gu buTchfchauen. 2Bitb auf bie 

i «och nicht gut Grfenntnifi gelangten Ärbeiter, 
J tuf bie flroetfler unb ungläubigen Zbomafc, 
1 nicht bei jeher (Gelegenheit eingemirft, fo 
‘ bleiben biefelben in bem fchroer gu übertoin» 
[. benben $atali(mu« befangen, bet bem aufge» 

* Bärten Ärbeiter gu beffen Berbrufc immer 

* »ieber mit ben SBorten entgegen tritt : 3«. 
y Stecht baft Tu ja, aber erreichen »irft Tu 

hoch nicht« ; ober, ich bin fchon gu alt getoor» 
1 ban, labt bie Beftrebungen ben jüngeren gu» 
‘ lammen, ich barf mir meine ÄrbeitdfteOe au« 
i 9ami(ienrücffi<bten nicht gefäbrben. Tiefe 

> 3»eifler unb SBibetflrebenben ftnb unter 

* tlmftänben noch feflere ©tügen be« Unter» 
ntbmertbum« al« bie oöllig 3nbifferenten, 

< We oöQig Umoiffenben. Tie erfieren er» 
c wägen immer erft oorflchtig alle Goentuali» 
K täten ab, ehe fte ihre Gntfcheibung treffen. 

6ie ftnb bie Sicherbeittfommiffäre, bie erfl 

* feben wollen, wie ber feafe läuft, benen erfl 

* We Sicherheit be« Gefolge« garantirt unb 
", mit feänben greifbar erfcheinen mufi, ebe fte 

fleh mit ihren ÄrbeittfoHegen folibarifch er» 
1 Bären. G« ftnb bie 3Qei«beitofrämer, bie 
‘ (Kenn bureb ihre eigene gweifelbafte Haltung 
’ bie Botblage ber Ärbeiter eine immer oer« 
i gweifeltere wirb, unb ba« momentane Äuf« 
bäumen gegen biefelbe, eingelne Kollegen ber 
brutalen Reinigung bureb bie feungerpeitfebe 
überantwortet, mit bem Ringer an ber Bale 

* betonen, „3a, bod tonnte ich euch oorau«» 
fagen, bah e« fo fommen würbe.“ Sie wollen 
«« mit bem Unternehmer nicht oetberben, fl<h 
«ber auch nie^t gang oon ben Kollegen 
(foliren. 

Tie« Schwanlen, biefe Halbheit gereicht 
•bet ben llaffenbewuftten unb unter bem Gin« 
flufl be« Klaff enbenufctfein« Mnbelnben Br* 
beitem meiften« gröber »um Äacbtb«il, al« 



ba« Verhalten bet oöllig 3nbifferenten. Tie 
Se|teren ftnb entweber bet Äufflärung gu« 
gänglich, ober aber auä werben biefelben bei 
oorlommenben Altionen in bie Bewegung 
bineingegogen, ber fle ft<h bann mit ihrem 
Tenlen unb fffüblen bingeben. Biel fommt 
ed barauf an, baf) Ärbeiter, bie ben etflen 
Anftofe gum Ba<bbenfen über ihre Botblage 
empfangen haben, in oetflänbiger SBeife an 
bie feanb gegangen wirb, bamit fl<h biefelben 
baflWafi wirtbfchaftlicherKenntniffe aneignen, 
bafc fle felbftftänbig in ber Sage ftnb, gegen» 
tbeilige Meinungen wibetlegen gu tonnen. 
Bi<bt« macht ben Ätbeiter fattelbafter, al« 
wenn er ba«, toa« er inflinttio für recht unb 
wichtig hält, auch etfolgreicfj gegen Ängriffe 
gu oertbeitigen mag. Tie Klaffenerfenntnifc 
be« Ärbeiter« bat gur Sorau«fe|ung, bah er 
fleh Har macht, bafc bie 3ntereffen oon Kapi« 
tal unb Ärbeit unter ber Sorbebingung bet 
tapitalifiifchen Srobuttion niemal« bie 
gleichen ftnb, nicht« mit einanber gemein 
haben, fonbem ft<b fcharf oon einanber fchei» 
ben, feir.blich einanber gegenüber flehen, 
fflarum flnb bie 3ntereffen oon Kapital unb 
Ärbeit fleh nicht ergängenbe, fleh nicht einan« 
ber bebingenbe ? 

Behaupten ja both bie fogenannten fear» 
monieapoflel bad (Gegenteil oon bem, wa« 
hier al« bie Borau«fe«ung ber Klaffener» 
tenntnife bingefteDt wirb ! Tie 3 n i*«ff«tt 
oon Kapital unb Ärbeit flehen fleh um be«» 
willen feinblich einanber gegenüber, weil ber 
3wecf ber tapitalifiifchen fyobuftion nicht in 
oolltrmmenften, 3*bermann leicht unb au«» 
tömmliih gugänglicbften OütereTgeugung be» 
fleht, fonbem weil ber 3<oect ber tapitalifti» 
fchen Brobuftion barin befiehlt, für ba« Kapi» 
tal ben gröfctmöglichften Brofit betaudgu» 
fcblagen. Äl« bie tapitaliftifche Btobuttton 
in bem 3nbuftriali«mud ihren Gingug hielt, 
fuebten bie Sobbubeler beffelben, bem Bolle 
ben Segen beffelben baburch begreiflich gu 
machen, bah fte oertünbeten, e« breche nun« 
mehr eine neue Äera bet Bettilgung aller 
Brobutte an, bie männiglich geftaite, mehr 
Bebütfniffe mit bem feither oerbienten Sohn 
gu befnebigen. $ür bie erfte Betiobe be« 
3nbuftrialidmuS traf biefe Behauptung auch 
gu. Tie Ärbeiter fanben gern unb willige 
Äufnahme bei gutem Serbienfl. Toch ber 
IBahn war turg unb bie fteue lang. Tie 
planlofe tapitaliftifche Brobuttioe entfeffelte 
einen wilben Konturrengtampf, btt ben 
Kapitalidmu« nöthigte, nach Blittel gu 
fueben, bie Biobuttion<toft«>» herabjufe|en, 
um billigere Serfauf«offerten auf bemfßaaren. 
martt machen gu tönnen. Tie meitgebenbfte 
Ginführung ber Teilarbeit, begünfligt burch 
eine fletig fleh oerooUtommnenbe Zechnit, war 
bie 3olge. 

Ärbeitdloflgteit unb flntenbe Söhne oer» 
breiteten berart Schreiten, bah bie Äu^beut» 
ung ber benötigten Ärbeitdfräfte oon bem 
Kapital in« Ungemeffene au«gebehnt werben 
tonnte. SBeber ©efunbheit noch Seben«bauer 
be« Ärbeiter« brauchte gefchont gu wetben. 
Sinb bie Kräfte be« Ginen erfchöpft, gehn 
Änbere flehen bereit bie Stelle um noch g** 
fchmälerten Sohn eingunehmen. Tem Ärbei» 
ter trat jeht mit erfchrectenber Teutlichteit 
bie Thattache oor Äugen, bah auch ihre 
Ärbeitdtraft ein Zheil ber Brobuftiontfoflen 
fei, bie ben gleichen Schmanfungen be« 
Breife« unterworfen waren, wie bie fRoh» 
materialien, bie fle unter ihren feänben oer« 
arbeiteten. Än ihrem eigenen Selbe muhten 
bie Ärbeiter bie Grfabrung machen, bah ihre 
Ärbeit«fraft ben Stempel be« SBaarentarat« 
ter« trage, bah fle täuflich feien auf bem 
Btartte, nach bem @»fe| ba« ben Biarttprei« 
regulirt, — nach Ängebot unb Bachfrage. 

Tie Ärbeiter machten aber auch noch bi« 
weitere unangenehme Gntbe cf ung, bah ihnen 
jegliche Ginwirtung, Ängebot unb Bachfrage 
gu regeln, burch bie Gntmicfelung ber fapital» 
iftifchen Brobuttion unb berm SBirfungen, 
unter ben feänben entfehwunben war, bah 
ihnen jeglicheGinwirlung unb Blitbefiimmung 
auf ben Bertaufgpreid ihrer Ärbeit«traft ent» 
gogen fei. Ta« oorhanbene, bauernb oor» 
hanbene grö re ÄrbeitSangebot übet bie oon 
ber tapitalifiifchen Brobuttion benötigte 
Kopfgahl ber Ärbeiter hinau«, oerleiht bem 



Kapitalismus ba« furchtbare Uebergemicbt, 
ade Beftrebungen be« Ärbeiterflanbe« feine 
Sage auf ber Srunblage ber Änerlennung 
feiner Gfleichbeiechtigung gu oetbeffem, nie» 
berguhatten- Tie« Uebergewicht wirb bet 
Kapitalismus fo lange befifcen unb auch rücf * 
fcchttlo« auSüben, fo lange e« nicht gelingt, 
auf ®runb ba oorgetragenen Klaffenertennt» 
nih bie Ärbeitermaffen gur Klaffe gu organi« 
firen. 

feierau« ergiebt fi<h bie Zhätigteit ber 
organiflrten Ärbeiter »on felbfl. Bei ihren 
Beftrebungen müffen fle jebergeit bie Äuf» 
flärung ber Blaffen al« ihr oomehmfleS 3**1 
betrachten. Bur bie 3 a hl brr gur Gttenntnih 
ihrer Klaffenlage gelangten Ärbeiter, (äht 
einen Schluh gu, wie weit ber Girfluh ber 
Ärbeiter auf bie @eftaltung ber öffentlichen 
Becht«o»rhältniffe reicht beg. ft<h 3 ( l tun 0 
oerfchaffen tann. 

Tie Ohnmacht gegenüber bem Kapitalid» 
mu«, wogu ber eingelne Arbeitet oerurtheilt 
ifl, gwingt ihn, ftd) nicht nur einer fachgewert» 
liehen Organifation angufchliehen, fonbem 
auch auf bem politifchen ffiege fich gu otr« 
einigen, fleh loStrennen oon aden bürgerlichen 
Barteien. Behergige ein 3<ber, ber, unter 
G'tenntnih ihrer Klaffenlage feflgefügten 
unb geglieberten Ärbeitermaffe ift e< ootbe* 
halten, ade Klaffenuntetfchiebe gu befeitigen. 
Bach biefer Ginftcht gilt e« gu hanbeln. 
fe. D., Blitglieb bet 
Sotal Union 375, 

Bew ?)orf. 




MorifT Vernon, N. Y. 

January 30, 1899. 

Wbkrkas It has pleased the Almighty Ruler 
of the Universe to call upon this Union and 
remove from our midst our most worthy Brother 
Covert, therefore be it 

Resolved, That we tender our sincere sympathy 
to the bereaved wife and children, in their sor* 
row, and pray God to ease the aching void 
caused by death, and that each of us may 
realise the fact, that, as our Brother was called 
away so suddenly, so may we be called. 

Resolved , That a copy of these resolutions be 
tendered the family, and be published in our 
local papers, a copy be sent to our official paper 
The Carpenter for publication and also be 
spread upon the minutes of this Local. 



John L. Dbvkacoh,\ 

A. H. Parker. > 



Committee . 



Minneapolis, Minn. 

February 4, 1899. 

Wiirkras. It has pleased our Almighty God, 
in His infinite wisdom to remove from our midst 
our esteemed Brother Lucius Judd, and 

Wii krbas, the members of Local Union No. 7, 
feel the loss of a faithful membei . and an earn- 
est promoter of Unionism, therefore be it 
Resolved , That we difepe our charter for thirty 
days and that we express our sincere sympathy 
to the bereaved family of our deceased brother 
and be it also 

Resolved , That a copy of these resolutions be 
spresd on the minutes of this Union that a copy 
be sent to the bereaved widow and also to the 
Carpenter our official Journal for publication. 
Tiios. Hetman. \ 

H Mknpkickson, > Committee, 

V. Lindhom. ) 



Denver, Colo. 

February 7, 1899. 

Whereas, It has pleased the Master Builder 
of the Universe, to remove from our midst our 
late and respected Brother, Francis Short, 
therefore be it 

Resolved, That L. U. No. fio U. B. C. & J of A., 
mourn the loss of Brother Francis Short, and 
extend its sympathy to the bereaved widow in 
her hour of affliction, and we trust that the 
severity of the blow may be mitigated by the 
remembrance that we will all meet again in 
the celestial home above. And be it further 

Re soiled, That our charter be draped for thirty 
days, sad thst these resolutions be spresd upon 
the minutes ; s copy presented to the widow ; 
snd slso published in our official organ The 
Carpenter. 



Wm. H. Taylor, \ 

Geo. H. Wilson, v Committee. 
Wm. C. Ritch. J 



New London, Conn. 

February 9th, 1899. 

Whbrfas, It has pletsed Almighty God, the 
Master Builder of the Universe, to remove from 
us our Brother Richard T. Cullen, r most 
worthy member of Union No. 133. 

Resolved , That in the death of Brother Cullen 
we all recogniae the fact thst no man knoweth 
when the grim reaper death will cut us down, 
and, while lamenting his less, we tender the be- 
reaved fami y our sincere sympathy in their loss 
of a loving Brother. 

Resolved , That our charter be draped for thirty 
days; also a copy of these resolutions be sent to 
the family, and also published in our official 
journal, Ter Carpenter. 

Geo. W. Arnold, \ 

A. G. Krrnry, / Committee. 

Kdward Klliott« J 







FOR TAX, PINS AND 8UPPLIK8. 



Dur* Jg the month ending January 81, 1899. 
Whenever any errors appear notify the 0. 8.-T. 
without delay. 



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15—21 80 
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23 11 60 

24 34 25 

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27 16 00 

28 11 .55 

29 26 40 

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31 19 90 

83 30 00 

34 14 75 

85 8 20 

3 # it 60 

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88 6 20 

39 8 00 

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42 9 70 

43 99 60 

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47 29 40 

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64—60 85 
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73 84 20 

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92 9 70 

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97 8 70 

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107 — 20 80 

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112 60 20 

114 11 90 

115 69 00 

116 2 80 

119 29 60 

120 6 80 

121 10 75 

122 11 6.5 

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128 2 60 

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134 6 80 

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136— 4 90! 
137 7 00! 

139 14 80 

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365 18 

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881 17 

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564 10 20 

567 33 10 

578 3 40 

580 .1 20 

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592 21 95 

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611 — 3 90 

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617 8 00 

622 30 60 

«28 8 .56 

«87 10 70 

688 10 60 

639 - — 18 50 

«60 4 20 

662 17 70 

658 3 00 

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676 8 90 

878—10 60 

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692 2 40 

696 6 66 

708 3 60 

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707 11 20 

712 2 60 

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r&i 65 




8 



THE CARPENTER. 






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! 

i 




ALABAMA. 

8». Mobile— D. French. Ml Charleston *t. 

K2. '• (Col.) W. G. Lewis, 751 St. Louis at. 

ARKANSAS. 

248 Fayetteville— R. M. Gant 
86. Ft. Smith-H. G. Reed 

CALIFORNIA. 

194. Alameda— C* H. Thrane, 297 * Johnson are 
332. Los Angeles— S. Gray, box 224. 

.3«. Oakland— Chas J. Jacobs. 1767 Grove at. 

235 Kivkksi dk— Chas. liaunlton. Vine and 
Sixt h Ms. 

San Francisco— Secretary of Dist. Council, 
Wm. J Kidd. 220 3d *t. 

22. N. L. WaudelL H33' v Mission st., Sta. B. 

95. (Latin) L. Masarie. Hk Kriest. 

•SOI. (Ger.) \\ ru. Jilg-. 40» F. 11s worth st 
483. Guy Lathrop. 9154 Market st. 

31«. San Jose— W. I Wilcox. 525 W. Julian at. 
35. San Rafabl- J. J. Sheils, Box 194. 

CANADA. 

14 Brantford— I. W. Taylor, 158 Terrace Hill. 
h3. Halifax, N. S.— Geo. Browne. 12 Willow st. 
IK. Hamilton— W. J. Prid, 25 Nelson st. 

134. Montreal— (Pr.) K. Frechette, 231 San- 
guinet 

378 “ Allan Ramsay, 157 Quesnel st 

25V Rat Portage, Ont. Ja» T. Mar/etti. 

38 ST. Catherines— James Hindson, Henry at. 
27 Toronto— D D McNeill. 288 Hamhiirgave. 
817. Vancouver. B. C — Alfred E Coffin, 1213 
Richard at. 

343. Winnipeg, Man — R. Bell, 76 Schultz at. 

COLORADO. 

264. Boulder— E. Lindborg. 

015, Colo, springs- F ran». Sawyer, F.lk Hotel. 
Cripple Creek— S ec. of D C., P.N. McPhee, 

Box 476. 

547. Cripple Creek— Will. Smith. 569 K Myers 
55. Denver— L. B Reeder, 1332 Calif niast. 
244 Kl Dora— J. H. Rehm. 

178. Independence— T. W. Reid, Mac n, P. O 
Box 5. 

234. Ouray— J ohn Kirby. 

584. Victor— C K. Palmer. Box 384. 

CONNECTICUT. 

115. Bridgeport— J C. Booth, 770 Norman st. 
127. Derby— G eo. If. Lamport, 36 Bank st. 

43 Hartford— A lex. McKav, 57 Wooster at. 

97 New Britain— A. L. Johnson. 114 Franklin. 
79 New Haven— Win. Wilson, .508 Chapel st 
133. New London * A G. Keenev. 1 W. Colt st. 
137. Norwich— P S Edmonds. 293 Central ave. 
746 Nor walk — W illiam A Kellogg, Box 391. 
210 Stamford— R. B. McMillin, 176 Pacific st. 
216. Tor rington— Chas Stewart. 47 Forest st. 

260. Water bury — Joa. K. Sandiford, 27 N. Vine. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

190. Washington— J. T Kenyon, 1415 Rhode 
Islaud ave., N. W. 

FLORIDA. 

224. Jacksonville- (C ol.) J. A. Sampson, 26 W. 

Union at. 

605. *• F. E. Houghton. 917 K. Church »t. 

74. Prnsacola -J. A. Lyle. 3l6lj W. Zawagossa 
61 Mi. Tampa— C. B. Hester, 2407 Tampa at. 

GEORGIA. 

439. Atlanta— T. H. J. Miller, 16 Venable at. 

136 Augusta— (C ol ) T. P. Lewis 1309 Philip st. 

240. Augusta — W. M. Hare. 1927 Watkins at. 

144. Macon— G. S. Bolton. 52U Elm st. 

261. Valdosta— S. W. Booker. 

ILLINOIS. 

433. Belleville— Henry Steiner, 605 S. Illinois 

»»tract. 

70. Brighton Park— O. Gratton. 3809 S. 
Albany Ave. 

4L Champaign— O. F. Miller, 407 Thomas ave. 
Chicago- S ecretary of District Council, 
Thos. Neale. 187 E. Wash at.. Room 7. 

L W. G. Schardt, 189 K. Washingt'n at . Room 2. 
10. J. H. Stevens, 0029 Peoria at. 

13. T J. Lelivelt. 1710 Fillmore at. 

21 (French, P. Huiion, 207 S. Center ave. 

54. (Bohera.) John Dlouhy. 12:2 W. 21 PI. 

58. William W. Ben nette 1041 Roscoeat. 

181. (Scan.) J.C. Johnson 889 N Washtenaw ave. 
242. iGer.) Hermann Voell, 4825 Pauliuaat. 

416. Jas. Bell, 1310 W. lMih PI. 

419 (Ger ) lohu Suckrau, 8253 S. Oakley ave. 

521. (Staiva) Gust. Hansen, 732 N. Rockwell st. 

204. Coffekn— J aa. Morgan. 

29,5. Collinsville— J oa. Vujtech, Lock Box 471. 
269. Danville- 

169 kamt *t Lona-K. Wendling. 512 111. ave. 
02. Englewood— A. Wisdom, 0150 Aberdeen at. 
360. Galkshitrg— C J. Johnson 879 Wash'n ave. 
141. Grd. Crossing- J Murray, 1299 H. 7lat at. 
i?4, Joliet— G D. Kanagv. 305 Richmond st. 

434. Kensington— (F r.) Ed. Lapolice, 214 W. 

116th at. 

150. Kewankk— Chas. Winquist, Box 11. 

£50. LAKE Forest— C has. Dean, Box 6.5. 

241. Moline— J ohn Carlson. 1203 7th ave. 

80. Moreland— J a*. M. Par me, 2011 Monroe at. 
Chicago. 

183. Peoria J. H. Rice, 405 Behrendsave. 

195. Peru— David George, Box 322. 

189. Quincy- F. W. Huscher, »13 S. 8th st. 

166. Rock Island-Wih Krueger. Jr„ 1101 4th. 
199. South Chicago— J. C. Grantham, 8023 Ed- 
wards ave., Sta. S, Chicago. 

16. Springfield — T. M. Blankenship, 724 S. 14th 
495. Str eator— 

448. Waukegan— J. Demereat, 719 County at. 

INDIANA. 

352. Anderson— G eo. Woodmauser. 235 W. 11th 
652. Klwood- W. H. Shaw. 1350 S A. st. 

IK). Kvansville— F. W. Klein, 513 Edgar at. 

213. Hartford City— I. O. Bault. 

Indianapoli Secretary of Dist. Council, 
D. D. Stoddard. 144 E. Washington at. 

60. (Ger ) Jm. E»*ei, 1824 Singleton st. 

281. J. T. Goode, 306 W. Maryland at. 

215. LafaykttR— H. G. Cole, 21 Hi South at. 

3A5 Marion— J. M. Simona. 609 E. Sherman at 
592. Munci*— H. P. Baker, 412 8. Franklin at. 

205. Terr* Haut»— R. W. Floyd, 1618 8d ave. 



658. Yincrnnfr — L evi Taylor, 1206 Perry at. 

220. Washington— Jaa. Ramsey, Jr., 8 6. K. 7th at 

INDIAN TERRITORY. 

*62. Muskogee— J. P. Hoamer. 

IOWA. 

315 Boone — G. L. McElroy. 

534. Burling ton— I. i lack mau,905S. Central a v. 
551. Davenport- w. C. Meyers, 432 Bradv at. 
106. Des Moines— r. S. G. Badgley, 1303 21st st. 
678. DUHfv r *F M R Hogan, 29» 7th st. 

767. Ottumwa— J.W. Morrison. 110 S. Jefferson at 

KANSAS. 



2.53. Argentine— 

138. Kansas City— M. K. Holland, .'418 Tauromee 
ave. 

4**9. Leavenworth — J no. K. Crcsaley, 9th ami 
Sherman. 

1.58. Topeka- A. M. H. Claudv. 40S Tyler st. 

201. Wichita— J. L Ta> lor, 5i.*U S. Oaage a» . 

KENTUCKY. 

712. Covington— C. Glatting, 1502 Knvanaugh st. 
78.5. “ (Ger.) B. Kumpsen. 262 W. 13th si. 

442. Hopkinsville— W. O Hall 
103. Louisville— 11. S. Huffman 1737 Gallagher. 
214. " (Ger.) J. Schneider. 11:16 H. Jacob av. 

698 Newport— W. K. Wing, 622 Central ave 

LOUISIANA. 

New Orleans— S ecretary of Dist. Council 
F. G. Wetter. 2220 Josephine at. 

78. Aug. Limberg. 714 Foucher st. 

704. F. Duhrkop. 617 Cadiz at. 

739. M. Joaquin. 1304 St. Roche ave 
85. Shreveport- L. Malkus, Box 261, 

MAINE. 

407. Lewiston— C. F. Tiaker, 19 Turner st., 
Auburn. 

MARYLAND. 

29. Baltimore— W. H. Keenan. 1519 W. Mul- 
berry st. 

44. '* (Ger.) H B. Schrceder, 2308 Canton ave. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston- Secretary of Dist. Council, C. M. 
Dempsey, 272 Meridian St. 

33. “ C. J. Gallagher. 8 Baud PL, Roxbury. 

218 E. Boston — C. M. Dcmpsev .272 Meridian st. 
223 Fall River— Isian Dion, 162 Suffolk st. 

82. Haverhill- R. A. Clara, 36 Dudley st. 

424. Hikgham— H. H. Wherity. Box 113. 

123. Holyoke— F. Marchand, 46 Cabot st. 

400. Hudson— Geo. h. Br>ant, Box 125. 

111. Lawrence— Win, C. Gemmel. 17 Crosby st. 
370. Lenox— P. H. Cannavan. Box 27. 

•49. Lowell— Frank A. Kappler.291 Lincoln st. 
221. Marblehead— R. H. Roach, 9 Kim ct. 

151. Marlboro— J. O. Donohue, 37 School st. 

40* New Bkdpord — C.G. Francis 216 North st. 
275. Newton— C L. Connors, 82 West st. 

193. North Adams- G. W. Houghton. 1 Ryon s 
Lane. 

444. Pittsfield — Chas Hvde, 16 Booth's Place. 
67. Roxhury— H. M. Taylor, 116 Whitfield st., 
Dorchester. 

96. Springfield— (French) P. Provost, Jr., Box 
48.5, Merrick. 

177. •' P. J. Collins. 136-5 State st. 

2*22. Westfield— H. G. Pomeroy, 30 Chestnut st. 
23. Worcester— W. A Rossley, o City View ave. 

MICHIGAN. 

105. Alpena— B. D. Kelly, 416 Tawas st. 

116. Bay City— K G. Gates. 218 N. Birney st. 

19. Detroit— T. S. Jordan. 427 Reaufait ave. 

196. Grand Rapids- A. Van Dyke, 64 Quimby st. 
130 Hancock— Louis Verville, Box llo 
173. Munisino— A. L. Johnson. 

1UU. Muskegon— Harlev W. starke, 11 Marshall 
59. Saginaw— P. Frisch. 501 Ward at.. K. S. 

334. M Jacob Spindler, 1323 MacKinaw st. 
46 SaultSt. Marie— A.Stowell,2h2 Portage av. 
226. Traverse City— John J. Tisdale, 3187th st. 

MINNESOTA. 

361. Duluth— John Knox, Box 283, W Duluth. 

7. Minneapolis— Henning stubee, 2303 K. 22d 
266 Red Lake Falle— N. Holherg. 

87. ST. Paul— N els Johnson, 707 Martin st. 

MISSOURI. 



4. — Kansas City- 

110. St. Joseph— -Wra. Zimmerman. 1223 N. 13th 
St. Louis— Secretary of District Council, 

R. Fuelle, 604 Market st. 

5. (Ger.) Wm Lammert. 19'0 Lami st. 

45. (Ger.) W. Wamhoff. 1416 Montgomery st. 

47. (Ger.) A. Hoffmann. *2121 Victor at. 

73. Geo. C. Newman. 7**3 N. 15th st. 

257. J. A. Steininger. 3635 Lucky st 
678. (Stair Bldrs.) Edw. Hruggemsun, 2624 Madi- 
son st. 

MONTANA. 

88 Anaconda— C. W Starr, Box 238. 

256. Belt— A ndrue Kckerson. 

112. Bi ttrCity-C. F. Nugent. Bos 623 
286 Great Falls— O. M. Lambert, Box 923 
151 Helena- O. E Horn, 13 bheland *t. 

28. Missoula— M. C. Pepple. 

NEBRASKA. 

427. Omaha— J. H. Maun, 8 4 S. 24th at. 

NEW JERSEY. 



750. 

486. 

121 . 

20 . 

217. 

167. 

«87. 

265. 

391. 

467. 

57. 

139 

482. 

564. 

151. 

232. 

905 

429. 



119. 

120 . 



rmanvm. a • *»• fKJX IW , . 

Bayonne— P. A. Miller, 13 K 53d si 
Bridgeton— J. H. Reeves, 145 Fayette st 
Camden— T. E. Peteison. 4M Walnut st. 
K. Orange— L. P. Sherrer. 34 Bedford st. 
Elizabeth— H Zimmerman 240 South st 
“ (Ger.) John Kuhn, 11 Spencer 
Hackensack— T. Heath 312 Union st. 
Hoboken— A. Crothers. 131 Jackson st. 

“ (Ger.) H Sievers, 400 Monroe st. 
Irvington— C has. Van Wert. 

Jersey City— J os G. Hunt. 440 Commui 
paw see. 

" L. P. Ryan, 181 Ninth st. 

(J. C. Heights) John Handorf, North st. a 
Boulevard. 

Long Branch— C has E. Brown, Box 2 
Long Branch City. 

Milburn— J H. White, Short Hills. 
Millville -Jas. McNral. 622 W. Main st 
Montclair— Jas. McLeod, 141 Forest *t. 
Morristown— C. V. Deats. Lock Box 168 
Newark— Secretary of District Council. ^ 
M. Shaw. 415 Plane at 
H. O. Long, 10 Davis st., E. Newark. 
(Ger.) Fred. Tebe, 63» S. 18th st. 



148. Herrn. Henri, 2S7 Waverly at. 

306. A L. lleegle, 120 N 2d st. 

721 (Ger.) G. Arendt, 584 Springfield ave 
319. Orange M. Mot lock, 17 1‘arktiiMin Ter 
32 ». Fa raasoN— F. R. Van Houten. 713 K. 27th st 
-ill Passaic— G eo. A Quimby, 32« Moutgomeiy 
65 pKRrii AM hoy— \V II. Bath, 33 Lewis st. 

394. Piiillipsi! i’R(i- W. S Garrison, 8 Fayette s|. 
155. Plainfield Wm H. Lunger, 94 Wester- 
velt ave.. N. Plainfield 

31. Trenton— J J. Kourke. 25 Market st. 

«12. Union Hii.i.— (G er.) J Worischek, 721 Adam 
st.. Hoboken. 

NEW YORK. 

274. Albany— L. B. Harvey. 492 3d st. 

6,59. " (Ger.) Win. J. Franklin, 450 Elk st. 

6 Amsterdam— L ester C< wy, 20 Milton at. 

453. AUBURN— K. B. Koou, 11« Franklin st. 

24. Batavia — F. S. Booth 142 Harvester ave. 
2:13. Bingii amiton—F W. Sicklor, 42 Walnut st. 
Brooklyn— S ecretary of District Council, 

E. P Mossein, 37212th at. 

12 Otto Zeibig. 1432 I)e Kalb ave. 

32. (Ger.Cab. Mkrs.) H Munster. 371 Palmetto st. 
10». Hdvv. Tobin, 502 schein k ave., Sub Sta. 43 
12«. M L Casey, S5 Newell st. 

117. C. H Brown, 272 Howard ave 

175 W. F. Bostwick, 333 Koebling st 

217 Chas. D. Monroe. 42 St. Mai k’s ave. 

25S. M. Spence, 15 Pulaski st. 

2*1. (Ger) F Kramer. 21*0 Harmann st. 

341. S. K Elliott, 1295 St Mark’s ave. 

451 Wm. Carroll, 71*2 Bergen st. 

471 H. S. Thurber, 318a 15th st. 

634. Jos. Mitchell, 311 53d at 

Buffalo— Secretary of District Council, 

W. Wreggitt, 78 Edward st. 

9 W. I». Wreggitt, 7s Edward st. 

355. (Ger ) Jno. Groele, 51« Doat st. 

371 E. O. Yokom, 19 Ferguson ave 
44*1. J. H. Myers, si Landoti st 
94. Cohoes — A. Van A main. 22 George st 
640. College Point— G. A. Pickel, 5th ave and 
11th st. 

81. Far Rock away— K Ward. P. O. Box 119 
32 4 Fishki ll on-Hudson — W. W Rowe, Box 215. 

714. Flush in«. — F S. Field, 154 New Locust si. 
147. Geneva— G.W. Dadson, 26 Holten l»eck ave. 
22* Glens Falls— E J White. P» Gage ave 

64 Hempstead— 8. B. Chester. Bjx m2. 

144. Irving tun— Robert Brown, Hastings on 
Hudson. 

603. Ithaca — E. A. Whiting. H Auburn st. 

*»*». J AMBSTOWN— O. D. Smith, 794 K. Second st. 
40. Kingsbridgk— J ohn f. Forshay, 864 Union 
ave.. New York City. 

251 Kingston— E. C. Peterson. 207 Smith ave 
591. Little Falls— T. R. Mangan. 142 W. Mon- 
roe. 

34. Long Island City— W. Furman, 531 Jamaica 
ave. 

212. Mt. Vernon— A. H. Parker, 273 W. Lincoln 

avenue. 

493. '* Jas. Beardsley. 32 N. 6th ave. 

301. Nf.wburg— John lem.deton, 159 Ren wick. 
42. New Rochelle— J. V. Gahan. 30 Birch st 
507. Nf.WTOWN, L. I —Peter A. Anderson, Box 13. 
Corona, N Y. 

New York — Secretary of District Council. 

I) F. Featherston. 309 w. 243d at 
Bronx— S ecretary of District Council, A. F. 
Roth. 18*2 S 'Uth *>»., Mt Vernon. 

51. J. J. Hewitt .1*5 H 133d st. Care Neilan. 

.56. (Floor Lavers) J. Hefner, 411 Stein way ave., 
L. I. City. 

«4. Thos. P. J Coleman. 78H«th ave .Care Molle. 
2U0. (Jewish) Jonn Goldfarb. 84 E 113th at. 

309 (Ger. Cab. Makers) Simon Kuehl, 224 1st av. 
340 I). Vanderbeek, 2.54* W. l*28ih st. 

375. (Ger.) F. W. Mue<ler. 635 Morris ave. 

342. If. Seymour. 166 K. 67th 

457. (Scan.) O. Wallin. 24 W llKthst. 

4«4 (Ger ) Vincent Banter. 677 Couriland ave 
4«4 Jas. Maguire, 223 Delanceyst. 

473. Wm Trotter, 754 9th ave. ' 

476. Wm. E. P Schwartz, 2 Brown s Point, 
Astoria. L I 

478. J. J. Plaeger. 3417 3d av*. 

447 (Ger.) Geo. BerthoM, 321 E. 12th st. 

509 John McGrail, 174 E 82ud st 
513. (Ger.) Jno. H. Borrs, 1571 ave A. 

707. (Fr Canadian) Geo. Menard, 1*7 E.74rh st. 

715. Chas. Camp. 223 W l48ih st. 

7.46 (Ger. Millwrights and Millers) Henrv Maak 
357 Linde»» st , Brooklyn 

474. Nyack-R P Wool, Box 493. 

101 Onkonta — C W. Burnside. 9 Walling ave 
163. Pekkskill— C. T. Powell. .306 Siniosw pi 
77. Portchkhtek— Frank Stepnen. 213 Madi- 
son ave. 

203. Poughkeepsie— J. P Jacobson, Box 32. 

72. Rochester — H. M. Fletcher. 5 Snyder at. 

179. “ (Ger.) Frank Schwind, 4 May PI. 

231. “ John Buehrle, 30 Buchan Park. 

146. Schenectady— Henry Bain. 326 Craig st 
Staten Island— Secretary Dist. Council. 

J W. Sheehan, 174 Broadway, West New 
Bright^.» 

606 Port Richmond— J. Keenan, 238 Jersey at. 
New Brighton 

5*17. Stapleton— P. J. Klee Box 545. 

Syr acuhr— Secretary of Dial ict Council, 

I) C. Parke, 537 Renwick ave 
15 (Ger )J. R. Rvan, 125 Gebhardt ave 
26 K. E Hattey, 517 H. Genesee st. 

192. A. J Lamirande. 2.50 Gertrude. 

78 Troy— D avid King Box 85. 

12-5 Utica-G W. Griffiths, 240 Dudley ave. 

580. Watkktown— W. J Mullen, 121 Ä. Main st. 
Westchester County— Secretary of Dis- 
trict Council. Jas. Gagan, 110 Hugenot. 
New Rochelle. N. Y. 

172. Westchester — Frank Vanderpool, Blon- 
dell ave. 

128. Whitkatone — Geo. Belton, Box 8. 

.593. Williams Bridge— John Edgley, White 
Plains ave , bei . 1st and 2nd sts. 

273. Yonkers— K. C. Hulse, 47 Maple st. 

726 •' F. M. Tallmadge, Jl6 Elm st. 



NORTH CAPO* JNA. 

38>L Asheville— G. C. Lumley,51 Blanton st. 

OHIO. 



84. Akron— A. H. Bates, 189 N. Howard at 
17. Bella i re — G. W. Curtis, 363> Harrison st 
170 Bridgeport— John D Glenn, Box 4L 
140 Bucyrua — Wm. Rem. 622 R Rensselaer st 
245 Camumidge— V. C PeTguson. »37 E. Stubm- 
ville ave. 

143. Canton— Chas. A. Rimmel, 525 N. McKinley 
ave. 



200 . 

327. 

628 . 

667 

676. 

002 . 



Cincinnati— Secretary of District Council 
J. H Meyer, 23 Mercer st. 

J. E Overbecke, 2622 Ilackberry at., Walnut 
Hllla. 

(Ger.) August Weis®, 969 Geat st. 

(Mill) H. Brink worth, 1315 Spring at. 

A. Berger, 4229 Fergus st. 

D. J. Jones, 2228 Kenton »t . Station D. 

Joa. Lang, Box 3*1, Carthage. 

J. P. Luckey, 2427 Bloom st. 

Cleveland— Secretary of District Council. 
F. A. Moran, 166 Superior st., Room 10. 



11. II. I,. Lepole, 18 Poe ave. 

.19. (Hohem ) V. Plechaty, 45 Jewett st. 

293 (tier ) Theo. Welhrich 16 Parker are. 

419. (Ger) Albeit Karp 9.53 Clark at. 

61. Columiius A C. Welch. 1127 Highland st. 
101 Dayton W. C Smith, 132 S. La Belle at 
316 (Ger.) Jo* Wirth, 311 Clover st. 

328. K. Liverpool k M New HI 
«47. Hamilton W. C Musrli. 529 Heaton at. 

1 4j Li M % 1). E Speer. HIE Second M 

7« l l.oi KL and Uh.i»les f; lintel. Box 182. 

3 »6 Marietta- J. W Forester, 2 Wörter lane 
«V) PoMKKm F! D. Will 

437. Portsmouth — C. Thomau, 110 Campbell 

ave. 

18«. Stm iienvilj i -D. H. Peterson, 706 Adams 
*214 Tii i in k. S Dysinger, Hedges «it. 

2 ». Toi.» do- Martin Terwilliger, 10S** Door st 
1**8. •• (Ger.) P Onet/, 236 Palmer *t. 

171. Youngstown — W. s Stoyer, 715 Augusta ^ 
71«. Zanksvm.le — Fred. Kappen, Central ave . 
10th Ward 



ORROON. 

50. Portland David Henderson , Box .548, 



PENNSYLVANIA. 

ALLEGHENY Cl TV- 
21 I . J. W. Pitts, 181 Washington ave. 

237. (Ger.) A. Weizman titl Trov Hill road 
135 Allentown a M. Move*. 13« N 5tli st 
216. Reaver Falls— A. i»urry, Box «II, New 
Brighton. 

406. Bethlehem- 1. M. Swinker 412 Brosdwa\ 
S. Bethlehem. 

124. Bk adior d— \\ . H. McQuown, 55 WmsM n pt 
‘207. Cues i hr Fiber S. Rigby, 316 F Fifth at. 
-4». Easton— Ftank P. Horn ,914 Butierst. 

122 Germ a NTown— J. K Martin, 12« K Duval 
182 GrBENSHUSO— J H R Kowe, 2,*46 Concord 
*24r Harrishur». — \V. Bohner. 222 l'effri ►* 

12* Hazleton— C has. slaver 4t*5 W Oak M 
2s4 Homestead F.dwiu kowe Jr.. I. Ilox 527 
TtN Lancaster —J os. Smith. 229 Civ -der *«1 
206. N w i astle:— C. C N »rri^, >2' , W. w ash 

tilgt! <11 St. 

333. New KrsstNGToN U s. Aulenbach. 

2» »2. Peck vii lk T. U Spangenhurg 

Philadelphia— S ec District C*<»uncil, John 
Watson 2»»I8 Jasper at.. Station K 
H W T c. Hall, I «53 s. Nineteenth *t 
227. (Kensington) John Walso . 2618 Jasper at 
Station K. 

—46. (Ger ) Joseph Oyen,8U N F»>urth at. 
ti'rf*. (Mill) J. Dueringer, Jr. BRIM F*. Huntingdon 
Pittsburgh secretary ol District Council , 
J. G. Snyder, 112 Gmnt st. 

142. If. G Schomaker 12« Sherman ave., Alleg 
1*54 (Ger.) P. Geek. 2133 TuMin st 
16» (E. End) H. Ko)»ert«^>»i . 322 Princeton pi 
2>*2. G. W. McCnuOnnd. 1 30 Lambert at . F* F*. 
‘240. W. J. Richey, l«t*l Carson st. 

254. 

4<»2. (Ger.) I.ouia Pauker 181 Industry <*t 
I\>. Plymouth— G H Edwards, Box lt»4t» 

145. Say a k. — Benton lfouae 

563. SCRANTON— II. C. Scott. 737 L» e C- urt 
481. S. Scr anton — (f’#cr ) 3*. straub, rear KB* s. 
Mam are. 

37. Shamokin-H A L smink 510 F Canter, t». 
*2«8 Sharon s H. Craig 
757. Taylor George Wick« flox |.'i 
93. Wh.ki s Barre I) ^ I oat. 17 Cinderella at. 
*02. “ A 11 Avers, 6 • Penn at. 

191. York— C Sfiydeman ^*1 N W f at at 

kHODE ISLAM). 

17« New pom t— P. It Ilnwlev. 18 Levin 
342. Paw ti ckkt J B Parquet. Box I M3. Val'.ev 
Falls 

'»4 Providence p Dolan, 9 Lawn at. 

117. Woonsocke: i J A. Praray, 8| Orchard at. 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 

52 Chari. BST(»P— (C ol )John Pinckney.17 Mat. 
«9 Columbia— (C ol. » C. A. Thompson. \. ‘£i E. 
fay lor M. 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

197 Lead Citv-R. M Spink 

TENNESSEE. 

-59. Jackson I) K Holland, rtfC; l>»ng s* 

22.5. KNnxvau- W. W. Kamsey,3in Fouaha at 
b»2. Memphis (Col.) H C. Ellison, 24 Dupree at. 

J K. Wright *82 Mnnusaaa at, 

TEXAS. 



3*0. 

185. 

198. 

371. 






Dallas— Wm. Watkins, Box ‘2!*9 
DENISON— W. W. Neiglibour, 131.5 W 
f.andy ave. 

Galvl 8TON— Secretary of District Council. 
, M w H. L. Weinberg, 1221 Ave A 

J. E Proctor, 1414 19th a* 

<Ger.) Charles L. Walter 211« Ave. M 
Houhton-E Shoop, 710 Capitol ave 
Orange— C*. B. Pavne. 

San ANTONIO— (Ger.) Aug Riea, 302 Plum 
A G. Wietiel 135 Centre si. 
Waco— A F. Wi.imer, Labor Hall 

UTAH. 

184. SALT Lake Citv—F. C. liodder, 1111 y 5 h 
So. at 



52«. 

«II. 

114. 

53. 

460. 

717 

622. 



VERMONT. 

2«::. st. Alranr — Geo. W. Bromson. 12 Lower 
Weiden at. 

WASHINGTON. 

*31. Skatti E-Fred. Blenkina, Fremont 
»8. Spokank-J. A Anderberg, H. 524 Blaine 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

23«. CLAKKSnuRG— J. W. Stetley. 

428. Fairmount— W. k Hickman. 428 Renoir 

ave. 

3. Wheeling— A. L. Bauer,J«19 J» oh at 

WISCONSIN. 



ini. M .■MOMIA-II. c «■oaeiiue. 73U Park ave 
MiLWAUKEK-Secretary of District Council 
•in * Ieurr . Ö0I Twenty fifth at. 

30. (Ger.) John Dettman 1148 17th at. 

71. ( Mill wrs ) W. Trautmann ,12*21 Vliet at. 

188. Aug. J. Hagen, 781 34th st. 

‘ÜÜ- ] R Meyers, 7«8 19th ave. 

W* T ) Cha * Run ^ 1219 Garfield Ave 
252. Oshkosh -C asper *luor «9 Grove at 
91. Racinr-m G King. 1517 Phlllipa ave. 



WYOMING. 



267. Diamondvillk. 



k 



I 










THE CARPENTER 



Bfe' 



MORRILL’S PERFE( 

Bench Stops. Car Seale's. 

Universal Punches. 

i gSP®* Cutting Nippers. 

gj Charles Morrill, | 

35 Warren Street, New York. 



SAW SETS 








JL U % l 1 ■ a 

©M© 



F t. B. C. A J. of America Society (toxin. 
ESTABLISHED 1866. 

CHAS. SVENDSEN, 

MANUFACTCRKR OF 



3« 

» CD 

8 I 

O CL 

3 u 



> Regalia and Badges. 

^ Over jooo Society Plagt and Banner« Manutac 
lured. Over 6000 Societies furnished 
with Badges or Regalia. 

No. ao East Court St., Cincinnati. 

J United Hatters of North America 






t RS 



HAMMACHER 

ßCHLEMMER 

&CO. 

£09 BOWERY 

t/rsw \ronn 

Reed J ^uerbacher, 

229 BOWERY, 

NBV YORK CITY. 



Demi era la 



Fine Tools. 

A Complete line of 
^oister«^ everything good 

in Carpenters’ 

Yhla la the Onion Label and Joiners’ 

United Hatters or North America. 1 OOLrfS, 

— 

Wfhen yen art buying a fur hat, either soft or Send for Otir Tool Catalogue, 

ft, ana to It that the Genuine Onion Label la - 

ared fn it. If a retailer haa loose labela in hla 

aseaeion and often to i>ut oor in a hat for T 01110 U D M CT P 00 MO 

aSESSSS LUUlo LttiNo l a oU I n 5 

Hie genuine Union Label ia perforated on the ^ a mm • n a 

•t «dge. exactly tb*Hn»u n im^Urc «tnmp. J29 & 131 EäSt M(tlll St. 

JOHN A. MOPF1TT. Pre»., 

BN PHH.UFS, Sec y, orange, N. J. I DflPUCfiTTD II V 

tn Park AT«. Brooklyn, N. Y. ' llWWIii I M| Ha la 

ECLIPSE ADJUSTABLE FOLDING SQUARE 



(Regtat.red Patent, If*. 3«, STS.) 

Thla Trade Mark la atamped on all Saw Sals and other Hardware BpottaJUee of ay naaka 

thTfinzeOöbäccos 

are 

UNION LABEL GOODS 

(Union Label on each box.) 

Every Union Man should aid THE NATIONAL TOBACCO 
WORKERS UNION by using one or more of the fol- 
lowing brands : 

OLD HONESTY PLUG 

JOLLY TAR PLUG 

CANTEEN PLUG 

BOOT JACK PLUG 

WILD ROSE SMOKING 

FIVE BROTHERS PIPE SMOKING 

•W~Any dealer will order ANY BRAND you prefer. 



BLUB LABIL CIOAKS. 



This la the Union Label 



Called llattcrs of North America. 



When yea art buying a fur hat, either aoft or 
Mi ft, bob to it that the Genuine Union Label la 
aewed fn It. If a retailer haa loose labels in hie 
possession and öfter a to put one tn a hat for 
jom do not patronize him. The chances are that 
the !at*la are couuterfeit. 

The genuine Union Label ta perforated on the 
four edges exactly the name aa a ] »outage at n nip. 

JOHN A. MOFF1TT, Prea . 
JOHN PHILLIPS, Sec y, Orange, N. J. 

477 Park Ave . Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Wm. McNiece $ Son, 

61ft CHERRY ST.. 

PHILADBLPMU, PA. 




KANOrACTl'RIM OP 



[land, Panel 

1 — .and Rip $aws, 

FROM THE VERY REST CAST STEEL. 



Warranted the Best m the World 



HAND MADE. 



Thia Label ia printed in black ink oa light blue 
peper. end la pealed on the cigar-box. Don’t mix 
it up with the U. & Revenue label outhe box.'as 
the latter ia nearly of a similar color. See. that 
the Cigar liakera' Blue Label aopearson the box 
from which you are served. It laanrea you 
aga mat Cnmeae-made cigara and tenement-made 
goods. 

First Class Books, 

CHEAP, PRACTICAL AND U8EFDL. 

Modiin Carpentry and Buvldxbo 
8 y Wester $i 50 

Tna Hu ldir's Quids and Khtimatob’« 
Paica Book. Hodgson $2(0 

Tea htbbl Bquabb. and How t r, I’sa It 1 00 
Pkaotical Oabpbiitbt. Hodgson 1 00 

8tjib-Ritii dibo Madi Rasy. Hodgson . 1 0# 
Hand Railibo Madi Rasy 1 0$ 

Tiib CARpB*TBm’a and Buildbb’i Com 

rum Oohpa a ion 2 so 

Ad areas P. J. McOnaa, 

Bom 894, Philadelphia, Pa. 



The three illustration« of the Eclipse 
Adjustable Folding Square showu here- 
with, eahibita the square open, partially 
closed or set for angles, and «hut. The 
improvement in making Folding Squares 
consists In securing the short b’ade by 
two clamping plstea and screws whereby 
they are held rigid while being used aa a 
square. It also forms « locking device 
when the square is fold'd, which can 
readily reaeeo by the depressed portion 
of the clamping plates which slide in a 
groove providea for the same. Whtn 
closed it can be folded and packed in a 
small chest provided for the same, and 
can be adjusted at right angles ready for 
instant a ae when required. It does away 
with cutting holes ia th- top or aides of 
small chesti nd ia protect .*d from being 
bent or rusted when left standing or 
exposed to the weather. Further infor- 
mation may be obtained from tbe 

If an m fas tor era, ZUCK 4k LARK 
Cleveland, Ohio. 




Ttih To«>l xmbri mv« In »Urlf sn-l ln ««Wb« 
ti»u wiU* on ur>lm*rj C*rprot*r«' Mule. 

Try S<1 usrs. 

M 1 1 r «• .‘*quors. 

T >i|u*rs. 

Marking «lauge. 

Mortl«r (lauge. 

Depth (laug*. 

Mil re I .»‘Yet. 

S I» I r t I L* \»l end Plumb. 

Ile sin l oni(>o*> 

Inaids Square for making 
boxoa and frame*. 



STANLEY 

Rule & Level Co. 

New Britain. Conn. 

FOLD BY ALL 

lfarduare Dealera, 



STANLEY’S 

Odd Jobs. 

NlCKCl Flatio 

a tilt I? In. Rule. 

75 Cents. 



A Mechanic who has 
ttiiM Tool l*> um» on ins 
Hulc, can d<» all ordi- 
nary John with only a 
Saw, a Hammer, and 
a Plane, in additiou. > 






dB 



, • *v 



K ’ 



THE CARPENTER. 



LANE'B BARN BDDR HANGERS 



■■ 




Union 



THE 



•‘STANDARD.” «•SPBCIAIj.” 50 . 

We are the originators and largest makers of U-shaped hangers. Get 

the GENUINE LANE HANGER for best satisfaction. 

Also LANE PARLOR DOOR HAN8ERS. 

Goods Sold by all Hardware Dealers. 

Send for oar Catalogue of Hanlwar* Sprolaltla*. 




..Made 



Pants 








ANO 

overalls 



ARE 

YOU 

A 

UNION 

MAN? 

THEN 

STAND 

UP 

FOR 

THE 

PRINCIPLES 

OF 

ORGANIZED 

LABOR 

AND 

WEAR 

UNION 

MADE 

CLOTHING. 



LANE? BROTHERS COMPANY. 

422-54 PROSPECT ST. POUGHKEEPSIE, NEW YORK. 



Get your dealer to buy tho»o good«— he’ll do it for the asking and you’ll help the U N 10| 
cause ~r T-e*ll »end you tape measure, samples and »elf measurement blank, with • 
dainty gilt edged Russia leather pocket memorandum book free. 

HAMILTON CARHARTT & COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHI9AN, 

The firm that is making UNION MADE Clothing popular. 



Norcross Brothers 



CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS 



dial 



160 Fifth Avenue. New York 
Tremont Building. Boston . . 
Worcester. Mass 



FOX'S LOCK MORTISING TOOL. 




This U ike Tool that saves one-hall the time io pattin« in Door Locks. It's the curve that 
4 mi it. Why so ? Because 60,000 carpenters ssy so. For ssle by the trade, or sent post-paid on 
rooelpt eff price. 91.00. Write for circular. 

P. L. FOX & CO., SOLE MANUFACTURERS 

BRIDGEPORT . CONN. 



z 


CD 






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o 


© 


od 






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o 


CO 


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CO 




LU 


L&J 


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P. C. ECKHARDT 

General Contractor (Builder 



ANCHOR BRAND 
Adze Eye Nail Hammer*. 



693 Ninth Avenue 



LARSEST MANUFACTURERS IN THE WORLD. 

Fayette R. Plumb, Fhila. 

INCORPORATED. 



Between 47th and 48th Street« 



TELEPHONE 1050-38 



NEW YORK 




r A g. Lockwood. 
. Cheiicm Mam 



Adjustable and Folding H'dle 0. K. We will make you to order a penknife 

like cut above, with your picture and 
MANUFACTURED BY name thereon, with chamois case, for (toe 

dollar, or a big two-bladed Carpenter 1 » 

A V IlMlf,' _ . _ O p _ Knife with German silver cap, black 

. J. Wilkinson CC 10. hand ] e ; ,75 censor tortoise shelf handle. 




“TRUE AS A DIE.” 

WROUGHT STEEL LOCKS 



$ 



OROIDE FINISH 

Strong, Durable, Inexpensive 

For Sale by all Hardware Dealers 



180-188 Washington St. 

BOSTON, MASS. 



one dollar. Blades warranted to stand 
hard wood coping. 

E LOCKWOOD 

190 Poplar 8t, Chelsea, I«* 






Carpenters will appreciate the fact that the 
measurements of these locks are and Must be 
exact, as true as a die can make them. No 
trouble and vexation in fitt*- ' .... 



Catalogue of Wrought Stool Do oka and Lock 
SeU 9 on application 



RUSSELL A ERWIN M’F’G CO. 

New Britain, Conn. Chicago. New York. 

Philadelphia. Baltimore. 




W. S. Thomson 

Manufacturer and Dealer in 

WOOD WORKERS’ SUPPLIES 



Belting, Belting Hooks, Lacing, Band 
and Circular Saws, Files, Emery Wheels, 
Babbit Metal. Planing Machine Knives, 
Cotters, Etc. 

418 and 420 West 27th St. New Yerk 

▲11 Order« by Mail Promptly Attended To. 




J 



8 

I 






SfiS 






... . . 





/ /? I <■ 



) 2 / 7 



A4 Z c :-6 









VOL, XIX.— No. 4, ) 
Established 1881. } 



PHILADELPHIA, MAY, 1800. 



Fifty Cents Per Year. 
Single Copies, 5 Cts. 






=D 



A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 



Henrv Di^stnri S Sons keystone 

"SErL.- SAW, TOOl, STEEL AND FILE WOMO, 

SAWS, FILES AND TOOLS FOR. THE MARKETS OF THE WORUX 

No. 12 Hand Saw. 



Our Saws have all the Latest Improvements, and are warranted superior to all others. 

They have no rival in quality, finish, and general utility, and are made from the beat ateel, and of superior temper. The grinding, by our New and 
Improved Machinery, in use only by us, makes them the easiest running Sawa in the world. They have gained a universal reputation among mechanics, 
and are sold by all the prominent Wholesale and Retail Hardware Dealers in America and Europe. The manufactures of this firm have secured the highest 
Premiums at all the World's Great l airs, where they have been exhibited. 

And we Guarantee a Detter Article, at the same Price, than any other House In the World. 

ALL OOOD8 IIEARINO OUR NAME ARE FULLY WARRANTED 



TAINTOR 
POSITIVE 
SAW SET 

ThOQIABd* of Dill tool 
b>va born »o <1, and (hay 
ere highly rommandad by 
ALL whs. uaa Lham. 



If your Hardwara Daal* 
ar doaa not hsndla thrm. 
don’t taka an Inferior sat 
ba<*ait«e aotna on a aaya. 
*• it's JiMt a« food." 

TAINTOR MF8. CO. 

9 to 15 MURRAY ST. : 

NEW YORK. 



Reissmann’s Rafter and Polygon Gauge 



inkin , of tourae. 10 yearn In bualoeaa, and oarer had a atrlke-thaCa oar Inbor record. 
II your dialer don* I keep Key atone good*, aead la ble name. 



Made of 7 , dy”::;“ j CLEVELAND & whitehill CO., Newburgh, n. y. j 



With this KaUKt* any an^lt* or cut required in the construction of building and roofs 
can hr obtaine d instantly and with minute accurac y. Saves time for the skilled 
mechanic and enables the ordinary workman to frame roofs with absolute cer- 
tainty. Price 50 cents, postage paid. 

P. KBfS&MANN, Weal Point , N, V. 



PIKE’S LILY WASHITA 






\» w *>*. > < K»»« * 






The BBBt DilBtaiiB. on Earth. 

I A faat «cutting, everwrltted »tone, impart« a fine edge. Put up In two grade»—« toft medium, 
coar«e-KrTi and hard raedium-fine-gr it. Kach atone labeled, telling whether hard or aoft, 
and guaranteed to give abaoluta aatlafactlon. The »a me atone made in gouge 
► II pa and all upecial ahapea All leading hardware dealer». 

Send for Cnialog of Scythe atones, Olle.onea, Razor Monos, Kalfe Sharpeners, eto. 



THE PIKE MFO. CO. 



PIKE STATION, N. N. 



MOORE’S 

IMPROVED WROUGHT STEEL STORM 
WINDOW FASTENERS 



With these fasteners, storm windows can 
be'adjusted more easily, and held in place 
more securely, than in any other way yet 
invented. 

NO LADDER REQUIRED. 

Fastened from the inside, the only tool 
necessary being a small hammer. 

Send for Circular a. 

The’ Stanley Works, c*.«. 

NEW BRITAIN, CONN. 

79 Chambers St., N. Y» 







THE CARPENTER. 



" • 



j] / 

♦ ■ 



High grade machinery STANDARD WOOD WORKING MACHINERY 




No. A Vahiitt Wood Wobkk». 

A moct vidnnbl© wacklne for ('arpontem, 
Builders, BmL, Door and Blind Makers, etc , 
aa on II yon oan porfarm a variety of work 
which would otherwise require the use of 
several machines. 



CARPENTERS, BUILDERS, SASH, 

DOOR, BUND MAKERS, ETC. ^ VyBT 

Kstlmates on Single ftlachlnae er ICquipment* 

cheerfully furnished. MBMp 

Ask Hr 44 Wsod Worker” Catalogue 

A m \ Ä & CO.i MllVI.DKB. 

•7 ^ Plan««, oue aide, 04 Inches wide by 6 in shea 

... _ * thick. 

^ 514*534 w. Front St* # Matches 13 Inches wide, 

in In valuable machine for a small or medium 

CINCINNATI. OHIO. •»»•<* shop 




OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

If In need of anything In our line permit «< to 
flairs with you, as we oan most preUblf 
sere you laoney. 

niustratod 312 page aataioguo fro# If yaa 
have gaod aaa far It. 

The Egan Company, 

406*4*6 W. Pront Street, 

^^^CINCINN ATI, OHIO. 




FOOT Ä HAND POVBR MACHINERY m-. 

OOMFLETE OUTFITS. A - 

Csrpentert sod Builders without steam power \ vKcJ 

can successfully compete with the large shops \ 

by using our New Labor Saving Machinery \ I Jml 

Solo ON TRIAL. Sind fou Catalog*! A. 

SENECA FALLS MFG. CO. 

aa Water St. , Seneca Falls, N. Y., U. S A. ^ 



No. 128 Outside Moulder 
Built to work 7, 8, 0, 10, 13 in. wide 



Write for further Information 
Also for new cstslogue 




ATw* 

19 BY 29 INCHtS. 

Sl^PLt, KFJ, 

Viable 

Price 




THE SQUARE ROOT 
DELINEATOR 

0f\ KfY TO THE STCCL SQÜAflC'* 

BY A. W. WOODS, 

GIVES IN PLAIN P/ GORES THE LENGTHS. 
FfUHS, RISES. PITCH. DEGREES. CUTS AMD 
bevels roR even and uheveh pushes 
HOPPCR CUTS, BOARD MEASURE ETC 
5cnt post paid. Prici $1.00 

W&* BOXÖ64. 

the CARPENTER * 



S. A. WOODS MACHINE CO., South Boston, Mass. 

Harten doscher 

MANUFACTURER SAUGATUCK. CONN. 



We Haie ’em, Yon Want ’em 

If youjare a carpenter, 
a contractor, a lumber 
dealer, a real estate 
agent, or if you are 
going to build a house, 
send 5 cents for Hicks’ 
Illustrated Catalogue 
of artistic designs. . . 



f What it X * 
Your Work ?\/ 



I. P. HICKS 



$7 Station A 
Omaha, Nan 



rf 9 '• ir " * *•'* * I % 

^ fr • ” i * r • ’ " 1 

' •*>. a f 

••»> ■ • r ♦* t I 1 1 t»v». a 

I ’ rr.* 1* ■ • * » • • !*• . Ts» 

¥ sol in» it 1 *r* » • 1 ..*»*1 or- i*h * ^ 

[An Education by Mail] 

k ht 1 I 1 ill in III« r r.+. 1 V' 1 •« » f! w- / 

I I f f 

■ 

|^\ .o T* 4 % n ' » t •« Af ?raft 

UM it.g r v i W t . J 

i r 

10« Ui»rMii.Mi y ^P^- 

f\ h.i iu«> f. ; — . 

Aw V *»»«•!••. 1 f^. r 



Carpenters’ Bench and Moulding 

PLANES 




Hand Made. 



handles, 

MALLETS, Ac. 



Amtt your hmrdwarm dralrr for 

DOSCHER'S PLANES 



TOWER & LYON, 9 * N C Ew m YORK* ,r *** 



Manufacturers of 



The largest aacl most 
- oouDloUllsool Wood- 

/I TV working Haehinery In 

L\/ Y tks world for Carpca- 

r Jkfc | tors and Joiners and 

Wood-workers goner- 

Amsrioai Wood Workiig 
"T Ms hits 0s* 

Bp k r H Clement IVa. Wien <>ovo 

WlnSir Mrh. L^o. , LuL, (Hmdpll A 

YHLaV Waiore. Hoyt A Bro. Co., 

The Lovl Houston Co . 
WvmTI Lehman Mch Co. Mllwao 

> kse Hander Mffc t o , CL B 

Rogers A Oo. Rowley 4 

Hermanne CV). Wililauio 
gort Mok. Oo., Young Bros 

tddmss aeartel sal w room and Mats roar reqairs- 
menu: 1 » Llherty HL. N«*w York 4ft H. canal hi , 
*M car o. H Pearl H , BoeUin C hurch and Basin 
tie , WtUlamepnrt Pm. 



ALLEN B. RORKE 

Builder %m 



Contractor 



OHicui— 

PhiUd.lphii Bounc, 



.PHILADELPHIA 



FINE TOOLS. 

Chaplin's Pat. Planes. 

Corraytted Face or Smooth Face. 

Checkered Robber Haodlea or F,namolod 
Wood Handle«. 

LEVER ADJUSTMENT. 
TOWER’S CHAMPION 8CREW DRIVERS. 

IjmsUI BtML TMt«d Tongh T.mp.r, ■ Solid Tsa^.d BoUtsr. HMTyMsltF.nl., Flaud Htsdln. 




■■WANN OP imiTATDO IS. 




Be «are tbs trade mark CHAMP 10 H I« on oaeh blade. 

8worn Circulation of THE CARPENTER 

19,000 COPIES MONTHLY 

Beit Advertising Medium for Tool Manufacturers, Wood 
Working Machinery, Hardware, Lumber and Building 
Materiale. Aleo of Spooial Advantage to Contractors, 
Arehltoots and Bnsinoss Mon. 




Satisfaction 



V Design. 



Is given all around when the house Is 
trimmed with Sargent’s Hardware. The 
Architect is pleased because he speci- 
fied it ; the owner is pleased each time 
he looks at the trimmings because they 
add so much to the beauty of the home, 
and everybody is pleased with the work- 
ing of Sargent’s Easy Spring Locks. 

Sargent & Company, 

Makers of Artistic Hardware and Fine Lodtafc 

New York ; and New Haven, Conn. 








\S S3 






’ % 









7 





__ 4 . 


r ... 


i 


T) 


— - 











A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 



VOL. XIX.— No. 4. 
Established 1881. 



PHILADELPHIA, MAY, 1899. 



Fifty Cents per Year. 
Single Copies, 5 Cts. 



May. 



Beryl and pearl against an opal sky 
In wayward air the young leaves push and 
peer, 

And we are very glad— old Earth and I— 

That May is here. 

There’s whistling in the coppice all day long, 
The apple blossoms drop in rosy rain ; 

In yonler beech the cuckoo tries his song 
All day again. 

The apple-blossoms drown the daisied grass, 
One treads on silk and silver all the way : 

Shout cuckoo, tell the swallows ere they pass, 
How glad we are of May. 

—Nora Hopper . 



To Our Members and Readers. 



Owing to the vast amount of work 
entailed in moving from the old to the 
new headquarters in the Lippincott 
Building, Twelfth and Filbert streets, 
Philadelphia, it was absolutely im- 
possible to make the necessary prep- 
arations for the publication of the 
April number of the official journal, 
and consequently we were reluctantly 
compelled to disappoint our readers 
and contributors. 

We have, however, succeeded in 
bringing order out of chaos ; all re- 
ports from and documents referring to 
the various locals have been arranged 
and carefully filed, all property of the 
organization has been transferred to 
its new quarters without injury or 
loss, and the books, records and 
archives are now safely and properly 
preserved in an office and building 
completely fireproof. 

Visiting members have expressed 
themselves as being particularly well 
pleased with the change, which was, 
none too soon, deemed necessary and 
imperative. 



Belief and Work. 



If a union is weak, it is solely because 
its members are weak, and many 
otherwise strong men weaken the 
cause by firing off their ammunition 
in the wrong direction. 

The bigger a man is, the less liable 
is he to attack ; the stronger a nation 
is, the less likelihood of war, and the 
more powerful a union becomes the 
less occasion will there be for strikes 
and lockouts. 

If you “ don’t believe in strikes,” if 
you see and feel and deprecate the 
evil of them, you are bound as an 
honest man to do all in your power to 
prevent them, and the only way you 
can do this is to make your union 
strong. It cannot be too strong. 

You, mortal, must waken before 
you work, and work before you jour- 
ney, and a toilsome, weary march 
lies before you in your travel to the 
shade of the trees. This, too, impatient 
soul: your journey cannot be made 
alone. Your brother must be wakened, 
and with you work and walk and 
bear the burden and heat of the day. 



American Contracts in England. 



You don’t believe in strikes, you 
say ? All right. Neither do we. 

You talk long and eloquently about 
their evil effects. Yes, in many in- 
stances the results are evil. 

Now, suppose you switch off on that 
talk for awhile. Change your tune. 
Direct your eloquence along the line 
of proving the benefits of organiza- 
tion, thereby directly building up your 
own organization and indirectly help- 
ing the whole cause of labor unity. 



A pleasant interest in the United 
States and a surprise that called for 
official explanation in England were 
created by the recent placing of orders 
for twenty locomotives, for the Eng- 
lish Midland Railway, with American 
builders. 

The explanation by the chairman 
of the company conveys a high com- 
pliment to American artisans, and 
makes a vivid exposition of the 
general manufacturing methods in 
the two countries. 

As long ago as December, 1897, the 
company began placing orders in Eng- 
land for 170 locomotives. Up to Feb- 
ruary 15, 1899, not a single delivery 
had been made, though forty- eight 
should have been turned over to the 
company by that date. 

In its strait the company tendered 
contracts to two American firms, one 
of which promised to deliver within 
ten weeks from the receipt of the 
order, and the other during March. 

Finding that they could not get an 
engine made in England in less than 
fifteen months, and that they could 
get twenty built and shipped in the 
United States in four months, the 
directors had authorized the giving of 
the contracts to American firms. The 
same capacity for speedy delivery 
secured Americans the contract for 
the Atabara bridge, in the Soudan. 



Eight-Hour Bill Becomes a Law in 
New York. 



Governor Roosevelt, of New York, 
has signed the bill of Mr. Sabine 
amending the eight-hour law so as to 
make it rigid in enforcement. With 
it he filed a memorandum saying : 

4 4 This bill carries out the recom- 
mendation made in my message to the 
Legislature that the eight- hour law 
should be so amended as to make it 
effective. It will work on the whole 
an undoubted improvement, but un- 
fortunately it is so drawn as to em- 
phasize, instead of eliminating, two 
or three of the defects in the old law. 
The need of the passage of this law is 
evident. There is at present and has 
long been on the statute books an 
eight-hour law, but it is so easy of 
evasion that it has been largely in- 
operative. It is always detrimental 
to the best interests of the state to 
have a law on the statute books which 
pretends to do something and does not 
do it, and this, of course, is especially 
the case where it is highly important 
that the nominal end sought to be 
attained really should be attained. 
The general tendency toward the 
eight-hour working day has undoubt 
edly been healthful, and it is wise for 
the state to set a good example as an 
employer of labor, both as to the 
number of hours of labor exacted and 
as to paying a just and reasonable 
wage. 

“ It is even more important to reach 
contractors who do the state work 
than to reach the public servants of 
the state proper. Cheapness secured 
by the employment of gangs of men 
under the padrone system is cheap- 
ness for which the state pays alto- 
gether too dearly, for it is obtained at 
the cost of the sacrifice of good citizen- 
ship. It is, therefore, just that the 
ordinary employee of the state and of 
contractors who do state work should 
work for but eight hours and should 
receive a rate of wages not less than 
that paid for other labor of the same 
kind where the structure is to be put 
up, this not interfering with the pur- 
chase of a finished product. 

“ The permission to work overtime 
for additional compensation has re- 
sulted in such widespread evasion and 
nullification of the purposes of the 
law, especially among contractors, 
that it is wise to take it away in most 
cases. Certain needed exceptions are 
provided for in the bill, but there are 



other exceptions which must be pro- 
vided for by the next legislature, if 
the bill is not to be a cause of needless 
expense to the state in various direc- 
tions. There are some forms of labor 
where though the man is employed 
on and off for more than eight hours 
a day, his labor is not continuous. 

‘‘This is notably the case as re- 
gards lock-tenders on the less-fre- 
quented canals. Curiously enough, 
the less work there is to do on a lock, 
the longer is it necessary to have the 
nominal hours for labor. One of the 
most thoroughly satisfactory lock- 
tenders in the state is a woman, the 
widow of the former lock tender, 
whose house is by the lock. It is on 
a canal where work is not regular, and 
days may pass where, all told, she 
may not work more than an hour or 
two a day. Then will come a day or 
two when, owing to the accident of a 
number of boats passing, she may 
work on and off, though not contin- 
uously, from light to light. It would 
be, of course, a great injustice to her 
to diminish her compensation by pro- 
viding for a paid substitute to do her 
work, and it would be a great injus- 
tice to the state to pay such a substi- 
tute in addition to paying her, when 
all told the aggregate of her work 
rarely requires her laboring eight 
hours all told, and never requires her 
laboring for eight hours continuously. 

‘‘With a shoveller, a mechanic or 
any other employe who is employed 
for eight hours steadily there is diffi- 
culty ; but both the law as it reads at 
present and the law as it will read 
after the signing of this bill is not 
framed so that the case of a lock- 
tender can be met under it, save those 
practically continuous. Here the eight- 
hour law can be and shall be applied ; 
but I shall hold under this bill, as it 
has been held in the past, that in the 
other places where the work is not 
continuous, intervals of rest continu- 
ally intervening between the intervals 
of work, the aggregate of the time 
spent per day actually at work is to 
be included in the eight- hour law ; 
in other words, that we shall not take 
an arbitrary stretch of eight hours, 
six of which the man may spend in 
idleness, and call them eight hours’ 
work. 

“ Another class of cases comes 
under the Superintendent of Public 
Buildings, notably in the Capitol at 
Albany. These employees do not 
average eight hours a day throughout 
the year, because when the Legislature 
is not sitting their work is light ; but 

( Continued on page 4.) 



1 



2 



THE CARPENTER 




(TtaU Department Is open for criticism anei 
»correspondence from our readers on mechanical 
«abject* In Carpentry, and ideas as to Craft 
organization. 

Write on one side oi the paper onlyr All 
articles should be signed. 

Matter for this Department must be in thl* 
office by the 30.5th of the month ' 



Rule for Dividing a Quadrangular 
Pyramid. 



Butte, Mont., April 2, 1899. 

The February number of The Car- 
penter has a request by 1 ‘ Unknown ’ ’ 
for a geometric rule for dividing a 
44 Quandrangular Pyramid” in two, 
with reference to volume, also frus- 
tum of same. Notwithstanding I am 
only a fellow 14 woodbutcher, ” I take 
quite an interest in the geometric 
side of doing work, and ever strive to 
get at the most practical way of doing 
work. Thinking that the method I 
have adopted for solving all problems 
that have odd fractions or decimals 
might be of use to others I herewith 
give the same. Looking for abso- 
lute correctness in problems of this 
nature is looking for an impossibility, 
as some one of the dimensions is 
sure to be a fraction or decimal. We 
can get a close approximate, but not 
exaction. This is the stumbling 
block to the solving of the 44 Quadra- 
ture of the Circle, * ’ although it can be 
done true to four decimal places, and 
probably with greater accuracy. My 
method is to figure all lengths, run to 
three decimal places, if there is more 
than .005 add one to hundreds, then 
with a diagonal scale in inches one 
can set a pair of dividers so as to 
measure the fractional part in tenths 
and hundredths exactly, even to the 
of an inch. A great many car- 
penter squares have this scale on 
near the corner. I will venture to 
say that of an inch is just about 
as close as the average workman is 
capable of working to. For lengths 
of rafters, braces, etc., I always figure 
lengths true to three decimals, then 
measure whole numbers, and with 
the use of diagonal scale and dividers 
get the fractional part in inches true 
to the part of an inch. When I* 
want areas, lines, surfaces, volumes, 
etc., I always figure a formula if pos- 
sible, then this answers for all 
problems of this nature. The student 
in geometry should first make note of 
all truths following demonstrations, 
and then keep within these lines. He 
should always make accurate draw- 
ings and correct measurements, then 
the right proportions can be seen at 
once. 

As to the problem in question, all 
pyramids of the same height are cut 
with a plane parallel to the base, and 
same distance from it, with reference 
to one-half volume. All pyramids 
with same base but different heights 
have same size base for one-half 
volume. All frustums of same height 
whose slant sides terminate in the 
same point, are cut by a plane same 
distance from base with reference to 
one- half volume. All frustums of 



same top and bottom areas, but of 
different heights, have same size base 
for one-half volume. 

Let A, B, C, be a section of pyra- 
mid of known dimensions. 

A', B, C' be a section of pyramid 
of one-half volume. 

Make a , b=\ of B, b Extend the 
altitude B, b, to B', and make B, B', 
= to ^ of B, b Draw B', a. Make 
b,c,= a, b Extend A, c, to e , mak- 
ing- c t e=B, b } with radius a, d = y 2 
of a , e } describe arc a , F, cutting B', a> 
in F. Then draw A', C', parallel to 
base A, C, through F. Then A', CL 
cuts pyramid in two, making each 
equal to one-half volume of whole. 
This is not absolutely true, making 
d , F, about of a unit too short, 

but for all practical purposes is cor- 
rect. The more accurate way would 
be to figure lengths and measure. 

To get a formula. - Let A, C = m. 
B, b = n. Then — 



( r ) ™ — — equal volume of whole 



pyramid A, B, C 

z v ?n 2 ?i 

(2) 2 = 

3 



equal vol- 



ume of y z pyramid = A', B, CL 
m . . m 

(3) — = A , b — equal length 

in units of A, b for every unit (of 
same kind) in height of B, b, or for 
every unit in height of B, b ; A, b 
will be represented as many times by 

rn 

271 

(4) Let x = B, b'. 



2 71 



771 . 771 X 

(s) Then x * = 



A', b'. 
m x 

(6) —X 2 



= A/ C'. 



(7) (6) squared X (4) ■+■ 3 = 



= y 2 volume of whole pyramid 
A', B, CL 

( 77l l 71 
— 6 — ~ 



Transposing and 

3 

(8) eliminating x* = n x = V 

2 2 

which gives the formula for finding 
B, b' in known terms of the whole 
pyramid, or to get altitude of pyramid 
equal to one-half volume. Take cube 
root of the perpendicular cubed, di- 
vided by 2. 

By the formula (8) it will be seen 
that only one known quantity (the 
perpendicular height) is needed. 

To illustrate: Let A, C, (m) = 4. 

B, b (n) = 6. Then by the formula 



7H 1 x* v 

3 n* ) 



(8) x = ]/ V = LfoS = 
2 2 

4 7622 = B, b'. This is the height ot 
the pyramid of one half volume of all 
pyramids, whose height is 6. 

To find base A, C, take formula 

Yx* 



(3) 



771 

271 

A, b 



* 

2x6 



= Y X 2 =4 = A, C 
A, B, C and A', B, C' are similar. 
Therefore X X X 2 = 3,1748 

= A', CL 

m 2 n 

Formula (1) 

J i 

32 = volume A, B, C. 



4 2 X 6 



Formula (2) 



771 2 71 
6 



4 ? X 6 
6 



16 = volume A/ B, CL 
In the new pyramid, A', B, C' we 

771 1 71 . 

have formula (1) — - — — volume — 

(AL CQ (B, b') 3J748 2 X 4 7622 

3 3 

= 16. 

For the frustum I have not found 
any geometric demonstration that is 
applicable to all. 

Let A, B, C, D be fru turn of given 
dimensions, complete the pyramid by 
drawing the slant sides to c. Draw 
B, d' parallel to 

(9) c , d. Then A, C — B, C-i- 2=A, d'. 

(10) By .similar triangles : 

A, d' : B, d' : : B, c' : c, c'. 

(n) c L d + c, c' = c y d = height ot 
complete pyramid. 

(12) By formula ( 1) we find volume 
of whole pyramid A, c, D. 

(13) By formula (1) we find volume 
of top pyramid B, c , C. 

(14) Then (12) — (13) = volume ot 
frustum A, B, C, D. 

(15) One half ( 14) = volume o, B, C, b. 

(16) (13)+ (15) = volume of new pyr- 
amid, whose base equals base of (15). 

Let A, D = 4 B,C = iX c' d = 4. 
Then by (9) 4 — ^-2 = 1^ = 

A, d'. 

By (10) iy : 4 : : % : c t c' = 2. 

44 (11)44- 2 = 6= c, d. 

44 (12) A, c, D == 32. 

44 (13) B, c } C = ??. 

“.( 14 ) A, B, C, D = 32 - % = 

832 

27 

By (15) a, B, = 

•‘(16)«,*.*« + f 



Let x — c } b'. Then by (3) = 



A 



2X6 

(18) y 3 X * X 2 = — = base a, b. 



By CO ( — ) J + 3 = -^- 

v 3 7 27 

= volume a, e, b. But (17; = 

448 

27 

Therefore - __ — 112 

27 27 

x 4 82 — - c } b' 

c < % — e < c ' — 2 82 =c',b' =. 
4.82 2 

height of frUvStum of one-half volume. 
By (18) 482 X 2 A =3 2 *3 = base 

Ä, by 

which can be measured to the — L 

10OU 

of an inch by the use of the 44 Diago- 
nal Scale.” Wentworth Rice. 

(j7li07l 1 12. 



Iron Failure in CJIasgow. 



A great sensation has been caused 
by the failure of Neilson Brothers, 
Glasgow, Scotland, an important firm, 
engaged in the iron and steel trade. 
They had long 4 4 beared” Glasgow 
pig iron, and were heavily oversold 
when the corner in warrants was 
engineered. It is calculated that the 
concern lost $1,250,000 during the 
past year. The total of the liabilities 
is unknown. 

Neilson Brothers were the largest 
dealers and exporters of ship plates in 
Scotland. 



Elephants That Work. 



There is a great difference between 
the elephant as one sees him at the 
circus or at the Zoo and the busy, 
workaday elephants of India, Burmah, 
Siam and the East generally. At the 
circus and the Zoo the elephant is a 
gentleman of bespangled leisure, or at 
least chiefly remarkable for his intel- 
lectual qualifications. In India once 
a warrior in the battlefield, the friend 
of princes and rajahs, he now is more 
or less of a day laborer, and, as is 
shown in the pictures, can do a day ’s 
work in a lumber yard with grace and 
ease. 

Heavy timbers that with us would 
be lifted by machinery, swung on 
giant cranes, or pushed about on 
trucks, the elephant lefts up uncon- 
cernedly. He is also good at pushing 
and pulling and can set up or take 
down a lumber pile and do all sorts of 
odd jobs and chores that are required 
of him. As the Hindoos take life 
easily, enjoy ordering the elephant 
about and lazily watch him as he 
plays the lumberman under their 
direction. Elephants thus engaged 
may not have as good a time as their 
brothers of the Zoo, but they take 
life serenely and seem to enjoy work 
as much as the next one. 



Some Civil Service Stumpers. 



Down in Texas the United States 
Treasury Department has a force of 
44 ran ge- riders, ” who patrol the Mexi- 
can border to prevent smuggling, and, 
like everybody else in the civil ser- 
vice of the government, thev are 
appointed after examination from lists 
of eligibles. The examinations are 
supposed to be appropriate to the 
case, to ascertain the fitness of candi- 
dates for their peculiar duties, and to 
determine their 4 4 general intelli- 

gence.” 

Not long ago, when the Civil Ser- 
vice Commissioners were holding an 
examination for 44 range riders, ” one 
of the “general intelligence” ques- 
tions was : 

44 Where is the Bay of Fundy? ” 

One of the candidates, a cowboy 
who had more active experience than 
book learning, wrote opposite that 
question on his examination papers : 

44 1 don’t know where it is ; I never 
heard of it before, but I’m mighty 
sure it is not on the Texas border.” 

The examining board gave him full 
credit for a correct answer. 

A similar reply was given by a col- 
ored applicant for a position in the 
railway mail service in North Caro- 
lina. When asked the distance from 
the mouth of the Congo River to the 
Cape of Good Hope he replied : 

‘ I don’t know. It looks a good 
ways on the map, but I never heard 
how many miles it is. I could tell 
better the distances in North Caro- 
lina.” 

A more self-conscious applicant 
who was asked howto avoid the odors 
of cooking in the kitchen and of ani- 
mals in the stables, impertinently 
responded : 

44 Do your cooking in the stable and 
keep your critters in the kitchen.” 



THE CARPENTER 



8 



Rights— Duty— Obligation. 



BY SAM. L. LEFFINGWELL. 



question of rights comes 
? in the mind of every one 
ho has sufficient intelli- 
mce to give it thought, 
and the definition given as 
to what constitute rights are as varied 
as the wants, desires and aspirations 
of the individual which prompt the 
inquiry. According to ideas expressed 
by one writer, rights have their corre- 
spondence in duties. “They may be 
arbitrarily separated, but not without 
the defect or distortion of one or the 
other. Rights have a moral content 
and to every right a duty corresponds; 
but it does not follow that a right 
corresponds, also, to every duty, since 
there are immediate duties in the 
relations of life, as the duty of a 
child to its parents.” 

Rights and duties have the same 
ground in personality. A right is a 
condition in which there may be a ful- 
fillment of duty ; but a right is not 
simply the means for the fulfillment 
of a duty, only the instrument by 
which a duty is performed and having, 
apart from that, no significance. 
Rights, no less the fulfillment of 
duties, have their immediate content 
in personality, and are, therefore to 
be held not simply as subsequent to 
duties and as if only an incident to 
them. 

The rights of an organic people, or 
national rights, have a wholeness of 
unity as they are instituted in the 
realization of the nation as a moral 
person. They do not compose simply 
a formal system. They are not a mere 
accumulation of institutions, to be 
held by the people, as a budget of re- 
ceipts, nor do they exist as proceeding 
from the duties of the people, as the 
resultant of certain obligations. The 
rights of the people subsist in the 
consciousness of the people in its 
unity, and this is the condition of 
political rights. They bear in their 
form the imprint of the type of the 
nation’s individuality, and are the ex- 
pressions of its spirit. They constitute 
its political order. There is apparent 
in the institution of its rights the 
physical condition of the people, the 
age, the land, the climate, the races, 
but these only modify while they can 
not determine its process ; this is de- 
termined only in the freedom of the 
people, and is the manifestation of its 
spirit. 

There is a certain representation of 
rights in which they are defined as 
original and acquired rights. But 
strictly there is only one original right, 
the right of personality and to this all 
others may be referred. It is the right 
which is primitive in the rights of 
man, the right of a man to be himself. 
The term acquired rights, when rights 
are held as the acquisition of private 
property of certain individuals or 
families, denotes a condition isolated 
from the normal or organic being of a 
nation, and deriving its content from 
traditional force, or custom, or acci- 
dent, it describes rather the privilege 
or prerogative of an individual or a 
class. These may invade the whole 
sphere of natural rights, and when 
encroaching upon them, become, in 
reality the ancient wrongs of a people. 




Acquired rights are positive, but they 
have no necessary basis, and exist 
only as a creation of law. 

The origin of government has been 
traced by dlfierent writers to four 
sources— divine right, paternal au- 
thority, election and force. The most 
reasonable and sensible of conclusions 
arrived at, however, is the one which 
traces it to only two — election and 
force— and that it has originated some- 
times in the one and sometimes in 
the other, according to the state ol 
society at the time and the number of 
which it was composed. This propo- 
sition admits of a clear and satisfac- 
tory demonstration. The other sources 
— divine right and paternal authority 
— can find no advocates, in reason 
and understanding, except among 
the advocates o r despotism and those 
of hereditary rights. 

One of our early and most eminent 
of statesmen, President James Mon- 
roe, left a small work, entitled 
“ The People the Sovereigns,” which 
was not published until after his 
death, and in which he expressed 
some indisputable views on the sub- 
ject of “ rights ” on the question of 
the “ Origin of Government.” These 
views would be too long for the space 
allotted to this paper and can only be 
referred to in substance briefly. 

Divine and paternal rights appear 
to rest on the same basis, although 
not so understood by writers who 
have traced government to these 
sources. If divine, the claimant or 
pretender must prove his title by 
some miracle or incontestable evi- 
dence, or it must commence with the 
parent ; and, beginning with him, be 
subject to all views applicable to that 
title. They must either accord or be 
in opposition to each other. No ad- 
vocate of either places them in oppo- 
sition ; and if they accord, it must be 
by meaning the same thing under 
different names. Of course, both are 
absurd in the extreme, and might be 
unworthy of notice, if it were not 
that they have been given great weight 
by distinguished and able writers on 
the subject of government. It is only 
necessary to simplify the subject to 
rid one’s mind of all such absurd 
doctrines. 

In tracing regal power (royalty) to 
the paternal source, we trace it to a 
single pair from whom the whole 
community must have descended ; for 
otherwise the origin could not have 
been paternal. If this be the source 
of power, it must have commenced 
with the human race ; and, admitting 
the authority of the Mosaic account, 
with our first parents, and to preserve 
the succession, have descended in the 
right line to the oldest son, from gen- 
eration to generation, to the present 
day. If the right ever existed it must 
have commenced at that epoch and still 
exists, without limitation as to time, 
generation, population or its disper- 
sion over the earth. A limitation of 
the right in either of these respects 
would be subversive of it, to over- 
throw and ruin it. To what term 
confine it ? Through how many gen- 
erations must it pass ? To what num- 
ber of persons, or extent of territory 
carry it? How dispose of it, after 
these conditions should have been 
fulfilled ? The mere admission that 
such limitations were prescribed, 



would be to admit that the right 
never existed. And, if not limited, 
it would follow that one man would 
now be the sovereign or lord of all 
the inhabited globe. Any one can 
ask himself if anything could be con- 
ceived that would be more absurd. 

Do any of the sovereigns of the 
present day trace their titles to Adam 
or to any other first- parent? Or 
would they be willing to rest it on 
that ground? We know that they 
would not, and if they did that it 
would fall, since the commencement 
of all existing dynasties may be traced 
to other sources ; to causes such as 
operated at the moment of their 
derivation, and varied in different 
countries. Does any community, in 
Europe or elsewhere, trace its origin 
to a single pair, unless it be to our 
first parents, and which is common to 
the human race ? We know that 
except in their instance, and at the 
creation of mankind, societies have 
never commenced in that form ; and 
that such have been the revolutions 
in every part of the globe, that no 
existing race or community can trace 
its connection in a direct line, with 
Adam, Noah or others of that early 
epoch. In the infant state of every 
society, individuals seek each other 
for safety and comfort. Those who 
are born together, no matter from 
whence their parents came, live to- 
gether, and thus increase and multi- 
ply until the means of subsistence 
becomes scanty. A portion then with- 
draw to some other quarter where the 
means can be procured, and thus new 
societies have been formed, and the 
human race spread over the earth 
through all its habitable regions. 

From every view that can be taken of 
the subject, the doctrine of divine or 
paternal right as the foundation of a 
claim in any one to the sovereign 
power of the state, or to any portion ol 
it, is absurd. It belonged to the dark 
ages and was characteristic of the 
superstition and idolatry which pre- 
vailed in them. All men are by nature 
equally free. Their Creator made 
them so ; and the inequalities which 
have grown up among them, and the 
governments which have been estab- 
lished over them have proceeded from 
other causes, by which their natural 
rights have been subverted. We must 
trace governments to other sources ; 
and in doing this, should view things 
as they are and not indulge in super- 
stitious, visionary and fanciful specu- 
lations. 

It is said that Rousseau founded all 
morality upon personal interest. And 
the accusation is probably just. No 
man will enter adult life without the 
germs of that social conscience which 
animates a man with all the associa- 
tions of duty and right, of gratitude 
for the past and resolute hope for the 
future, in the face of the great body 
of which he finds himself a part. It 
has been observed that in modern ages 
men have no hold upon one another 
save through force and interest, while 
the ancients, on the other hand, acted 
much more by persuasion and the 
affections of the soul. With the 
ancients — those of the Greeks and 
Romans — the social conscience was so 
much wider in its scope than the 
comparatively narrow fragment of 
duty which is supposed to come under 



the sacred power of conscience in the 
more complete and less closely con- 
tained organization of a modern state. 
The neighbors to whom a man owed 
duty in those times comprehended all 
the members of his state ; the neigh- 
bors of the modern preacher of duty 
are either the few persons with whom 
each of us is brought into actual con- 
tact, or else the whole multitude of 
dwellers on the earth. 

This paper has been extended far 
beyond the purpose of the writer, but 
its motive is one of purity in its 
intent. It would be an insult to the 
intelligence of the reader to doubt his 
capabilities of comprehension. The 
dullest mind can and will grasp a 
suggestive thought that will aid him 
in working out his own destiny. We 
are all mere creatures of circumstance. 
Preach and pray how we may ; plead 
and implore how we will, the inevit- 
able fate awaits us to accept and receive 
what befalls us ; and if we fail to 
recognize and maintain our rights in 
the struggles of life, we are derelict 
in a duty prompted and impelled by 
the profoundest impulse of our being 
and self preservation. 

•• The flan With the Hoe.” 



Bowed by the weight of centuries he leans 
Upon his hoe and gazes on the ground. 

The emptiness of ages in his face. 

And on his back the butden of the world. 

Who made him dead to rapture and despair, 

A thing that grieves not and that never hopes, 
Stolid and stunned, a brother to the ox ? 

Who loosened and let down this brutal jaw ? 
Whose was the hand that slanted back this brow? 
Whose breath blew out the light within this 
brain ? 

Is this the Thing the Lord God made and gave 
To have dominion over sea and land ; 

To trace the stars and search the heavens for 
power ; 

To feel the passion of Eternity ? 

Is this the Dream He dreamed who shaped the 
suns 

And pillared the blue firmament with light 
Down all the stretch of Hell to its last gulf 
There is no shape more terrible than this— 

More tongued with censure of the world’s b’iud 
greed— 

More filled with signs and portents for the soul— 
More fraught with menace to the universe. 

What gulfs between him and the seraphim ! 
Slave of the wheel of labor, what to him 
Are Plato and the swi ng of Pleiades ? 

What the long reaches of the peaks of song. 

The rift of dawn, the reddening of the rose ? 
Through this dread shape the suffering ages 
look ; 

Time’s tragedy is in that aching stoop ; 
Through this dread shape humanity betrayed, 
Plundered, profaned and disinherited, 

Cries protest to the Judges of the world, 

A protest that is also prophecy. 

O, masters, lords and rulers in all lands, 

Is this the handiwork you give to God, 

This monstrous thing distorted and soul 
quenched? 

How will you ever straighten up this shape ; 
Give back the upward looking and the light ; 
Rebuild in it the music and the dream ; 

Touch it again with immortality ; 

Make right the immemorial infamies, 

Perfidious wrongs, immedicable woes ? 

O, masters, lords and rulers in airlands, 

How will the Future reckon with this man? 

How answer his brute question in that hour 
When whirlwinds of rebellion shake the world ? 
How will it be with kingdoms and with kings— 
With those who shaped him to the thing he is— 
When this dumb terror shall apply to God, 

After the silence of the centuries ? 

Edwin Markham in S. F. Examiner. 



Dull in Cincinnati. 

Cincinnati, O., April io, 1899. 

The daily press reports, of the great 
activity in the building trades in Cin- 
cinnati, are much overdrawn, as it is 
but little in advance of other seasons, 
and can easily be completed by resi- 
dent mechanics, some of whom are 
even now losing time occasionally. 

J. H. Meyer, 
D. C. Secretary. 




4 



THE CARPENTER. 



INSTRUCTIVE AND INTERESTING 
ITEMS. 



Why Eight Hours? 



B-c.iuse — 

Under the present long-hour day 
many are unemployed, and the man 
on the strtet fixes the wages paid the 
man at work. 

The price of labor is regulated by 
the supply. Eight hours work would 
reduce the supply. 

I.abor saving machinery has in 
creased the productive capacity of 
workmen to such a degree that the 
workmen in justice should be afl'oidtd 
more leisure. 

The eight-hour day would increase 
the longevity o f the wotkers. 

It would give greattr opportunity 
for social and educational develop- 
ment. 

It would raise the standard of liv- 
ing, upon which business prosperity 
depends. 

It would give men a chance to get 
acquainted with their families. 

It would promote temperance by 
removing the desire for stimulants 
which comes from long hours of labor. 

It would make better citizens, by 
giving the citizen more time to under- 
stand his duties. 

It would help the tax pater In- 
putting the tramp at work. 

It would promote an independent 
spirit, which is too often lacking in 
overworked people. 

It would build up trade unions, 
and concentrated effort is the law of 
success in the militant world of in- 
dustry. 

It would open up the road to every 
desirable social reform. — Th, Libera 
tor. 



Change for the Better, 



The time wa9, within the remem- 
brance of some of our older members 
of union organizations, when it was 
almost the loss of a workingman’s 
claim to a situation to approach a 
legislator, or even a city councilman, 
in behalf of some little reform in the 
interest of labor. Even the press 
sneered and hooted at his efforts. 

There were none so poor as to do 
him reverence ” But by gradual en- 
ergetic organization in many trades 
and a coalition of the interests of 
these trades, the claims of labor are 
becoming quite as potent and efforts 
in their behalf quite as powerful as 
those of the average legislator or 
newspaper editor. Of course they 
cannot be forced to give labor all it 
asks. The former, as a law maker, is 
not the fawning, cringing sycophant 
he once was in the hands of capital, 
and if he doesn’t do much for us he is 
careful not to attempt the framing of 
laws against us ; while th ; average 
editor doesn’t now, as of yore, spend 
all his time in damning organized 
labor and reporting its adherents as 
outlaws, anarchists, etc. This grad- 
ual change for the better should urge 
every one within the fold of organiza- 
tion to increase his efforts to gather 
in all those who are still on the out- 
side and make more secure the benefits 
he is now enjoying. — Typographical 
Journal, 



Conservative Counsel. 

t 

Experience has taught us the fact 
that holding our hands on the throats 
of our neighbors and brothers will 
not enhance our own respiration, or 
hardly recompense us for the time 
used in our frantic efforts to tluottle 
him. better, far better that we rise 
as humane teachers and use our 
endeavors to show those who are in 
darkness that there is " a most excel- 
lent way,'* assist ng them to lay 
aside petty jealousies and hateful 
spites, which cannot but retard and 
hinder the progress of the fatherhood 
of God and brotherhood of man in its 
onward course. Let us lay aside the 
garb of selfishness and suspicion and 
don the new garb of helpfulness and 
brotherly love and by concerted action 
push the cause on to an assured suc- 
cess. — Fiansiille . Id: afire. 



Organization Means Power. 

The ordinary workingman respects 
an organization with power enough to 
force him into it. and he justly 
reasons that only such an organiza- 
tion can be of benefit to himself and 
the trade hence it is why such people 
eventually as a rule become goed 
members. The non unionist usually 
has little faith in the possible power 
of a trade union, and takes advantage 
of the doubt by plodding along 
despairingly until the more coura- 
geous worker jostles him along in the 
march toward a systematic and equit- 
able control of the trade, through 
organization. A little training and 
education in the union soon convinces 
the previously unwilling member that 
to force him Into the union is like 
compelling people to take a bath 
against their own will or taking a 
load from the shoulder of a man 
foolishly bent into carrying it to the 
top floor of a building, and placing it 
upon the elevator for him. A trade 
union is a school in which education 
is compulsory, and the scholar re- 
ceives an equal and immediate practi- 
cal benefit — Garment Worker . 



Shirking Members of Unions. 

There are men who join trades 
unions merely to have the name of 
being members— they nevtr have the 
remotest idea ol ever accepting any 
office of fulfilling any duties. They 
never go near the meetings unless 
compelled to do so. They desire to 
have all the benefits to be derived, but 
are unwilling to take any part in 
securing them There is nothing so 
mean and despicable as the man who, 
joining a trades union, shirks the 
duties of membership. A man who 
keeps out of the union is bad enough, 
yet he can at least claim an honest 
purpose, but the man who plays the 
hypocrite that he may secure the 
benefits, and is unwilling to share 
with his brother members a fair share 
of the work, is beneath the contempt 
of all fair minded men and is a drug 
on the market of trade unionism. So 
then, you lukewarm members, come 
up to the scratch ; do your duty like 
men. Come up to your meetings and 
there ventilate your honest opinion, 
and you will soon walk along on the 
upper paths of unity, liberty and love. 
— The New Era . 



The School of the Masses. 

The trade union is the school of 
the masses. It teaches its members 
how to resist the oppression of classes 

of specially favored and law* defy- 
ing trusts. It teaches the dignity of 
honest lab >r and upholds the living 
wage, without wb'Vh labor is a specie s 
of slavery, more debased and degraded 
than the lowest which obtains in the 
Czar of Russia's dominions. It 
teaches the workingman his true 
condition and educates him up to the 
po ut of being master of himself and 
conscious of his power and sovereign 
rights. It is the common school of 
the common people. It builds no edi- 
fices other than the foundations it im- 
plants in human lieai ts of sterling 
unionism and the tiuth of life. It is 
a school at which all men might wor- 
ship with distinct benefit to them- 
selves. It is the laborers hope, and 
his salvation depends ujxm it ( hi- 
eago Federations st. 

What Organization Will Do. 

It will giveeu h trade control uf the 
market supply of their individual 
craft. It will give to each union 
collectively and individually a more 
just proportion of its products. It 
will enforce a recognition of the 
union's rights. It will finally lessen 
the hours of all trade unions to an 
eight hour work day, and thus give 
the skilled mechanics more chance to 
study the economical questions of the 
day and by so doing become better 
citizens and more intelligent voters. 
By doing all this it will make the 
laboring man a home owner and an 
interested factor in the affairs of the 
nation. Through organization labor 
can bring about all its aims and ob- 
jects, without unity they will all fail. 
These are all principle facts, as clear 
and plain to the reader as they are to 
us. Then is it not better to exert all 
your power to organize your fellow- 
tradesmen into a union if they do not 
have one already, and if there is a 
union of your trade, is it not liest for 
you to do all in your power to make 
your union a strong one, by attending 
all the meetings and taking an in- 
terest in all questions brought up for 
consideration .— Journal of Industry. 

■ ■ ■ ■ ♦ 9 — ■ ' - ■ 

Monopolistic Monologue. 



I.et ui corner up the mi nU mini, 

I.yioic all «round our path ; 
fiel a truit on wheat au<l ro*e«. 

Give the pior the thoin* and chaff, 

I.et ua find ol r chiefr*! pleasure 
Hoarding l*>unitea of the da\ , 

So the poor will have acaut measure. 

And two prices have to pay. 

Ye«, we'll reservoir t lie river«, 

And we'll levy on the lakes. 

And we'll lay a trifling poll isx 
Ou each poor man that partake« ; 

We'll hi and his number ou him, 

That he’ll carry through Ilia life, 

We'll apprentice all his children, 

Get a mortgage on his wife. 

We will capture e'en the wind go I, 

And confine hi tu in a cave. 

Then through our patent pro:rM, 

We the atmosphere will save ; 

Thu« we'll squeeze our little brother 
When he tries hia lung » to fill, 

Tut a meter on hia windpipe. 

And preaent our little h II. 

We will syndicate the starlight 
Aud monopolize the moon. 

Claim royalty on rest days, 

A proprietary noon. 

For right of way through ocean's spray, 
We'll charge Juft what it's worth, 
We'll drive our stakes around the lakes ; 
In fact, we'll own the earth. 



Eight-Hour Hill. 

(Continued •» page r ) 

when the Legislature is sitting they 
are obliged on the first four days of 
every week to work for more than 
eight hours. Ordinarily, even in 
these cases, the average for the week 
will not be more than right hours a 
day, Friday and Saturday being light 
days of labor, and it never aveiages 
eight hours a day f«*r the year. Obvi 
ously no just purpose can be served 
by taking a highly paid officer, such 
as the chief engineer at the Capitol, 
who, dining most of the year, may 
not be employed more than from four 
to six hours a «lay, and prohibiting 
him from seeing to the safety o! the 
delicate engines under his care during 
the time when the Legislature and its 
committees are silting in the after- 
noons and evenings. The same thing 
applies to the elevator men. 

• This difficulty will not arise under 
the present bill until the first of Janu- 
ary next, and 1 shall, in my message 
to the Legislature, request them at 
once to amend the law so that in the 
case of public servants who do not in 
the aggregate, during their terms of 
employment, work for more than 
eight hours a day on the average, 
they shall he permitted, where any 
emergency arises, to work for more 
than eight hours a day, provided 
always that this amount of extra 
work is in no case to be carried so far 
as to make the average per «lay for the 
term more than eight hours. The 
alternative to this would be putting a 
e !!•• additional burden on the 
state or shutting down the wages of 
the employ ees during the time they are 
not employed for eight hours a day. 
It may be that the actual working of 
the law during the next eight months 
will develop some additional defects, 
if so they can be remedied by the next 
Legislature. Until it has actually 
been tried it is probably impossible to 
say whether or not any defect be>* 1 
those indicated above will be found 
In any event it is highly desirable 
that the principle which this law 
seeks to establish should be really 
established and that the nominal pur- 
pose of the eight hour law should be 
in fact fulfilled. 

*• I accordingly sign the bill. 

•• Thkodokk Kooskvklt. ' 

** 

Til»: eight hour law in all the build 
ing trades went into force in New 
Kochelle, N. \\, on May ist. 

— - - — ■ 

Engineers’ Hours of loibor. 



The Colorado state officials have 
directed complainants from the engin- 
eers who are employed in city and 
county buildings to file information 
with the district attorney, or to in- 
form him of the violation of the eight 
hour law with reference to engineers 
in public buildings and works. The 
attorney general decided that the dis- 
trict attorney could institute a prose- 
cution without formal filing of In- 
formations, and the engineers will see 
to it that their hours are reduced to 
the lawful maximum. Managers of 
the buildings employing the men will 
be prosecuted. 



f 










1 



i 



* 



N 



£ 







J 







THE CARPENTER 



5 



A Model Six Room House. 



BY I. P. HICKS, OMAHA, NEB. 



NT this issue we present the 
front elevation and floor plans 
of a modern six room house. 
The size of this house is 
29x40 feet over all but the 
porches. Height of first story is 9 
feet ; second story, 8 feet 6 inches. 
Cellar is estimated under the whole 
house 7 feet deep. The rooms are all 
large and provided with ample closet 
room. There is a large front hall, 
bays, bath, plant cabinet, pantry, 



180 lineal feet main cornice, 



22C 


39 60 


90 lineal feet gutter, 18c. 


16 20 


22 lineal feet front porch, $3 


66 00 


10 lineal feet back porch, 




$2.50 


25 00 


21 windows complete, $7 


147 00 


3 plate glass windows, $20 


60 00 


17 doors complete, $7. 25 


123 25 


i front door complete 


10 00 


1 set sliding doors 


19 00 


10 cellar windows, $2.40 


24 00 


3 cellar doors, $3 50 . 


1050 


3 attic frames, $3 


9.00 


Basing 1 small room 


2 80 


Basing 3 large rooms, $3 80 . 


11 40 




china closet, 'sewing room, front and 
back porches, and on the whole it 
may be considered a model plan for 
a six room bouse. The estimated 
cost to build is as follows : 

190 yards excavating, 25c. . $47 5° 

667 cubic feet brick founda- 
tion, 19c 126 73 

1 7 lineal feet chimney breast, 

$2.25 38 25 

28 lineal feet triple flue above 

breast, $2 56.00 

9 squares first floor, $5 75 . 51.75 

9 squares second floor, $7 50 67 50 




$9 50 256 50 

15 squares roofing, $8.75 . 131 25 

1 6 X squares partitions, $7 20 1 1 8 80 

94 lineal feet outside base, 5c. 4.70 

J 4o lineal feet corner casings, 

6c 8 40 

180 lineal feet belt course, 8c. 14 4 ° 



Basing 1 medium size room . 3.25 

Wainscoting kitchen . . 8 50 

Wainscoting and finishing 

bath 1000 

Finishing 3 closets, $1.80 . 5 40 

Finishing pantry . . . 10 00 




Finishing china closet . . 8 00 

Front stairs . . . . 45 00 

Cellar stairs . . . . 5 00 

Gas fitting . . . . 20 00 

Plumbing .... 200 00 

Tin work . . . . 25 00 

Painting 620 yards, 1 8c. . 12160 

Incidentals, 3 per cent. . 59 64 



Total estimate . $2,047 67 



In the above estimate no mention 
of plastering is made, as the plaster- 
ing is figured in with the outside 
walls, ceilings, partitions, etc., at the 
price per square all complete. 

Windows and doors are figured all 
complete at the price given including 
all material and labor. 




RECEIPTS, JANUARY, 1899. 



From the Unions, tax, etc $7,234 55 

“ Advertisers 249 50 

“ Subscribers . 3 80 

“ Miscellaneous 1 63 

“ Rent 10 00 

“ Supplies to D. C 50 

“ Claim No. 4292 returned money 135 00 

Balance, January 1, 1899 19,450 37 



Total $27,086 35 

Total expenses 6,490 10 



Cash balance, February 1, 1899 .... $20,596 25 



DETAILED EXPENSES, JANUARY. 1899. 



Printing 500 postals $1 25 

“ 2,000 arrears notices 3 50 

“ 175 stamped envelopes .... 75 

41 application blanks 7 50 

“ 100 G. E. B. cards 1 00 

44 1,000 stamped envelopes ... 1 25 

44 10,000 Constitutions 135 00 

44 5.000 letter heads 20 00 

44 10,000 members’ cards .... 25 00 

Expressage on Carpenter 75 

Postage on January Carpenter ... 28 06 

Printing 5,000 appeals 6 50 

Special writers for Carpenter ... 42 00 

Press Clipping Bureau 5 00 

Ten telegrams 3 13 

Expressage on supplies, etc 54 80 

Expressage from St. Louis 3 75 

Postage on password 12 50 

500 postals . 5 00 

I, 000 stamped envelopes 21 20 

Postage on supplies, etc 20 75 

Office rent for January 25 00 

Salary and clerk hire ........ 310 66 

Tax to A. F. of J,. (December) .... 66 67 

Printed proceedings A. F. of L. ... 2 50 

Quarterly gas bill 17 20 

Rubber seals 250 

P. J. McGuire, traveling expenses . . 14 95 

J. D. Cowper, OTg. Lowell, Mass. . . 30 00 

German translator 5 00 

Janitor, cleaning office 5 25 

P. J. McGuire, expenses New York 

convention 43 20 

L. K. and S. G. Porter, attorneys ... 25 00 

Incidentals 1 60 

James M. Lane, meeting of G. E. B. . 82 75 

A. C. Cattermull, 44 “ H3 40 

J. R Miller, 44 “ • H8 90 

W. J. Williams, 44 44 . 150 00 

John Williams, Gen. Pres, for attend- 
ance at G. E. B -T . . . . 96 75 

John Williams, Gen. Pres 19 33 

»4 « 44 21 75 

J. R. Miller, U ion 4 case 3 50 

Premium on G. S.-T. bond 300 50 

D. C., Pitt burg. Pa 5000 

D. C., New York. City 500 00 

Benefits No-». 4412 to 4136 ....... 4,025 00 



Total $6,490 10 



RECEIPTS, FEBRUARY, 1899. 

From the Unions, tax, etc $6,295 59 



44 Advertisers ... 55 00 

44 Subscribers 300 

“ D. C. supplies 350 

“ Miscellaneous 2 46 

Balance, February 1, 1899 20,596 25 



Total $26,955 80 

Total expenses 6,646 44 



Cash balance, March 1, 1899 $20,309 36 



DETAILED EXPENSES— FEBRUARY, 1899. 



Printing 100 Secretary s order books . $25 00 

44 500 Postals 1 50 

“ 25 200-page ledgers * 28 00 

44 15 300-page ledgers * 23 25 

“ 15, ICO constitutions 202 50 

44 2,000 noteheads 4 00 

44 19 000 copies February Car- 
penter 468 50 

Elect: oty ping Constitution 36 90 

Expressage on February Carpenter 70 

Postage on February Carpenter . . 27 47 

Translation, composition and electro- 
typing of German Constitution ... 70 87 

Engravings for February Carpenter 29 30 

Special writers February Carpenter 40 50 

Press Clipping Bureau 6 00 

Five telegrams • . . . 2 45 



Expressage on supplies, etc 65 75 

Postage on supplies etc 20 66 

500 postals 5 00 

Office rent for February ... .... 25 00 

Salary and clerk hire 349 66 

John Williams, General President, 
visits to New York, Lynn and Phila- 
delphia, etc Ill 05 

Tax to A. F. of L. (January) 66 67 

Special organizing assessment to A F. 

of L. . . 400 00 

S. A. Fuller, attorney 25 00 

500 Brotherhood pins 100 CO 

Rubber seals 5 53 

J M. Kelly, organizing Hancock, 

Mich ’ 5 00 

J. D. Cowper, organizing Lowell, Mass. 26 19 

P. J. McGuire, travelling expenses . . 24 70 

One ton of coal and putting in ... . 5 75 

One stove grate 1 00 

Stationery 5 78 

1 dozen filing cases 5 25 

Incidentals 3 35 

Janitor, cleaning office 4 25 

Benefits, Nos. 4437 to 4469 4,425 00 



Total $6,616 44 




FOR TAX, PINS AND SUPPLIES. 

During the month ending February 28, 1899. 
Whenever any errors appear notify the G. S.-T. 
without delay. 






p 

I 

6 



6 



<1 



1— $178 80 

2 22 20 

3 7 20 

5 30 40 

6 13 10 

7 1)4 40 

8 24 20 

9 14 oo 

10 — 213 00 

12 84 30 

15 17 oo 

lfr— 18 40 

18 4 05 

1» 28 80 

20 9 60 

21 20 20 

22 — —72 00 

23 4K 00 

24 22 80 

25 17 80 

26 34 85 

27 10 40 

28 3 .50 

30 — 15 75 

31 18 85 

32 55 20 

83 — 105 90 

35 5 80 

36 7 00 

87 3 60 

38 6 20 

39 8 00 

41 6 60 

42 8 80 

44 16 &5 

45 17 40 

46 10 40 

47 24 20 

50 3 60 

51 15 00 

52 6 00 

53 4 40 

54 — 26 00 

55 80 20 

56 16 40 

57 4 00 

59 1 4 60 

60 — 12 00 

61 1 00 

62 86 60 

61 15 40 

65 12 SO 

66 4 60 

67 10 64 

69 9 00 

70 8 80 

71 3 40 

72 37 00 

73 — 62 20 

74 5 00 

75 21 80 

76 3 20 

78 24 45 

79 5 50 

80 22 00 

81 14 60 

82 2 TO 

83 11 80 

84 4 00 

86 17 10 

87 35 20 

88 17 60 

89 2 00 

90 18 60 

91 31 10 

92 7 2 ) 

93 — 30 40 

94 2 40 

95 5 20 

96 — 8 00 

97 6 20 

98 39 40 

« 9 — 2 20 

100 7 30 

101 4 20 

102 11 10 



103 — #15 00 

104 5 70 

105 4 60 

106 15 20 

109 53 20 

110 14 70 

HI 8 9'» 

112— 65 60 

114 15 00 

115 48 30 

116 3 85 

119 29 00 

120 — 9 60 

121 10 00 

122 20 80 

123 12 00 

124 — 2 10 

125 43 20 

126 7 60 

127- 12 40 

128 4 60 

129 — 12 65 

130 3 00 

131 29 90 

138 6 75 

134 in 35 

165 23 60 

136 4 80 

137 7 20 

139 10 00 

140 2 60 

142 — 29 62 

143 2 60 

144 — 4 80 

145 10 00 

147 20 80 

148 19 00 

149 7 25 

150 4 60 

152 3 (0 

153 10 00 

154 6 60 

155 6 80 

158 4 40 

160 32 20 

162 2 00 

163 5 20 

164 2 00 

166 11 30 

167 25 05 

168 18 20 

169 21 80 

170 3 40 

171 11 30 

172 15 30 

173 3 10 

174 24 60 

175 12 52 

176 18 90 

177 16 40 

178 5 80 

179 17 20 

181 97 00 

182 15 70 

183 6 80 

181 11 35 

185 5 50 

186 5 40 

187 11 00 

188 7 05 

190 6 60 

191 9 40 

192 3 60 

193 12 80 

194 2 80 

195 8 80 

198 6 60 

199 27 45 

200 19 20 

201 10 00 

‘202 21 10 

203 21 80 

204 — 10 00 

205 10 00 

206 4 80 

207 20 ‘20 



208 $2 60 

209 20 80 

210 12 40 

211 34 (X) 

212 15 40 

214 2 80 

216 15 40 

218 19 20 

221 4 40 

222 6 00 

223 5 60 

227 7 60 

228 9 40 

229 5 20 

230 9 70 

231- -11 60 

232 4 80 

233 60 

234 20 00 

235 4 40 

236 3 20 

237 9 90 

238 11 35 

239 14 40 

241 6 00 

242 24 80 

243 2 80 

244 3 40 

246 3 20 

247 24 80 

249 8 80 

251 8 20 

252 « 50 

255 4 80 

257 44 60 

258 16 60 

259 7 80 

260 9 50 

261 16 00 

262 6 40 

263 12 05 

264 9 50 

266 2 60 

268 3 80 

273- 18 30 

286 14 00 

287 3 00 

288 5 80 

291 21 00 

295 5 20 

301 30 00 

304 11 60 

305 4 00 

309 — 247 00 

315 7 20 

316 4 20 

323 2 70 

325 7 60 

327 2 40 

328 20 70 

332— 6 60 

333 —10 50 

334— 6 15 

340 86 80 

342 4 20 

343 17 io 

346— 4 20 

349 7 20 

352 9 00 

356 14 75 

356 3 80 

360 10 10 

361 32 50 

375 — 140 60 

376 4 00 

381 — 21 10 

382 70 40 

393 5 20 

394 14 80 

400 3 60 

402 8 00 

406 4 80 

407 5 00 

409 — 2 20 

41« 39 30 

419 44 70 



424 #5 20 

427 53 80 

428 7 26 

429—11 40 

433 14 70 

434 3 40 

437 6 45 

439 8 60 

440 17 55 

442 8 20 

444 8 40 

418 8 60 

449 19 20 

431 — 26 60 

453 38 90 

457 4 1 00 

460 2 20 

462 12 40 

464 41 20 

467 4 GO 

471 48 20 

478 39 40 

474 4 20 

476 57 80 

478 47 50 

482 11 60 

484 11 00 

486 13 25 

490 29 40 

493 18 20 

497 49 65 

499 6 60 

507 8 50 

509 43 50 

513 66 20 

615 17 40 

521 21 15 

522 12 60 

526 40 20 

554 14 40 

.563—190 70 
564— 9 80 

567 24 80 

578 3 95 

.584 15 60 

588 14 80 

591 5 60 

592 17 40 

593 8 20 

603 3 50 

606 4 80 

611 9 00 

612 7 65 

617 4 20 

622 17 20 

628 3 80 

633 5 00 

637 8 00 

638 8 50 

639 13 90 

650 - 4 00 

652 18 40 

658 3 00 

659 12 GO 

667 5 20 

676 5 00 

678— -M4 80 

687 6 40 

692 3 80 

696 5 00 

698 7 00 

704 1 75 

707 22 60 

712 2 60 

714 11 50 

715 35 00 

716 20 00 

717 4 0O 

723 14 95 

726 22 10 

739 1 (0 

746 2 40 

750 12 20 

757 3 40 

785 2 20 

786 6 50 



Total 



$6,295 59 








THE CARPENTER 



The Construction of a Framed 
Auditorium. 



BY OWEN B. MAGINNIS. 




N last month’s article I treated 
on the detailed construction 
of framed tenement dwell- 
ings ; in this I propose to 
explain fully the method of 
framing adopted in one of the best 
known timber auditoriums in the 
United States, the place where many 
famous pugilistic encounters have 
taken place. I refer to the building 
called the Coney Island Athletic 
Club. 

This immense framed structure was 
originally designed and built for a 
skating rink at the time of the skat- 
ing craze in 1884, and measured 125 
feet in width by 300 feet in length 
over all. The building consists of 
three parts or sections on plan, 
namely, a main floor or exhibition 
part 75 feet in width and two aisles or 
wings, reserved for galleries for 
spectators each 25 feet wide. 

The construction mainly consisted 
of a series of brick piers and timber 
13-inch posts, spaced 15 feet apart 
and sunk to rest on concrete bases, as 
seen in the transverse, section of the 
building Fig. 1, each capped with an 
8-inch blue stone. On these heavy 
12 x 14-inch yellow pine longitudi- 
nal girders were set. The outside 
lines of girders allowing the ends of 
the 12 x 12-inch square vertical 
columns to rest directly on the centers 
of the cap stones. The girders being 
tied together by an inside 3-inch 
band solidly spiked to the posts and 
girders as seen in Fig. 2. On these 
girders the floor beams were placed, 
spaced 16 inches apart and overlapped 
and spiked together at the girders. 

When the main supporting columns 
were framed and raised, they were 
plumbed and strongly braced to the 
floor beams with 2-inch plank braces, 
and thus held until the braces and 
wall plates were framed, raised and 
set. Here I might state that the 
raising was all done with gin poles, 
one being a light io-inch stick of 
yellow pine timber, used for the posts 
and timbers, and the other, used to 
raise the trusses, being an immense 
round stick of Canadian spruce 
60 feet long, 10 inches at the 
top and 16 inches at the butt. Both 
were stayed with rope guys and rigged 
with four sheaved blocks and tackles, 
thus giving great lifting power. 
The last pole was equipped with a 
drum and horse gear. When the 
plates were being framed and set, a 
special gang of men was engaged in 
framing and putting together the 
trusses, the design of which is readily 
seen at Fig. 1. They were of the 
Howe class, modified to give a pitch 
to the roof, and consisted of a lower 
chord or tie beam 75 feet long, made 
up of two 40- foot 8 x 1 2- inch yellow 
pine timbers spliced at the center as 
at Fig. 3 and strengthened by having 
a 2-inch oak plate bolted on each side 
to prevent its breaking or springing 
sideways. Into the upper edge of 
this beam were framed the principal 
rafter A, Fig. 4, the diagonal braces 
and struts all being fitted with tenons 
and the beams mortised to receive 
them. Each end of each diagonal 




These trusses were braced with long 
diagonal corner braces to the posts, 
thus stiffening the building laterally, 
directly under each truss, and carrying 
the pressure down to each post and 
thence to the pe?it or leayi to shed roofs 
of the wings or aisles, which being 
constructed of main posts opposite 
the columns which are braced laterally 
from the rafters overhead, and longi- 
tudinally from the plate to the post, 
thus making it a strong rigid struc- 
ture. 

On top of the upper chord of the 
principal trusses short 5-foot uprights, 
resting on a longitudinal plate wfre 
raised so as to„ give light from above 
and permit of pivoted sashes being set 
in the sides for ventilation. These 
were set in frames nailed to studding 
and were set close together so as to 
give plenty of air space. 



The Auburn, Pa , Bolt and Nut 
Works have notified their employees 
that eight hours per day will consti- 
tute a day’s labor. The hands are very 
much pleased with the firm’s action, 
as the excessive heat during the sum- 
mer months is very severe, resulting 
in many prostrations. 





Fig. 3. 




Fig 4. 





THE CARPENTER 



7 



Drawing Lesson No. 2. 



BY D. L. STODDARD. 



Mechanical Drawing. 



N this initial 
letter alone, 
as small as 
it is, there 
is a com- 
plete lesson 
of itself. 

Study it carefully. 

The drawing board for practice work 
ma y be made with a ^-inch pine 
board about a foot wide and 2 feet 
long, by simply nailing a piece on 
the ends to keep it from warping. 

A carpenter can make his own, also 
T-square and 45 0 triangle. A few 




thumb tacks and a piece of paper and 
the outfit is complete. 

Tay all your work out with a lead 
Pencil ; notice hov the 45 0 triangle 
lays off hip rafters, etc. 

Notice the cu' of my T-square. It is 
c alled the Day T-square, and made by 
hh T. Ames & Co., 202 Broadway, 
New York ; it is the best T-square 
m ade as far as I know. 




in a small cut I show my draving 

*>et ; it i s a 8mall set an( j on iy cos t 

$** 75 * yet it is all I have ever had and 



will be all an ordinary carpenter will 
need in his life time. 

In fact, the drawing pen is the main 
thing needed and can be bought for 
about fifty cents. 

First thing to learn in mechanical 
drawing is to make nice lines. 




Practice making lines until you can 
make them nicely with your drawing 
pen and India ink. 

Then lay ofi a complete door and 
make one like I have illustrated By 




making the lines closer together and 
further apart, lighter and heavier, 
bring out the panels, glass, etc. 

Practice with your compasses by 
making a rosette. 



Then with T-square and pen make 
a square newel post and a round col- 
umn ; notice how it is all brought out 
with straight lines. 

This may seem a hard lesson and of 
little value, but I give it for the line 
practice. Remember it was made by 
a common carpenter, and you can 
make anything he can. 

Practice all you possibly can, and 
get ready for next lesson, which will 
be geometrical and very simple. 



Words of Warning to the Wise. 



When you are caught in the rain, 
do not repine ; but thank your fortune 
that you have no good clothes to be 
spoiled by the drenching. 

When your lower limbs ache with 
rheumatism, rejoice that you are 
neither a dog nor a table nor any other 
kind of quadruped. Two aching legs 
are only half as bad as four. 

When your hat blows away, con- 
gratulate yourself that you are not a 
woman and that your loss is only 
three or four dollars instead of twenty- 
five or thirty. 

When the man behind you treads 
upon your foot, be thankful that your 
heels are not so long as his act would 
seem to indicate. 

When you lose your pocketbook, 
offer up thanksgiving that there was 
only a dollar or two in it and not a 
hundred dollars. 

Do not boast that the first time you 
mounted a bicycle you rode right off 
as if you were an expert. It may be 
true, still it is well to preserve one’s 
reputation for veracity. 

When somebody recommends some- 
thing for your cold, show your appre- 
ciation of his kindness by telling him 
when next you meet how greatly it 
benefited you. It will please him 
mightily and it will not do you any 
harm, or not nearly so much as if you 
had taken the stuff. 

If you hear something to the disad- 
vantage of a friend do not go to him 
with the story. Tell it to somebody 
el e who will be a more appreciative 
listener. 

Do not waste your time talking 
about yourself. There are plenty of 
persons who will talk about you if 
you give them half a chance. 

No man is likely to amount to much 
who is not proud of himself, but it is 
only the simpleton who allows others 
to know it. 

Always say what you mean if you 
are sure that what you mean will be 
pleasant to the person with whom 
you are speaking. 

Never speak ill of a photograph in 
presence of the original, except to say 
that it does not do him justice. 

Do not attempt to gain a woman’s 
esteem by speaking disparagingly of 
some male acquaintance of hers. She 
will probably be moved to take his 
part. Better criticise her female friend 
if you would really give her pleasure 
and make her feel kindly toward 
yourself . — Boston fra?iscript . 



CRACKER BAKERS' LABEL. 





BUY UNION MADE GOODS. 



It is an old, well-established principle of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters for members 
to buy Union Label Goods in preference to 
other articles. And why not? If we ask fair 
wages for our labor, why should we buy goods 
made at unfair wages by others. 

The Union Label in every industry is a guar- 
antee of fair wages, decent working conditions 
and union labor employed. 

We here give a facsimile of the Union Labels 
so our members may know Union Label goods 
and make it a point to ask tor them. 



UNION MADE BOOTS AND SHOES. 




The Boot and Shoe Workers' Union is the 
National head of the trade, and is a new com- 
bination of all the branches of boot and shoe 
workers. The above trade-mark when found 
on the soul or lining of a boot or shoe, is a 
guarantee that the same is made by union labor. 
On account of the introduction of so-called 
lasting machines and “scab” workmen, the 
boot and shoe workers deemed it necessary to 
take this effective means to protect themselves 
and purchasers of footwear from unscrupulous 
manufacturers. The union made shoes and 
boots are sold as cheap as the inferior article. 



BLUB LABEL CIOARS. 




Union-made Cigars. 

: ' ’« ^aO )C> rva.y M ««Miua 

( f 'iT ViUu»»c. 




This Label is printed in black ink on light blue 
paper, and is pasted on the cigar-box. Don’t mix 
it up with the U. S. Revenue label on the box, aB 
the latter is nearly of a similar color. See that 
the Cigar Makers’ Blue Label appears on the box 
from which you are served. It insures you 
against Chinese-made cigars and tenement-made 
goods. 



PATRONIZE UNION CLERKS. 

All members of the R. C. N. P. A. can show this card. 
Ask for it when making your purchases. 

Endorsed by the A. F. of L. 




ONE-THIRO ACTUAL SIZE. 



COLOR IS CHANGED EACH QUARTER. 

Good only during month* named In lower left hand corner and when 
properly ligned, and STAMPED with the number of the Local. 





AMERICAN FEDERATION LABEL. 

This Label is used on all 
goods made by Union men 
connected with Unions 
affiliated with the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, 
where such unions have 
no distinctive trade label 
of their own. This label 
is printed on white paper. 




UNION BRKAD. 

international This is the Label of tho 
Journeyman Bakers and 
Confectioners, under their 
International Union. It Is 
printed on white paper in 
black ink and is pasted ou 
each loaf of bread. It means 
death to long hours and low 
wages In bakers' slave pens underground. 







8 



THE CARPENTER 



THE CARPENTER, 

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Published Monthly on the Fifieenth of each month. 
AT 

Itlpplncott Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

P J. McGuire, Editor and Publisher. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Philadelphia, Pa., 
as second-class matter. 

Subscription Price *— Fifty cents a year, In 
advance, postpaid. 

Address all letters and money to 

P. J. McGuire, 
Box 884, Philadelphia, Pa. 



PHILA., MAY, 1899. 



American Federation of Labor, 

In only one way does the Federation 
ask Congress to interfere in regard to 
the introduction of machinery ; it 
demands a change in the present 
patent laws. A new invention, argue 
the majority of the Federation, should 
bring profit, first to the inventor, and 
then to the community as a whole ; 
but our present patent system pro- 
motes monopoly by enabling a few 
capitalists to obtain exclusive control 
of an invention. The remedy proposed 
by the Federation is such a change in 
the patent laws that while the in- 
ventor is secured his reward, the use 
of the patented improvements are to 
be free to all. The Federation has 
failed to show, however, what form 
of law would accomplish this reform. 

Conciliation, and arbitration, so far 
as it is voluntary, are favored by the 
Federation as means of settling indus- 
trial disputes. Previous to 1890 the 
Federation gave this subject little 
attention, although it favored the law 
passed by Congress in 1888 to facili- 
tate arbitration of disputes between 
workmen and employers on interstate 
railways. Compulsory arbitration in 
any form is vigorously opposed by the 
Federation, on the ground that the 
decision of the arbitrator might com- 
pel employees to work against their 
will. The Federation has opposed 
the various railroad arbitration bills 
which have been considered by Con- 
gress since the Chicago strike of 1893, 
including the bill which became law in 
May, 1898. This bill contained limiting 
clauses which gained for it the support 
of the five trade unions of railroad 
employees. The Federation feared, 
however, that the courts would so 
interpret these clauses as to compel 
employees to work against their will. 
This it is thought would be especially 
likely to happen if the railroad cor- 
porations should make an agreement 
on the part of the workmen to submit 
their disputes to arbitration a con- 
dition of employment. 

Although the Federation has de- 
clared itself in favor of voluntary 
arbitration, a striking lack of enthusi- 
asm for arbitration even in this 
limited form is apparent. This luke- 
warmness, which is easily misinter- 
preted, is due to the fact that the 
workmen prefer the settlement of dis- 
putes, not by arbitration, but by con- 
ferences between the employer and a 
committee of workmen. The execu- 
tive council of the Federation is 
frequently successful in adjusting 
trade disputes by conferences with the 
employers. A strong trade union 



prefers to conduct its own case rather 
than to submit the question to arbi- 
tration. Under the latter course, the 
conditions under which its members 
shall work are determined by an out- 
sider; — a principle which is peculiarly 
obnoxious to the workmen. Never- 
theless, when conferences have been 
tried and have proved unsuccessful, 
even strong trade unions favor arbi- 
tration as a last resort. 

To appreciate the success of the 
Federation in securing labor legisla- 
tion one has only to consider how 
completely the laws demanded by its 
first convention in 1881 have been 
‘ attained. This convention demanded 
the enforcement of the national eight- 
hour law for government employees, 
and the passage of national laws to 
permit the incorporation of trade 
unions, to protect American indus- 
try, and to exclude Chinese laborers, 
and foreign laborers brought to this 
country under contract. Every one 
of these demands was fulfilled before 
1886. Since that time the Federation 
has been active in securing, — to men- 
tion only the more important national 
laws — a series of amendments which 
greatly increased the efficiency of the 
Chinese exclusion act and the alien 
contract labor act, the extension of 
the eight-hour law for government 
employees to letter-carriers and to the 
employees of government contractors, 
an act for the protection of the wages 
of seamen, an act prohibiting the con- 
tract system of convict labor for con- 
victs in federal prisons, an act to 
facilitate arbitration on interstate rail- 
roads, an act to compel the use of 
automatic couplers on interstate rail- 
roads, and an act making Labor Day 
a legal holiday in the District of 
Columbia. While no single labor 
organization can claim exclusive 
credit for any one of these laws, the 
Federation has played a prominent 
and sometimes a decisive part in their 
attainment. 

During the last decade workmen 
have begun to chafe under certain re- 
straints imposed by the government 
and constitution of the United States. 
At present a national law to forbid 
the employment of children under 
fourteen in factories, mines, or shops, 
or to fix uniform hours of work even 
for women and children would be 
unconstitutional. The Federation 
favors an amendment to the constitu- 
tion, such as was proposed in the recent 
Lovering bill to permit Congress to 
fix the hours of labor for women and 
children throughout the United States. 
The fact that a considerable amount 
of labor legislation has been declared 
unconstitutional by the courts led 
the Federation, in 1897, to demand 
amendments to the constitutions of 
the United States and of the several 
states to deprive the courts of power 
to set aside “laws duly enacted by 
the people. ’ ’ For the most part, how- 
ever, the working class share in the 
prevalent reverence for the constitu- 
tion of the United States. 

The use of militia or of United 
States troops to keep order during 
strikes, and above all the increasing 
use of injunctions as a means of inter- 
ference in labor disputes have resulted, 
in the minds of the workmen, in a 
widespread and deep distrust of the 
government, and especially of the 



courts. This distrust, to an extent 
unknown in the United States before, 
is shown by a number of resolutions 
of protest recently passed by the 
American Federation of Labor. Al- 
though workmen have always disliked 
the use of troops to keep order during 
strikes, the strongest resolution passed 
by the Federation on this subject be- 
fore 1896 went no further than to urge 
that officers of the militia should be 
men friendly to the working dasses. 
A resolution proposed in the conven- 
tion of 1896, however, recommended 
trade unions to discourage the enlist- 
ment of their members in the state 
national guard. This resolutioi was 
adopted by the convention in spXe of 
the opposition of the committee to 
which it was referred. 

The Federation has always favored 
the repeal of the so-called conspiracy 
laws, that is, “all laws whose object 
is to deny to working people the free 
exercise of their rights to organize 
and be represented by committees or 
agents of their own selection in deal- 
ing with employers of labor in relation 
to matters of wages or other conditions 
under which laborshall be performed.” 
Thus the Federation demands an 
amendment to the Sherman anti- trust 
law, to exempt trade unions from the 
provision that combinations in re- 
straint of inter-state trade are illegal. 

The trade unionist’s distrust of the 
government centers in his opposition 
to ‘ ‘ court-made law, ’ ’ by which he 
means the recent extensive use of 
both mandatory and restraining in- 
junctions by courts of equity as a 
means of interfering in labor disputes. 
He feels that a far-reuclilng change in 
the law has been made, not by Con- 
gress, but by a few judges. This feel- 
ing of distrust is heightened by a 
suspicion of the motives of the juh ?es, 
who, trade unionists charge, h 7 e 
favored the employer at the expense 
of the workman. The American 
Federation of Labor protest against 
interference by the courts in strikes 
where no destruction of property or 
loss of life is occasioned by the 
strikers, and requests Congress to set 
a limit to the use of injunctions. As 
yet no law on this subject has been 
passed, although three bills have been 
considered by Congress. One, pro- 
viding that officers of organizations of 
labor, in the performance of their 
duties, shall not be subject to injunc- 
tion proceedings, passed the Senate in 
1896. Another, which passed the 
Senate in 1897, provided for trial by 
jury in contempt proceedings for vio- 
lation of an injunction. The third 
bill, which was introduced in the 
Senate in 1896, was most satisfactory 
to the Federation. The provisions of 
this bill made it unlawful for any court 
to issue a restraining order against 
any labor organization, its officers or 
members, in any manner aflecting 
their full freedom peacefully to quit the 
service of any person or corporation 
at any time. 

This is not the place to discuss how 
far the courts have given the workmen 
just ground for suspicion. The wis- 
dom of the recent use of the injunction 
in labor disputes — at best a remedy 
of doubtful efficacy — is open to serious 
question, however, on the broader 
ground of public policy. Want of 
confidence in our government among 



a large class of the community, were 
it allowed to become permanent, might 
prove a grave danger to democratic 
institutions. 

The preceding discussion of the 
activity of the American Federation 
of Labor in securing state interference 
in the form of labor legislation sug- 
gests the questions of the relation of 
the Federation to political parties and 
to socialism. The Federation has 
constantly refused to commit itself to 
any political party. There is an obvi- 
ous distinction between this special 
form of political action and political 
action in the sense of the promotion 
of any legislation which the working 
class desire. The Federation, standing 
not for political but for industrial 
unity, takes the same position in re- 
gard to current political questions as 
any other business organization. It 
recommends its members to cast their 
votes, independently of party, for the 
candidate who is most likely to pro- 
mote their interests. Twice, however, 
the Federation has, by implication, 
given its support to a political party. 
The platform adopted by the first con- 
vention in 1881 contained a plank in 
favor of ‘ * full protection to American 
industry,” but the next convention 
almost unanimously repealed this pro- 
vision, and issued a manifesto dis- 
countenancing political action by 
trade unions. As early as 1893 the 
Federation declared itself in favor of 
the free coinage of silver at the ratio 
of sixteen to one. When in 1896 the 
question of free coinage became a 
Aiarply defined party issue, the Feder- 

vion reaffirmed its position, with the 
qualification that it did “not in any 
degree endorse any political party 
t. at may have made free coinage a 
prtisan political question.” 

Since 1890 some socialist members of 
the American Federation of Labor have 
vrrrVed persistently to secure its sup- 
port fer the principle of socialism, and 
for the Socialist Labor party. The 
resulting debates in the conventions 
of 1890 and 1894., which are printed 
in full, give excellent idea of the 
attitude of Lede union workmen 
toward socialism. In 189« v .he discus- 
sion turned on the »ropose- tdmission 
of 1 branch of the Socialist Labor 
par y to membership It lie Fee .-ration. 
By a more than three quarters vote, 
th Federation decided to adhere ^o 
tht principle which it had alway 
maintained, that it was an onjaniza. 
tior exclusively of trade tnionists. 
and refused to admit socialist organi- 
zations as such. Individual socialists 
who are also members of trade unions, 
are never discriminated against. 

In 1894 the Federation more decis- 
ively- refused to commit 
socialism. The s 
urg«l the conventk j 
political program wh?Y • t 

adojted by the ucus ical 

Britsh Trade Union Cong , 53. 

A najority of the delega; * to lie 
Fed<ration con vendor refused, how- 
ever to endorse the socialistic sect Dr 
of tKs program, w j}; proposed Lie 
colletive ownership by the people ct 
all neans of producer. and distribu 
tion.’ Two distinct arguments in- 
fluenced this vote. On. section of 
trad« unionists oppose socialism in 
any orm and feel that the powers of 
(1 Continued on next page.) 



THE CARPENTER 



9 



General Officers 

of THE 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary , 

Lippiucott Building, Pliiiadelptiia, Pa. 



General President. — John Williams, Utica, 
N. Y. 

General Secretary-Treasurer.— P. J. McGuire, 
P. O. Box 884, Philadelphia, Pa. 

General Vice-Presidents. 

First Vice-President. — W. D. Huber, 95 Waverly 
8t., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Second Vice-President. — William Bauer, 2610 
W. Polk st., Chicago, 111. 

General Executive Board. 

(All correspondence for the G. E. B. must be 
mailed to the General Secretary-Treasurer.) 

James M. Lane, 269 W. 124th st., New York, N.Y 

J. R. Miller, 1522 Washington ave.. St. Louis, Mo. 

A. C. Cattermull, 1013 W. 86th st., Sta. P., Chicago. 

Fred. C. Walz, 1332 Broad st., Hartford, Conn. 

W. J. Williams, 170 Mills st., Atlanta, Ga. 



American Federation of Labor. 

( Continued .) 

government should rather be restricted 
than increased. A considerable num- 
ber of delegates who believed more or 
less vaguely in the principle of social- 
ism, nevertheless voted against its 
endorsement by the Federation on 
opportunist grounds. Several trade 
unions had threatened to secede from 
the Federation if it considered such 
“ questions of a speculative character,” 
and these delegates felt that, in the 
present stage of the American labor 
movement, the preservation of a united 
trade unionism was of the first im- 
portance. 



Sir Henry Bessemer. 



Bessemer conceived the idea of stir- 
ring up molten iron with air for 
oxidising the carbon present. The 
project was read to the British Asso- 
ciation and considered visionary. The 
discredited inventor established works 
at Sheffield to work out the process, 
and soon produced Bessemer steel at 
a price £ 20 per ton lower than any 
other steel. After this followed 
recognition and honors. He was 
elected to the Royal Society in 1879, 
and was knighted. He died in 1898, 
wealthy, and fu 1 of honors. 



“Tennyson’s “Queen of the May,” 
Up to Date. 



Prepare the mustard plasters, mother, a mustard 
bath likewise, 

For chill the wyad blows though the sun is 
shining in the skies ; 

And this dress ; s very thin, no shawl around 
me rolled, 

I know that while the sport goes on I’ll catch 
my death of cold. 

My new kid Köpers, too, are thin, although 
they look »0 sweet, 

And, dancing ’mong the dewy grass, I know 
I’ll wet my feet ; 

But I'm to be Queen of the May, mother, I’m 
to be Queen of the May, 

So make the mustard plasters hot to fight 
Pneumonia. 



Padgett’s Breezy Letter. 



You have seen fellows get so 
busy talking about themselves that 
they would forget what they started 
out to do ? Now, I am not alluding 
to you ; and I wouldn’t for the world 
have you think I am one of ’em. 

Guess I would try it this way, refer- 
ring to J. B.’s sketch, with some 
added lines and letters of my own. C, 
D, Fig. 1, shows the inside casing of 
box ; A, B, the jamb in position, set 
far enough from D to receive the 
folded blinds. A, B, gives width of 
jamb, say 13 inches, also of soffit. 
Having made the soffit the width A, 
£, and beveled the inside edge, as 
B, E, lay ofi the board as in Fig. 2. 
The oblique line E, F, gives the cut 
across the board. To gain the jamb 
into the soffit, or vice versa , gauge the 
desired depth from B, toward E, Fig. 1. 
The trysquare applied to beveled edge 
B, E, gives all the edge cut required 
for the gaining. 

This, of course, is a “ hopper 
problem,” but it isn’t necessary to 
monkey with the diagrams in such 
cases made and provided by books on 
carpentry. I say “ monkey, ’ ’ because 
I never saw the whys given with such 
diagrams ; therefore never understood 
them but dropped them early in life 
and evolved a system of ” equivalent 
bevels ” on my own hook. Did you 
ever try dovetailing such a hopper ? 
Before me is one that I dovetailed 
some years ago, the only carpenter- 
made one I ever saw. Very interesting, 
particularly if, as I did, the edges are 
left square instead of being beveled 
like B E, Fig. 1. 



Mechanical Instruction at Home. 



Correspondence instruction in tech- 
nical subjects was instituted by The 
International Correspondence Schools 
of Scranton, Pa., and its students and 
graduates, which now number more 
than 80,000, have ranked with, and 
in some branches have surpassed, 
students and graduates of other tech- 
nical schools. They teach mechanical, 
electrical, steam, and civil engineer- 
ing, mechanical and architectural 
drawing, architecture, plumbing, 
English branches, bookkeeping, etc., 
having more than fifty courses. 

Students may study at home, 
devoting such time as they can spare, 
and the instructors are in constant 
communication with them through 
the mails. These schools have been 
endorsed by leading engineers, and 
graduates from them are always in 
demand. 



Information Wanted. 



If any brother, of the Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners of America, 
can give any information as to the 
whereabouts of Johanas Klein, a 
native of Waldenbuch, Germany, at 
one time a member of former Cabinet- 
makers Union No. 7, of New York 
city, kindly send said information or 
address to William Ruchle, 161 West 
32d street, or to S. Kuehl, 224 First 
avenue, New York city, Financial 
Secretary of Local Union No. 309. 
Very important family affairs require 
this information. 



Unity is Strength. 



Why hold me back and give the enemy 
A choice of more offence? 

It is the keenest sense of stratagem 
That gives us recompense. 

Then forward march ! by honest reckoning 
v\ e’ll smite the bold display, 

And thus degrade the hopes and obstacles 
Now thrown across our way. 

Atong the ranks assert our dignity ! 

By holding hate aloof 
We’ll manifest to all beyond reproach 
Our love is ample proof. 

A valued act will bear us some reward 
From Him whom justice knows, 

And for the residue — sincerity 
Is often wrenched from foes. 

We must accept a plea of Liberty, 

And treat each question fair, 

To ever on her page, or battlements 
Enscroll our knowledge there. 

Quite long enough, through fear aud poverty 
Been scuttled on our way, 

Why not revert— of bosses fearlessly 
Demand a craftsman’s 1 ay ? 

And so replace within the firmament 
Our honored, weeping flag, 

And to it add a star so fittingly 
That none may dare to lag. * 

But plain and honest moves in our recourse, 
We look for what is due, 

And boldly stand there lashed to principle, 
With purpose staunch and true. 

Beneath our shattered cause bleeds Victory, 
For lack of ample cheer ; 

Why still expose our views to ridicule, 

By stimulating fear? 

No ! No 1 be brave, our joy is manifest, 

It shines with purpose, too ; 

The beams but radiate from unity, 

And concord firm and true. 

John H Farrell. 

Local 9 j, JVilkcsbarre, Pa. 



Submit to Arbitration. 



Springfield, 111., May 25.— The 
striking miners and mine owners of 
the Carbondale district yesterday 
agreed to submit the trouble to the 
State Board of Arbitration. The 
miners will return to work at once 
pending the decision of the Board. 



What the United Brotherhood Has 
Done. 



The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America was founded in Convention 
at Chicago, August 12, 1881. At first it had only 
twelve local unions and 2,142 members. Now, in 
seventeen years, it has grown to number 428 local 
Unions in 406 cities, and has over 45,000 enrolled 
members It is organized to protect the Carpen- 
ter Trade from the evils of low prices and botch- 
work ; its aim is to encourage a higher standard 
of skill aud better wages ; to re-establish an 
Apprentice System, and to aid and assist the 
members by mutual protection and benevolent 
means; it pays a Wife Funeral Benefit of from 
$25 to $50 ; a Members Funeral Benefit, $100 to 
$200; and a Disability Benefit, $100 to $100. ' In 
these General Benefits $85,000 have been ex 
pended the past two years, aud $528,706 since the 
year 1883, while $683 641 more were spent in that 
period for Sick Benefits by the local Unions. 
This is fully One and a Quarter Millions of Dol- 
lars expended for benevolent and charitable pur- 
poses. Such an organization is worth the atten- 
tion of every Carpenter. The Brotherhood is 
also a Protective Trade Union as well as a 
Benevolent Society. It has raised the wages in 
hundreds of cities, and placed fully Five and a 
Half Million Dollars more wages annually in 
the pockets of the Carpenters in those cities. It 
reduced the hours of labor to 8 hours a day in 
105 cities, and 9 hours a day in four hun- 
dred and twenty -six cities, not to speak of 
many cities which have established the 8 and 9 
hour system on Saturdays. By this means 
15130 more men have gaiued employment. 
This is the result of thorough organiza- 
tion. And yet very few strikes have occurred, 
and very little money has been spent on strikes 
by this society. It is not a secret oath-bound 
organization. All competent Carpenters are 
eligible to join, and this card is an invitation to 
you as an intelligent mechanic to send in your 
application for membership in the Carpenters 
Union in your city. It is a branch of the 
Brotherhood, its dues are small in comparison 
with the benefits, and it is to your interest to 
join this growing and powerful body. 

Rules Regarding Apprentices. 



At the Detroit Convention of the United Broth- 
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners ol America, 
held August 6—11 , 1888, the following rules in rela- 
tion to apprentices were approved, and the Local 
Unions are urged to secure their enforcement: 
Whereas, The rapid influx of unskilled and in- 
competent men in the carpenter trade has had 
of late years, a very depressing and injurious 
effect upon the mechanics in the business, and 
has a tendency to degrade the standard of skill 
and to give no encouragement to young men to 
become apprentices and to master the trade 
thoroughly ; therefore, in the best interests of 
the craft, we declare ourselves in favor of the fol- 
lowing rules : 



Iron Smoke-Pipe Through Roof. 



From “ Hurry Up, ” St. Louis. 

Sir — Please send me the sizes and 
outline of this hole : For iron boiler 
pipe 16 inches in diameter; pitch of 
roof, 6o degrees. 




THE COXYNE KITE 



nn -V - v "“««»ras. tiuut on scientific p 
b»ve ftreat nftine power They ini 
Professor, Htudeut, youth or Child it is 33 
dmfcku? gh ?Z oun , ces Made of dark red cloth 
doable. In a fair breeze will reach 3 00 
hu1o U k G a i m <>re Jthan 50 decrees. Yon can ’se 
flags by day and lanterns by night. All rea 
bitch o - to. Has , o tail. P*ut up hi mailing 
Price by mail, postpaid, «50 ceuts. i ihjo feet 
line, postpaid, 3u ceuts. Per dezen b> expres 

Silas J. Conyne, 637 Humboldt St.,Chii 

It^lSnT M i? 1 V 0 ercf Un,ouNo * *• Brothers hell 
m^e. g ’ 11 Wftrm member ’ up-to-date, ' 



Section 1 . The indenturing of apprentices is 
the best means calculated to give that efficiency 
which it is desirable a carpenter should possess, 
and also to give the necessary guarantee to the 
employers that some return will be made to them 
for a proper effort to turn out competent work- 
men ; therefore, we direct that all Local Unions 
under our jurisdiction shall use every possible 
means, wherever practical, to introduce the sy*. 
tem of indenturing apprentices. 

Sec. 2. Any boy or person hereafter engaging 
himself to learn the trade of carpentry, shall be 
required to serve a regular apprenticeship of 
four consecutive years, and shall not be consid- 
ered a journeyman unless he has complied with 
this rule, and is twenty-one years of age at the 
completion of his apprenticeship. 

Sec. 3. All boys entering the carpenter trade 
with the intention of learning the business shall 
be held by agreement, indenture or written con- 
tract for a term of four years. 

Sec. 4. When a boy shall have contracted with 
an employer to serve a certain term of years, he 
shall, on no pretense whatever, leave said em- 
ployer and contract with another, without the 
full and free consent of said first employer, 
unless there is just cause or that such change Is 
made in consequence of the death or relinquish- 
ment of business by the first employer ; any ap- 
prentice so leaving shall not be permitted to 
work under the jurisdiction of any Local Union 
in our Brotherhood, but shall be required to re- 
turn to his employer and serve out his appren- 
ticeship. 

Sec. 5. It is enjoined upon each Local Union 
to make regulations limiting the number of ap- 
prentices to be employed in each shop or mill to 
one for such number of journeymen as may 
seem to them ju3t; and all Unions are recom- 
mended to admit to membership apprentices in 
the last year of their apprenticeship, to the end 
that, upon the expiration of their terms of ap- 
prenticeship they may become acquainted with 
the workings of the Union, and be better fitted 
to appreciate its privileges and obligations upon 
assuming full membership. 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



Rule for Tapering Shafts. 



I do not altogether grasp “Un- 
known’s ” query in this matter owing 
perhaps to my denseness, but it seems 
to me that the rule he asks /or is one 
in solid mensuration, not in practical 
geometry. I offer the following 
which may aid him, for having the 
solid contents it will be an easy 
matter for him to make such divisions 
as his particular case may demand. 
First, I give a few of the properties 
of the pyramid, which is, as all school 
boys know, very similar to the cone. 
All pyramids and cones standing on 
the same base, and having the same 
altitude, we demonstrated to be equal. 

A triangular pyramid is the third 
part of a prism standing on the same 
base and having the same base and 
the same altitude. 

Hence, every multangular may be 
divided into triangulars, every pyra- 
mid is a third part of a prism stand- 
ing on the same basis and having the 
same altitude. 

If a pyramid be cut by a plane 
parallel to its base, the section will be 
similar to the base. All pyramids, 
prisms, cylinders, etc., are in a ratio 
compounded of their bases and alti- 
tudes ; the bases, therefore, being 
equal they are in proportion to their 
altitudes, and the altitudes being 
equal, they are in proportion to their 
basis. 

Similar pyramids, prisms, cylin- 
ders, cones, etc , are in a triplicate 
ratio of the homologous sides. 

Equal pyramids, etc , reciprocate 
their bases and altitudes, i. e. y the 
altitude of the one is to that of the 
other, as the base of one is to the base 
of the other. 

A sphere is equal to a pyramid 
whose base is equal to the surface 
and its height to the radius of the 
sphere. 

From the foregoing properties we 
obtain the following rules for the 
finding the solid contents and surface 
measurement of a pyramid. 

Ride for the Solids — Find the solid- 
ity of a prism that has the same base 
and height with the given pyramid ; 
divide this by three and the quotient 
will be the solidity of the pyramid. 
Or multiply the base by the perpen- 
dicular height and one-third of the 
product will be the content. 

Ride for the Surface . This is ob- 
tained by finding the areas of the base 
and of the lateral triangles. The sum 
of these is the area of the pyramid. 
The external surface of a right pyra- 
mid, standing on a regular polygonal 
base, is equal to the altitude of one of 
the triangles which compose it, mul- 
tiplied by the circumference of the 
base of the pyramid. 

Rule Jor Finding the Solidify of the 
Frustrum of a pyramid . To the areas 
of the two ends of the frustrum add 
the square root of their product ; and 
this sum, multiplied by one-third of 
the perpendicular height, will give 
the solid contents. 

This last rule holds equally true to 
a pyramid of any form. For the solid- 
ities of pyramids are equal when they 
have equal heights and bases, what- 
ever be the figure of their bases. 

I trust “ Unknown ” will be able to 
extract from the foregoing, the full 
quantum of his requirements, if not, 



I shall be pleased to convey to him 
such other knowledge I may possess 
regarding the properties of the pyra- 
mid. 

Fred. T. Hodgson. 



Cut of Valley or hip Rafters Where 
Set or Plate. 

Mr. Editor : — In all the books on 
framing that I have, including “ Roof 
Framing Made Easy,” by Maginnis, 
“ The Use of Steel Square, ” and one 
or two others, I fail to find anything 
which gives any information regard- 
ing the cut of valley or hip rafters 
where it sets on plate — that is, if the 
common rafter shoulder is cut 3 inches 
from top edge of rafter how much 
should the valley or hip rafter be cut ? 
If it is cut the same as a common raf- 
ter, the hip when it sets on the angle 
is liable to be too high and the valley 
when set to fit close into inner angle 
will be too low. Should like to get 
any information you can render 
through your columns. I sign my- 
self. 

X Y. Z. 

South Manchester, Conn. 



To A. F* and Earl Padgett. 

From Johnn'e Bull, S I. 

Answering A F.’s inqu J ry in Feb- 
ruary Carpenter and the way he 
mentions of drilling the joints with a 
sharp stone drill or chisel, Rosendale 
cement joints are not so hard, but the 
best method is to get the masons to 
build in blocks to nail or screw to I 
was sorry, you know, that Ea 1 
Padgett considered I hit his feelings, 
but from what I can read from his 
script we are countrymen born and if 
I flattered him he got no more than 
his tende r years deserved, so that he 
need not pose far sympathy nor 
belittle his own attainments, for his 
letters are a pleasure to read. As to 
the Maginnis articles, while they are 
not far behind standard authors, they 
are present American practice. Mr. 
Woods’ articles are first rat'* and so 
are Mr. Hodgson’s, but, oh, Lord, 
where are the letters from tbe men, 
the men who work, who are day by 
day in the business and know aT its 
detail, its cares, its trials, its 
pleasures and its triumphs ? Whtre 
are the notes from the splendid body 
of highly skilled cabinetmakers and 
woodworkers, some of whom would 
put our gifted English carpenters and 
carvers of the mediaeval age far in the 
shade ? Some of them I know 
personally, but they work from detail 
and. alas for us all their interest in 
it dies with the last wail of the 5 
o’clock whistle. If this is not true, 
then I must only conclude that, like 
all skilled carpenters, they treasure 
their skill and knowledge lest its 
publication might provoke a new 
competitor to lessen its value to the 
possessor. Earl, my son, your state- 
ments are good and true, but men 
differ, and the best roechanirs are not 
always the best talkers, writers nor 
thinkers. In conclusion, therefore, 
let me encourage all of the Union’s 
brothers to write to the Editor any- 
thing on paper that can be lead, that 
is the stuff we want. The editor will 
put it in shape and surely, as Lord 
Byron, the poet, once said: “It is 

pleasant to see one’s name in print.” 



A Reply to J. W. Brown In February 
Carpenter. 



Under the heading “ Recent Econo- 
mic Changes,” Bro. J. W. Brown of 
Union 43, Hartford, Conn , speaks 
despairingly of Union 43, in his par- 
ticular reference to a smoker they held, 
date not given. It will be taken for 
granted, that Bro. Brown refers to 
the one given by our Local January 2, 
at which our esteemed Brother was an 
able contributor. At the meeting in 
question, the first part of the literary 
programme was opened as follows : a 
committee distributed slips of paper, 
on which each member was requested 
to write a question for discussion, 
after which the slips were collected, 
placed in a hat, and, starting on the 
first one the committee passed the hat, 
out of which a Brother drew a slip 
which was handed to the Chair and 
the name of the Brother announced, 
with a request that he speak on the 
question, each one complying by rising 
and speaking or declining as the 
question may or may not have been 
within his knowledge. 

After all had been heard from the 
second literary part was then opened, 
and consisted particularly in the dis- 
play of elocutionary attainments. 
There was some dancing and about 
eleven o’clock the meeting adjourned, 
after a very successful meeting. 

Bro. Brown portrays in marked 
comparison the talent of Local 43 to 
that of the brick masons. The latter 
were none other than the B. L. and 
M. U. delegates, consisting of 135 
picked men, representing all sections 
of the United States and Canada. We 
should all unite in agreeing that they 
were as brilliant as described ; it is 
none too strong for the delegates 
deserved it all and more. 

Let us hope that those illustrious 
sons of toil shall live long to dissem- 
inate to their fellow-men the benefi- 
cent results of trade unionism, and 
that the beacon light of intellect they 
possess will be used to light the way 
to one grand unification of the labor- 
ing classes, united, not with swords 
and armor buckled on as of old nor in 
the more advanced or refined way of 
the nineteenth century, that when the 
bugle sounds the sharp crack of 
modern musketry or the boom of the 
latest guns will plunge us in the 
fierce throes of savage war, but let us 
unite in a better cause and help to 
bring about conditions that will not 
call for the spiking of any gun, but 
ever bearing in mind the beautiful 
words of Longfellow : 

“Were half the power that fills the 
world with terror, 

Were half the wealth bestowed on 
camps and courts, 

Given to redeem the human mind 
from error, 

There ’d be no need of arsenals or 
forts.” 

In reference to the harsh criticism 
of 43 by our beloved Brother, I will 
say at our open meetings the greatest 
possible liberty, consistent with good 
order is granted to all. 

If someone dug up the records of 
the past, it is because it is a privi- 
lege he enjoys at our open meetings, 

* * The right of free speech. ” We have 
hope for the future of mankind and 
we believe that the “monstrous 



machine” so designated in The 
Carpenter will yet be used by labor 
as a pillow to lighten their burdens of 
toil. No, the heaven of our desire 
does not dip so far down below the 
horizon. We will do our part to 
sound the glad tidings to your ear, to 
break it to your hope. Our desire is 
that Bro. Brown be less tardy by his 
presence at our meetings in the future 
than he has been in the past, for by 
your deeds shall ye be known, and 
to you who sadly turn aside and weep 
for our weakness, it might be said 
your aid will be always acceptable. 

Thos. Foeey, 

Hartford , onn . 

Rush Work. 

From Distracted, N. Y 

Editor Carpenter Will there 
never be an end to the terrible de- 
mands placed on carpenters for more 
work, more work. The lumpers in 
this town now want 120 casings a 
day set and nailed, forty white wood 
doors fitted and so on, and there is 
little or no work in the flats any more. 
In fact the only work a carpenter can 
get a living at is repairs and altera- 
tions in this town. Surely times are 
sorely changed. 

Weights Placed on Brick Walls. 

From W. D L, New York. 

The weight of wall per foot in 
height of wall is as follows : 

8 in. brick wall, weight per ft. 77 lbs 
12 “ “ “ “ 115 “ 

16 “ “ “ “ 153 41 

20 “ “ “ “ 192 “ 

24 “ “ “ 44 230 “ 

Brown stone, 4 inches, 57 pounds, 

“ “ 8 “ 114 “ 

“ “ 12 “ 170 “ 

Granite “ per foot 166 “ 

White marble “ 168 “ 

If this weight is not equally dis- 
tributed, double it. 

Should it sustain a chimney or 
other weight, add the additional 
weight in all cases 

Deduct for windows only halt 
weight ; that is, take out of the 
weight imposed on beam, lintel or 
girder, but half the actual space 
which the windows will occupy. 

Note. — Should a pier rest on or 
about the middle of beam, lintel or 
girder, the weight must not be con- 
sidered to be equally distributed In 
computing the weight of a brick arch, 
estimate a 4 inch arch as equal in 
weight to an 8-inch thick wall, and 
an 8- inch arch as equal in weight to 
a 12 inch thick wall, on a straight 
line. This additional weight is to 
make allowance for the weight of 
material required to fill up qn a level 
with the crown of the arch. Make 
allowance for any material placed 
above the crown of the arch. 

For tenement house, compute the 
weight per ft. floor surface 100 lbs 
Dry goods house . . 310 “ 

Flour store .... 350 “ 
Public assemblies . . 180 “ 

koof, including snow . 90 “ 

Hardware store from 350 to 600 “ 
For cast-iron arch beams or girders 
with wrought-iron tension rods, cal- 
culate the maximum strain when the 
pressure of weight of test is applied 
on the middle of beam or girder, not 
to exceed five tons per square inch of 
tension rod, or equal to ten tons dis- 
tributed. 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



From Our London Correspondent 



Long before trade unions were legal- 
ized associations, little societies of 
carpenters and joiners began to be 
formed secretly in the west of Eng- 
land. The rising of the sa?isculottes 
a nd the tricotenses of Fiance, and the 
stormy days that there marked the 
downfall of the long archaic feudal 
system, had set all the forces of weal' h, 
title and influence in frightened an 
tagonism to the working classes 
everywhere, and the laws of conspir- 
ac y turned every combination of the 
proletarians into “associations of 
Malefactors. ” W hen the terror ended 
w ith the decapitation of Robespierre 
lu *794» the Napoleonic nightmare 
supervened and the laws directed 
a gainst the working class became 
More severe. Still men crept in secret 
to their meetings, and lodges were 
formed sporadically all over the 
country. Wages of skilled mechanics 
Were often no higher than $3.75 per 
Wee k, and bread was forty cents per 
* 0a L Such things made organization 
a necessity. 

In 1825 the repeal of the conspiracy 
laws made trade-unionism, as we 
kuow it, possible, and the result that 
Most particularly concerns the readers 
this paper is that it left the way 
°pen for an open combination of these 
scattered lodges, Thus in 1827 the 
general Union of Carpenters and 
Joiners came into existence. Even in 
those early days the marked depend- 
ence of wages upon combination was 
shown extremely prominent. Where 
there was no organization wages re- 
Mained at the level I have before 
Mentioned, but where there were 
Mnches of the union wages had 
* ise n to $6 and $7. The earliest 
ranches in London are believed to 
ave been founded here in 1838. 

The earlier membership total, of 
w hich I know, is for 1863-4, when 
General Union registered nearly 
three thousand members. The next 
ew years showed an extraordinary 
phenomenal increase, reaching a 
rec °rd total of 11,879 *n 1877. All 
figures for this year are tre. 
Mendous. Nearly as much was paid 
lu strike pay in that one year as has 
altogether been paid in the twenty 
^ e ars since. The out-of-work pay for 
^77 was $11,500. 

% 1879 a retrogressive tendency 
e gan to make itself evident: The 

^ e Mbership had sunk to 8,927, and the 
M*t-of-work pay for the year rose to 
abnormal amount of $62,500, ex- 
ac tly one-sixth of the total amount ot 
^Ut-of-work pay expended in the last 
^rty-three years. 

The decline, once set in, took place 
as vig orous iy as the increase had 
°Ue. Perpetual and heavy diminu- 
° n of membership went on until 
when the roll only covered 1,561 
Cr aftsmen. The strike pay for that 
was sixty-five dollars and the 
^‘Qf-work benefit slightly over five 

M°usand. 

Since then the position has im- 
^ r °ved, slowly, steadily and surely, 
^ar by year, until, according to the 
^Urn furnished by Mr. Matkin for 
6 Member, 1898, the membership is 
796— -an increase of over 600 upon 
1897 figures. The cash balance 



the 



is 



0v cr thirty-eight thousand dollars, 



an increase of nearly ten thousand 
dollars over the 1897 total. As the 
cash balance in 1892 was only six 
thousand dollars, it can be easily seen 
that the union has had a lot to con- 
tend against, and is pulling through 
the hard times with splendid pluck 
and perseverance. 

One of the important factors, no 
doubt, in the betterment of the 
society’s position is the organizer, 
C. Matkin. He travels the country 
continually, strengthening existing 
branches and organizing new ones. 
For the past few months he has been 
working through Cambridgeshire, 
Huntingdonshire, Norfolk, Suffolk 
and the neighboring counties, and 
has added a number of vigorous young 
lodges to the roll of the organization. 
For his labors he receives fifteen dol- 
lars a week, and earns every cent of it. 

William Matkin, the general secre- 
tary of the union, has served his 
society for many years, and is greatly 
respected by all the members. He 
lives in Liverpool, and, in 1890, when 
the Annual British Trade Unions’ 
Congress met in that city, he was 
unanimously chosen president by the 
convention. The rulership of a con- 
gress of several hundred delegates 
(there were 457 present, representing 
1,470,191 trade unionists) is a labor 
of no mean difficulty, but Bro. Mat- 
kin acquitted himself well, and re- 
ceived a unanimous vote of thanks 
from the delegates. This was one ol 
the most exciting congresses known, 
personal feeling ran terribly high, 
and such questions as the legal enact- 
ment of an eight- hour day were 
under discussion. That was a contro- 
versial question for British trade- 
unionists in 1890. 

He is heart and soul in favor of all- 
trades federation, but would sooner 
see a general federation based upon 
federation of cognate trades and not 
upon direct membership of individual 
unions. 

The state of employment amongst 
carpenters and joiners is only mode- 
rate in the north of England, but im- 
proving as you come south. Employ- 
ment in London is excellent for all 
branches of the building trades just 
now. 



** When Mary drove the cattle home, 
Across the flowery lea, 

The twilight clouds were stranded sa Is 
Upon a shimmering sea. 

44 Ah,” Mary sighed, ‘‘one little calf 
I cannot drive,” though she. 

Alas! he wore a summer .«-uit, 

And on two legs walked he. 



ALL MECHANICS WHO USE TOOLS 

Carpenters, Mill Men, Stair Builders, Cabinet 
Makers, Coopers, etc., are more or less annoyed 
by having their 

TOOLS STOLEN OR MISPLACED 

But the thief does not want tools that are* 
indelibly marked with the owner’s name and 
address. This may be easily and quickly done 
by using 

KENYON’S ETCHING COMPOUND 

For writing or drawing on steel or iron. 

Superior to a name stamp, as you can add your 
address, No. of Local, reward offered, or any 
other information desired with as much accur- 
acy and precision as you can write on a sheet of 
white paper, and in your own hand writing, 
making the identification complete, and the 
name uuassumable by a second party, as is often 
done in case of stolen tools. 

The compound is a purple colored fluid, put 
up m two ounce bottles, with full directions on 
each bottle. It will not eat holes in clothing nor 
injure the hands. Per bottle, 25 cts. Per dozen 
bottles, $2 00, prepaid. I do not sell less than 
one dozen. Liberal inducements to local agents. 

Correspondence solicited. 

Frank Kenyon, L St. Louis, 111 . 




{Insertions under this head cost ten cents a line.) 



Utica, N. Y„ March 1, 1899. 

Whereas, The Almighty Ruler of the Uni- 
verse has been pleased to call upon this Union, 
aud has taken from us one of our oldest and 
most woTthy brethren in the person of our late 
Brother Theodore Boon, who has been an able 
and sincere worker for the best interests of our 
Union. 

Whereas, This Union deeply feels the loss of 
this faithful member whom we all regarded as 
a kied and generous Brother and a lasting 
friend of Unionism. Therefore be it 

Resolved , That this Union sincerely mourns 
his loss, and that we drape our Charter for 
thirty days ; that we extend to the bereaved 
family of our deceased brother these expressions 
of our sympathy. 

Resolved , That a copy of these resolutions be 
spread upon the minutes of our meeting and a 
copy of the same be presented to the family of 
the deceased brother, and a copy be seL.t to our 
official journal for publication. 

GEORGE F. LEIFEI.DT, . 

LEWIS LEWIS, 

WM. J. JONES, 

C. E. GRIFFITH, 

WILUAM A. WILLIAMS, Rec. Sec. 

Union No. 112, Butte. March 3 1899. 

Whereas, It has pleased the Master Builder 
of the Universe to remove from our midst 
Brother D. McCormick, a worthy member. 

Resolved , That in the death of D. McCormick, 
Union 112 laments the loss of a brother who was 
ever ready to proffer the hand of aid and the 
voice of sympathy to the needy and dislrtssed, 
one who was a universal friend and a true and 
upright citizen. 

Resolved , That these resolutions be spread 
upon the minutes and a copy be sent to cur 
official organ, The Carpenter. 

Youts fraternally, 

A. F. ROSSLOW, 

Rec. Sec. 



Union 174, Joliet, III., March 9, 1899. 

Whereas, It has pleased the great Architect 
and Builder of the Universe to remove from our 
midst our late aud faithful brother, Charles A. 
Lundberg, therefore, be it 

Resolved , That in the death of Brother Lund- 
berg, Local Union of Carpenters and Joiners 
ot America, No. 174, laments the losslof Brother 
Lundberg, who was ever ready to proffer the 
hand of aid and the voice of sympathy to the 
needy and distressed, a friend to all upright 
citizens, a dutiable husbaud and a kind and 
loving father. 

Resolied , That we extend our heaitfelt sym- 
pathy to the relatives in their affliction and com- 
mend them to seek consolation of Him, the 
Allwise Ruler, for He has promised to care for 
the widow and orphans. 

Resolved , That these resolutions be spread on 
the minutes of our Local Union ; a copy be sent 
to the bereaved family ; a copy to The Carpen- 
ter, our official journal, and a copy to the Re- 
publican and News for publication. 



H. M. BRIENT, 

THOMAS PENDLETON. 



Committee. 



GEO. MOIR, Rec. Sec. 



Austin, Texas, March 1, 1899. 
Whereas, It has pleased the great Architect 
aud Builder of the Universe to remove from our 
midst Brother G. A. Sphncj-r, therefore be it 
Resolved , That in the death of Brother G. A. 
Spencer, Local Union 300, Carpenters and 
Joiners of America, laments the loss of a faith- 
ful member and earnest supporter of unionism. 

Resolved , That our heartfelt sympathy be ex- 
tended to his relatives in their affliction. 

Resolved , That our charter be draped for thirty 
days and that these resolutions be spread upon 
the records of our Local Union and a copy be 
sent to our official organ, The Carpenter. 

J. GEGGIK, } 

T. P. GIVINS, l Committee. 

C, H. GRIFFIN . ) 



Union No. 563, Scranton, Pa., January 14, 1899. 

Whereas, It has pleased the Supreme Archi- 
tect of the Universe to remove from our midst 
one of our esteemed Brothers, Frank Patter 
son, and 

Whereas, Local Union No. 563 feels the loss 
of a faithful brother and an earnest worker in 
our cause. Therefore be it 
Resolved , That we sincerely sympathize with 
his bereaved brother aud relatives. 

Resolved , That our Charter be draped in 
mourning for a period of thirty days, a copy 
of these resolutions be spread on our minutes 
and a copy be presented to Brother E. C. Pat- 
terson, brother of the deceased ; be it further 
Resolved , That these resolutions be forwarded 



to our official journal, The Carpenter, and the 
Labor Herald , the official organ of the Building 
Trade Council, for publication. 

G. H. SIMMENS, -v 

E. E. KAUFMAN, j- Committee. 

O. S. LUTZ, > 

Adopted by Local No. 563. 

T. T. KEENE, President. 

O. S. LUTZ, Secretary. 



Union 167, Elizabeth, N. J., April 1 , 1899. 

At a regular meeting of Local Union No. 167, 
held on March 20th, the following resolutions 
were adopted : 

Whereas, It has pleased Almighty God, the 
Supreme Ruler of the Universe, in His infinite 
mercy to remove from our midst our beloved 
brother, William W. Waters, therefore be it 

Resolved , That in the death of William W. 
Waters, Union No. 167, recognizes the loss of a 
kind friend, a faithful officer, a loviug father 
and a genial companion, and we sincerely trust 
that our loss will be his eternal gain, therefore 
be it 

Resolved , That Local Union No. 167 tender its 
heartfelt sympathy to the family of the deceased 
brother in this their sad hour of affliction, there- 
fore be it further 

Resolved , That our charter be draped in 
mourning for a period of thirty days, that a 
copy of these resolutions be presented to the 
family of the deceased brother, spread on our 
minutes and published in our official organ, 
The Carpenter. 

HENRY ZIMMERMAN ) 

WILLIAM STYLER, [ Committee. 
JOHN T. COSGROVE. > 



Claims Approved in February, 1899. 



No. 


Name. Union, 


Am’t. 


4437. 


Henry Kuhlman 




$2C0 00 


4438. 


William Flynn 




200 00 


4439. 


John Grabb 


11 


200 00 


4440. 


John H. Brickerd 


. 29 


200 00 


4441. 


Mrs. Louisa Gruber ... 


29 


50 00 


4442. 


Mrs. Mary A. McDonald . 


. 33 


50 00 


44 13. 


Wm. Fiddler 


37 


200 00 


4444. 


Ben. Shorten 


51 


200 00 


4445. 


Jeremiah McCrohan . . . 


. 63 


200 00 


4446. 


Peter Almond 


. 64 


200 00 


4447. 


Mrs. Maggie Hand . . 


73 


50 00 


4448. 


Mrs. Herbertine I. Kirchoff 


109 


50 00 


4449. 


Nicholas Rommel . . . 


120 


200 00 


4450. 


George A. Rankin . . . 


142 


200 00 


4451. 


Mrs. Adolphina Olson . . 


147 


50 00 


4452. 


John Burk 


148 


100 00 


4453. 


Jeremiah Drake 


. 151 


50 00 


4454. 


Anton Gulgowski . . . . 


. 199 


200 00 


4155. 


Abraham D. Covert .... 


212 


200 00 


4456. 


Mathaes Kurz .... 


242 


200 00 


4157. 


Mrs. Katherine Volswinkler.304 


50 00 


4458. 


Mrs. Gertrude Huck . . . 


309 


50 00 


4459. 


Henry F. Kruse 


309 


200 00 


4460. 


Mrs. Clemenson 


328 


25 00 


4-161. 


J hos. Percell 


340 


200 00 


4462. 


Mrs. Mary Klingelhceffer . 


375 


50 00 


4463. 


Louis Weber 


375 


200 00 


4464. 


Mrs. Christiana La «sen . . 


427 


50 00 


4465. 


Mrs. Ellen Kenny . . ^ . 


,451 


50 00 


4466. 


James P. Egan 


468 


100 00 


4467. 


Mrs. Mary Kenney 


509 


50 CO 


4468. 


Thos. Lynch 




200 00 


4469. 


Fred. Soitmann 




200 00 




Total 




84,425 00 



Claims Approved in March, 1899. 



No. 


Name. Union. 


Am’t. 


4470. 


John Holland 




$50 00 


4471. 


George H. Wells . . . 


. 6 


200 00 


4172. 


Mrs. Mary Clator 




50 00 


4473. 


Peter Walz 




2C0 00 


4474. 


Mrs. Emily Brass 




50 00 


4475. 


Angus M. McGillory . . . 


. 22 


50 00 


4476. 


M»-s. Andrew Valequette . 


. 28 


50 00 


4477 


Liscomb T. Reed 


. 31 


200 00 


4478. 


Mrs. Annabella Thompson 


. 42 


25 00 


4479. 


Mis. Eliza Cronin .... 


. 51 


50 00 


4480. 


John S. Johnson 


. 52 


200 00 


4481. 


W. E. Burgan 


. 62 


100 00 


4482. 


Donald McPhee 


. 99 


200 00 


4483. 


John Hinkley .... 


119 


200 00 


4484. 


Mrs. Ella Wuesthoff . . . 


. 119 


50 CO 


4485. 


George Bander . . 


120 


50 CO 


4436. 


Charles W. Whilhide . . 


. 171 


200 00 


4487. 


Mrs. Emma Oleson .... 


174 


25 00 


4488. 


Mrs. Anna Ackerly . , . 


175 


50 00 


4489. 


Philip Hirtzel 


209 


200 00 


4490. 


Mrs. Therkla Siervers . . 


238 


50 00 


4491. 


Mrs. Jennie Trimber 


328 


25 OO 


4492. 


Mrs. Katharine Kluglein 


375 


50 00 


4193. 


Mrs. Ida Rohrdanz 


, 416 


50 00 


4494. 


Henry Paasch 


419 


200 00 


4495. 


William Rockford .... 


468 


200 00 


4496. 


Mrs. M. Connors 


471 


50 00 


4497. 


Charles Lersch 


476 


200 00 


*1498. 


Henry Meyer 


497 


200 00 


4499. 


Philip Schildknecht . . . 


522 


200 00 


4500. 


Mrs. Feletia Wawroski . . 


593 


50 00 


4501. 


H. H. Brock smith 


668 


20C no 



83,675 (X) 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



Drawing Lesson. 



BY A. W. WOODS. 



Our last lesson we took for our 
subject an isometrical drawing of a 
tool chest. Not that we thought it 
presented any special merits overatjy 
other chest, but chose it simply for 
illustration purposes. In this lesson 
we take the same subject but illustrate 
in a different position, usually called 
cabinet perspective. We believe it to 
be more easily adapted to practical 
use than isometrical drawing, as one 
of the views or sides is shown square 
or horizontal, and the adjoining sides 
at an angle of 30° with same, whereas 



connected electrically with the central 
office of a hotel. Just how many 
years the thermostat and its modifica- 
tions have been in use in this country 
it is hard to say, but it is anything 
but “new.” With their very gen- 
eral use as fire alarms, and as regu- 
lators of hot air and ventilators, it 
seems strange that England is just 
beginning to use them. 



Our Coal Supply. 



Fully one-quarter of the world’s 
supply of coal is now mined in the 
United States, and in the last twenty- 




biG. 1. 




in the former there are no horizontal 
lines or views. Fig. 2 illustrates the 
usefulness of this class of drawing in 
joinery work. 

The general remarks in our last 
also applies to this lesson. 



United States Ahead as Usual. 

Those who are acquainted with the 
progress of invention on both sides of 
the water frequently comment on the 
easy lead which this country main- 
tains over all others in this direction. 
As an instance of this, a recent notice 
in the London Invention might be 
cited. In this editorial mention is 
made of a “ new ” fire alarm system 
which has just been established in 
London. In the description of this 
system the article describes “special 
thermometers, called ‘thermostats,’ ” 
which are placed in each room, and 



eight years no country has come any- 
where near equaling it in the increase 
of production. While the increase for 
the whole world has been less than 
one hundred per cent., that of the 
United States alone has been nearly 
two hundred per cent. 

In the calendar year 1897 the total 
production of bituminous and anthra- 
cite grades was 194,603 976 tons, 
worth at the mines $198,869,178. 
Local industries and domestic con- 
sumption require an annually in- 
creasing amount, and on top of this 
we now have a strong foreiga demand 
already large enough to warrant in- 
creased and more steady mining for a 
long time to come. 

With a present production] more 
than five times greater than it was in 
1870, our exportations have increased 
from a little more than a quarter of a 
million tons to more than four million, 
and is causing uneasiness in the coal- 
producing countries of Europe. 



Same Old Smoke Nuisance. 

Commenting on the fact that the 
smoke nuisance has been a nuisance 
for a very long time, a recent writer 
tells us that 600 years ago, when the 
population of London did not exceed 
50,000, its citizens petitioned King 
Edward I. to prohibit the use of “sea 
coal, ” and he responded by doing so. 
His successors, however, permitted 
its use again. In 1661, John Evelyn, 
in his “ Fumifugium, ” laments that 
“owing to the increase of coal smoke 
the gardens are no longer fruitful.” 
In the centuries that followed there 
were a number of parliamentary in- 
quiries and some legislation intended 
to mitigate, if not remove, the evil ; 
but nevertheless the consumption of 
bituminous coal has rapidly increased 
in London and the inquiries and leg- 
islation relative to it have all ended — 
in smoke. 

Notes on Cornices 

The drawings below show differ- 
ent ways of constructing a cornice. 
The cornice marked Fig. A, shows 
the construction of a cornice for a 
brick building, the building having 



The one, Fig. B, having a copper v 
gutter and closed soffit, which shields 
the rafters and blocking, while Fig. 
C, shows projecting rafters having 
finished ends and corners with a 
wooden gutter instead of copper. 

Creating a New Japan. 

With the co operation of the United 
States the empire of Japan will enter 
upon a new era in July next, when 
the treaty negotiated between the two 
countries several years ago will go 
into effect. The delay in putting it 
into operation has been both inten- 
tional and beneficial. 

The prime object of the treaty is td 
aid the upbuilding of the empire by 
cutting off a variety of restrictions 
that have retarded its progress and 
kept it below the rank of a modern 
nation. With these out of the way j 
lapan will have a fuller and freer in- 
tercourse with the nations of the 
West than ever before. 

The time for inaugurating the new 
international relation is most oppor- 1 
tune, and present conditions fully 
justify the delay. The empire is in 
much better shape to give and receive 
pledges, and at no time has it com- 
manded so much of the respect and * 
friendship of Europe. 

Under similar treaties with the 




a French roof. The rafters resting 
on a 2 x 10-inch plate giving a sup- 
port so as to nail look-outs to same 
in constructing cornice. In this case a 
copper gutter is used instead of wood. 

Figs. B and C, are cornices which, 
as a rule, are used for wooden houses. 



other great powers, foreign settle- 
ment, capital and enlarged trade will 
be greatly encouraged, and the empire, 
emerging from its long isolation, will 
find directly at hand the intelligence, 
experience, energy, wealth and all the 
best forces that have brought about 
modern civilization. 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



Coal and Iron Supply Nearly 
Exhausted. 



At the general meeting of the In- 
stitute of Mining Engineers in Eon- 
don the other day, the address of 
President Langdon was devoted to a 
pessimistic review of the exhaustion 
of British coal and iron. He said the 
evidence all pointed to the fact that 
“fifty years hence we shall be practi- 
cally dependent upon the United 
States for cheap coal, iron and steel, 
and our sons will find an alliance with 
the United States for coaling our navy 
imperative.” 



knights of the Brush and the Bears. 



Three painters who undertook to 
Paint the interior of two bear cages in 
Central Park, New York City, last 
week, while the beasts were there, had 
an experience as thrilling as that of 
the wheelman who coasted down from 
Eagle Rock, in the Orange Mountains, 
at breakneck speed. The bears, two 
, huge grizzlies and a great specimen 
°f the polar family, kept the painters 
°n the jump and made two keepers 
hustle about with their iron bars to 
Prevent the bears from using teeth 
and claws on the men. 

The dens are on the top of “Bear 
Hill,” in the menagerie, and are 
separated from each other by strong 
iron bars. In the grizzlies’ enclosure 
ls a rocky ledge, to the top of which 
ieads an iron ladder. The polar bear 
has in his cage an artifical tree, with 
a Wooden platform at the top, and a 
°ave. The painters had been paint- 
ing the outside of the cages the day 
before, and knew the beasts were not 
*°o friendly disposed towards them. 

With many a misgiving they en- 
1 * e red the cages, accompanied by Pat- 
r ick Marron and William Snyder, 
keepers, who were armed with iron 
Ws. One began work in the polar 
y dear’s den, while the other two were 
Engaged in the other cage. The bears, 
^though used to the keepers’ pres- 
ence, resented the intrusion of the 
°thers and ambled about in a manner 
that kept the painters on the verge of 
Nervous prostration. The prods of 
the keepers only made the bears more 
r estless. They snorted angrily and 
parted around so that the painters 
imagined that they would be in the 
hears’ embrace every moment. 

Around the cages gathered a crowd, 
ail d warnings shouted to the men 
a fided to their terror. They were so 
Nervous that paint was frequently 
^Plashed on the bears below. Aery 
fr °ttL the crowd that the bears were 
a fter them made them drop paint and 
brush and put for the highest points 
the cage. Those in the grizzlies’ 
climbed to the rocky ledge, while 
*he other shinned up the artificial 
* r ee and sought refuge on the plat- 
^°rm. Disregarding the keepers’ 
blows, the grizzlies started up the 
• ^dge, but the men swung out of their 
te ach on the cross bars. After a few 
moments of terrified perching and 
Swinging the beasts were prodded 
mto submission and the men were let 
°ut of the cages. 

lu the meantime the polar bear had 
ta hen on a strange coat. Blotches of 
& re en paint were on his body, nose 



and paws where he had rubbed against 
the painted bars. He has been an in- 
mate of the menagerie for fourteen 
years. The grizzlies have been there 
about four years. 



General Laws. 



Weekly Pay.— Week ly Payments are the mos\ 
convenient for members of this Brotherhood, 
and where practicable should be adopted. 

Convict Labor. — We will not use any mill or 
other work manufactured in a penal institution, 
or brought from any town or city where cheap 
labor prevails. 

Labor’s Holiday.— We favor the adoption of 
the first Monday in September as Labor’s Holi- 
day, and we recommend that our L- U.’s shall 
endeavor to observe the same. 

Eight Hours.— Our L. U.’s shall do all in 
their power to make the Eight-hour rule uni- 
versal, and to sustain those Unions that have 
now established the Eight-hour system. 

Amicable Understanding.— The G. E. B 
should do all in its power to discourage strikes 
and adopt such means as will tend to bring 
about an amicable understanding between Local 
Unions and employers. 

Lien Laws.— We desire uniform lien laws 
throughout the United States and Canada, mak- 
ing a mechanic’s lien the first mortgage on real 
estate to secure the wages of labor first, and 
material second. Such liens should be granted 
without long stays of execution or other un- 
necessary delays. 

Building Trades Councils.— E ach L.U. shall 
strive to form a council composed of delegates 
from the various Unions ofthe building tradesin 
its respective city, and by this means an employ- 
ment bureau for these trades can be created. 

Grading Wages.— We are opposed to any 
system of grading wages in the Local Unions, as 
we deem the same demoralizing to the trade and 
a further incentive to reckless competition, 
having the ultimate tendency when work is 
scarce, to allow first class men to offer their 
labor at third class prices. We hold that the 
plan of fixing a minimum price fora day’s work 
to be the safest and best and let the employe! 
grade the wages above that minimum. 



tobacco workers’ label. 

3 »-co Issued byTha Authcrity oF the t/-»- oH 



$3 Issued bylhe Authority oF the 

f NATIDNALTOBACCO^ 

i -o o r 's* i 



4T 



S.Äu. 

»UV# THftAS. 



The above label printed on blue paper will be 
found on all plug tobacco and on the wrappers 
of chewing tobacco manufacturers in union 
tobacco factories 



Things to be Remembered. 



Three months in arrears subjects a member 
to loss of benefits. 

Steady attendance at the meetings gives life 
and interest to the Union. 

Members going off to another city should be 
provided with a clearance card. 

All local treasurers should be under bonds 
and the bonds filed with the president of the L.U. 

Trustees' reports should be prepared semi- 
annually and forwarded to the G.S.-T. Blanks 
are furnished free for that purpose. 

ALLchanges in Secretaries should be promptly 
reported to the G. S.-T., and name and address 
of the new Secretary should be forwarded. 

Organize the Carpenters in the unorganized 
towns in your vicinity, or wherever you may go! 
Hold public meetings or social festivals at stated 
occasions ; they will add to the strength of your 
Union. 

Letters for the General Office should be 
written on official note paper and bear the seal 
of the Local Union. Don’t write letters to the 
G. S.-T. on monthly report blanks, as such com- 
munications are not in proper shape. 

All moneys received by the G.S.-T. one month 
are published in the next month’s journal. 
Moneys received cannot be published in this 
journal the same month they are received. It 
takes some time to make up the report and put 
it into type. 

The only safe way to send money is by post- 
office money order or by bank check or draft, 
as required by the Constitution. The G. S -T. is 
not responsible for money sent in any other way. 
Don’t send loose cash or postage stamps in pay- 
ment of tax or for any bill due the G. S.-T. 



Nine-Hour Cities. 



Below is a list of the cities and towns where 
carpenters make it a rule to work only nine 



hours a day : 

Albina, Oreg. 

Allston, Mass 
Amesbury, Mass. 
Anaconda, Mont. 
Atlantic City. N. J. 
Arlington, Mass. 
Arransas Harbor, Tex. 
Allentown, Pa. 
Amsterdam, N Y. 
Anacortes, Wash. 
Asbury Park. N. J. 
Astoria, Oreg 
Asheville, N C. 
Auburn, N. Y. 

Auburn, Me. 

Altoona, Pa. 

Apollo, Pa. 

Anderson, Ind. 
Allegheny City, Pa. 
Albany, N. Y. 

Austin, Tex. 

Bangor, Pa. 

Batavia, N. Y. 

Battle Creek, Mich. 
Basin, Mont. 

Belt, Mont. 

Bay City, Mich. 

Bar Harbor, Me. 
Baltimore, Md. 

Belle Vernon, Pa. 
Bangor, Me. 

Bath Beach, N. Y. 
Bethlehem, Pa. 
Burlington, la. 

Buffalo, N Y. 

Boston, Mass. 

Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Butler, Pa. 

Bayonne, N. J 
Boise City, Idaho 
Bridgeton, N. J. 

Blaiae, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Ohio 
Bradford, Mass. 
Brunswick, Me. 
Braddock, Pa. 

Bellaire, Ohio 
Belleville, 111. 
Belleville, Can. 
Bellevue, Pa. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Brockton. Mass. 
Beaver Falls, Pa. 
Brookline, Mass. 
Butte, Mont. 

Canton, O. 

Carnegie, Pa. 

Central Falls, R. I. 
College Point. N. Y. 
College Hill, O 
Conshohocken, Pa. 
Cortland. N Y. 
Carrollton, Ga. 

Cairo, 111. 

Calgary, Can. 

Chelsea, Mass. 
Charleroi, Pa. 
Charlestown, W. Va. 
Chester, Pa. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Covington, Ky. 
Columbus, Ga. 
Columbus. Ind. 
Camden, N. T. 
Concordia. Kan. 
Collinsville, 111. 
Cohoes, N. Y. 
Corsicana, Tex. 
Columbus, Ohio 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Charlestown, Mass. 
Chattanooga, Teun. 
Coraopolis, Pa. 

Carbo ndale. Pa. 
Colorado City , Col. 
Colorado Springs, Col. 
Cornwall, N. Y. 
Corryville, Ohio. 
Dover, N J. 

Delhi, Ohio 
Dayton. Ky. 

Des Moines. I iwa 
Davenport, Iowa 
Dover, N H. 

Decatur, 111. 

Dedham, Mass. 
Dorchester, Mass. 
Duluth, Minn. 
Duquesne, Pa. 
Dubuque, Iowa 
Dallas, Tex. 

El Paso, Tex. 

East Liverpool, Ohio 
East Saginaw, Mich. 
East Orange, N. J. 

East Portland, Oreg. 
East Boston, Mass. 
Easton, Pa. 

Elizabeth. N. J. 

El wood, Ta. 

Erie, Pa. 

Englewood, N. J. 
Evansville, Ind. 
Everett, Mass. 

Exeter, N. H. 

Fort Brooke, Fla. 

Fair Haven. Wash. 
Fairmount, W. Va. 

Fall River, Mass. 
Findlay, Ohio 
Fitchburg, Mass. 

Far Rockaway, N. Y. 
Frankfoid. Pa. 
Franklin, Pd. 

Fort Worth, Tex. 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Fostoria Ohio 
Franklin, Mass. 
Galesourg, 111. 

Grand Rapids. Mich. 
Great Falls, Mont 
Greenfield, Iud. 
Gloucester, Mass 
Greenville, Pa. 
Germantown. Pa. 
Greenwich, Conn. 
Grove City, Pa. 

Glen Cove, N. Y. 
Greensburg, Pa. 

Hot Springs, Ark. 
Homestead, Pa. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Halifax, N. S. 
Hampton, Va. 
Haverhill, Mass. 
Hackensack. N. J. 
liarriman, Tenn. 



Moline, 111. 

Mobile, Ala. 
Moundsville, W. Va. 
Munising, Mich. 
Muncie, Ind. 
Muskegon, Mich. 
McKeesport, Pa. 

Mt. Pleasant, Pa. 
Milburn, N. J. 

Model City, N. Y. 
Montclair, N. J. 

Mt. Washington, O. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Norwood, O. 

New Britain, Conn. 
Nelsonville, O. 

North Easton, Mass. 
New Kensington, Pa. 
Norfolk, Va. 

New Orleans, La. 
Newport, R. 1. 
Newport, Ky. 

Newport News, Va. 
New Rochelle, N. Y. 
Newburyport, Mass. 
Newton Centre, M iss. 
Nanaimo, Brit. Col. 
Nyack, N. Y. 

Norwood, Mass. 

N. La Crosse, Wis. 
Natchez, Miss. 

New Cumberland, W.V3. 
New Castle, Pa. 

New Haven, Conn. 

New Haven, Pa. 

New London, Conn. 
New Westminster, B.C. 
Natick, Mass. 

Newton, Mass. 
Newburgh, N. Y. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
New Albany, Ind. 

New Brunswick, N. J. 
Northampton, Mas.-. 
Norwich, Conn 
Norwalk, Coun, 
Oceanic, N J. 

Oswego, N. Y. 

Ogdeu, Utah 
Olneyville. R. I. 

Olean, N. Y. 

Ottawa, Can. 

Ottumwa, Iowa 
Ottawa, 111. 

Ontario, Cal. 

Orange, Tex. 

Olympia, Wash. 
Oneonta, N. Y. 

Peru. 111. 

Pittsfield, Mass. 
Pawtucket, R. I. 

Port Chester, N. Y. 
Puuxsutawuey, Pa. 
Pensacola. Fla. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 
Peterborough, Cau. 
Portland, Oreg. 

Port Townsend, Wash. 
Passaic, N. T- 
Phoenix. Ariz. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Pomeroy, O. 

Portland, Me. 

Port Angeles, Wash. 
Portsmouth, N. H. 
Portsmouth, Va. 
Portsmouth, O. 
Pocatello, Idaho 
Poughkeepsie. N. Y. 
Patterson, N. J. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Plainfield, N J. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Peekskill, N. Y. 

Pierre, S Dakota 
Parkersburg, W Va. 
Paris, Texas 
Porterville, Cal. 

Peoria, 111. 

Providence. R. I. 
Quincey, Mass. 

Quincey, Ills. 

Rockland. Me. 
Rockville, Conn* 

Racine, Wis. 

Rochester, Pa. 
Richmond, Va. 
Richmond Ky. 

Rock Island, I1L 
Rome, N. Y. 

Rondout. N. Y. 
Roxbury, Mass. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Rosedale, Ind. 

Revere, Mass. 

Riverside, Cal. 
Redbank, N. J. 
Redlands, Cal. 
Rutherford, N. J. 

S. Framingham, Mass. 
Springfield, Mass. 

St. Augustine, Fla. 

St. Joseph, Mo. 

South Norwalk, Conn. 
South Beud, Ind. 

Salem, Mass. 

Stoneham, Mass. 
Somerville, Mass. 
Somerville, N. J. 
Saltsburg, Pa. 

San Angelo. Tex. 
Sandusky, Ohio 
Shreveport. La. 
Stamford, Conn. 

Sea Cliff, N. Y. 
Springfield, Mo. 
Springfield, Ohio 
San Leandro, Cal. 
Steubenville, Ohio 
Santa Anna, Cal. 

Santa Rosa. Cal. 
St.John. N. B. 
Saxonville. Mass. 
Schenectady, N. Y. 
Scottdale, Pa. 

Spokane, Wash. 

Sharon , Pa. 

Sheffield, Ala. 

Streator, 111. 

Stoughton, Mass. 

S. Abingdon, Mass. 

St. Catherines, Ont. 
Sault St. Marie, Mich. 
San Bernardino, Cal. 
Scranton. Pa. 
Sharpsville, Pa. 
Sharpsburg, Pa. 



Harrisburg, Pa. 
Henderson, Ky. 
Hudson, Mass. 
Herkimer. N. Y. 
Hoosick Falls, N. Y. 
Hyde Park, Mass. 
Hoboken, N. J. 
Holyoke, Mass. 
Houston, Tex. 

Houston Heights, Tex. 
Hillsboro, Tex. 
Hiugham, Mass. 
Irviugton, N. Y. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Jacksonville, 111. 
Jackson, Mich. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Jeannette. Pa. 

Jersey City, N. J. 
Kearney, Neb. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Kingston, N. Y. 
Kalispell, Mont. 

La Salle 111. 

Lenox Mass. 

Leaven sworth, Kan. 
Lansingbnrg, N. Y. 
Lawrence, Mass. 

La Crosse, Wis. 
Logansport, Iud. 
Lowell, Mass. 
Leechburg, Pa. 
Leominster, Mass. 
Lafayette, Ind. 
Lewiston, Me. 

Lincoln, Neb. 

Little Falls, N. Y. 
Londin, Cauada 
Lockland, O. 

Long Branch, N. J. 
Louisville, Ky. 
Marlboro, Mass. 
Morristown, N. J. 
Manayuuk, Pa. 
Malden Mass. 
Millville. N. J. 

Media. Pa. 

Meadville. Pa. 
Medford, Mas«. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Marblehead, Mass. 
Marion, lud. 

Mayfield, Ky. 
Monongahela, Pa 
Martin’s Ferry, Ohio 
Maspeth, N. Y. 
Milford, Ohio 
Mamaroneck, N. Y. 
Mercer, Pa. 

Middles borough, Ky. 
Madisonville. O. 
Mansfield Valley, Pa. 
Meriden, Conn. 

Total, 



Santa Cruz, Cal. 
Saginaw City, Mich. 
Sioux City Iowa 
Sheepshead Bay, N. Y. 
Seymour, Texas 
Seymour, Iud. 
Summit, N. J. 
Southampton, N. Y. 
Tampa, Fla. 

Taunton, Mass 
Tawas City, Mich. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. 

Terre Haute, Ind. 

The Dalles, Oreg. 
Tiffin, Ohio 
Toronto, Ohio 
Toledo, Ohio 
Toronto, Ont. 

Treuton, N. J. 
Trinidad, Col. 

Troy, N. Y. 

Tarentum, Pa 
Turtle Creek, Pa. 
Taylor. Pa. 

Texarkana, Texas 
Union Hill, N. J. 

Utica, N. Y. 
Uuiontown, Pa. 
Vancouver, B. C. 
Victoria, B. C. 
Vincennes, Ind. 
Visalia, Cal. 
Waxahatchie, Texas 
Wellsburg, W. Va. 
West Hoboken. N J. 
West Duluth, Minn. 
Westfield. Mass. 
Warren, Ohio 
Winthrop. Mass. 
Windsor, Can. (Ont.) 
Weymouth, Mass. 

West Trov. N. Y. 
Wabash, Ind. 
Waltham, Mass. 
Waukegan, 111. 

W. Newton, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Washington, Pa 
Wilmington, Del. 
Whitman, Mass. 
Woburn, Mass. 
Winchester Mass. 
Wheeling, W Va. 
Wilkinsburg, Pa. 
Winnipeg, Mon. 
Woodside. N Y. 
Winfield, N. Y. 
Watertown, N. Y. 
Williams Bridge, N. Y. 
Yoakum, Tex. 

York, Pa. 

Youngstown, Ohio 
Zanesville, Ohio. 

120 cities. 



UNION MADE HATS. 



This Label is 
about an inch aud 
a half square and 
is printed on bufl 
colored paper. It 
is placed on every 
union made hat 
before it leaves the 
workman’s hands. 
If a dealer takes a 
label from one hat 
and places it in an- 
other, or has any detached labels in his store, do 
not buy from him, as his labels may be counter- 
feit, and his hats may be the product of scab or 
non-uuion labor. 



CUSTOM TAILORS’ LABEL. 




All Trades Unionists are requested to Ask for 
the label of the Journeyman Tailors’ Union, and 
Insist on having it when they order any clothing 
from a merchant tailor. It is to be found in the 
Inside breast pocket of the coat, on the under 
side of the buckle strap of the vest, and on the 
waistband lining of the pants. It is printed in 
black ink on white linen, with the words “Jour- 
neymen Tailors’ Union of America ” in red ink in 
the centre. *It means a fair price for good work 




UNION MADE CLOTHES. 



a 

LJ 

LÜ 

►— 


IS5UE0 BY AUTHORITY Or 


V 

+ 

Z 

o 


< 

cc 

< 

ZD 

CD 


ÄllÄ 


3 » 

a 

m 


REGISTERED 



This Label is the only positive guarantee that 
Ready-made Clothing, including overalls and 
jackets, is not made under the dreaded, disease- 
infested tenement house and sweating system. 

You will find the linen label attached by ma- 
chine stitching to the inside breast pocket of 
the coat, on the inside of the buckle strap of the 
vest, and on the waistband lining of the pants. 




(^.ÜNl ONPFTHEUNlTEDBREW ERyfigigg 



c<s!><©^0f The United States. 



TRADE MARK REQISTEREO. 





14 



THE CARPENTER 



Moldings. 



The White Woman’s Burden. 



BY A. W. WOODS. 



In the last number of The Car- 
penter we illustrated the classical 
moldings from which the moldings 
now in common use are largely 
modeled. The accompanying illus- 
trations show combinations of these 
moldings in forming cornices, etc. 
In some of these the framework is 
shown, while in others only the out- 
line of the combinations are shown 

The grouping of moldings is 
susceptible of many changes and it 
requires careful study on the part of 
the constructor to so arrange them to 
get the proper effect. 

While we do not present the accom- 
panying illustrations as models oi 
arrangement, we submit them to 
those who feel the need of assistance 
in that line. 

The moldings here employed are 
what are called or known as stock 
molds and may be had at any up-to- 
date lumber yard. 



She pronouuced in sounding platitude 
Her universal gratitude 
For men of every latitude 
From the tropics to the poles ; 

She felt a consanguinity, 

A sisterly affinity, 

A kind of kith-and-kinity 
For all these foreign souls. 

For Caledonia Highlanders, 

For brutal South Sea Islanders, 

For wet and moist dry landers, 

For Gentile, Greek and Jew; 

For Finns and for Siberians, 

For Arabs and Algerians, 

For Terra-del-Fuegians, 

She was in a constant stew. 

Oh, it worried Miss Sophronia 
Lest the men of Patagonia 
Should die with the pneumonia, 

With the phthisis or the chills. 

Yes, indeed, she worried daily 
Lest a croup or cold should waylay 
Some poor Soudanese or Malay, 

Dying for the lack of pills. 

And she toiled on without measure, 
And with most unstinted pleasure, 

For the good of. Central Asia 
And the Pagan people there; 

But meanwhile her little sister 
Died of a neglected blister, 

But Sophronia hardly missed her, 

For she had no time to spare. 



The strike of the carpenters or 
Homestead, Pa., which began May 
ist, was declared off at a meeting held 
on the 9th inst, by the contractors 
and a committee of the strikers at 
Monath’s Hall. The contractors 
granted the demand for an advance of 
20 per cent, in wages. 



Lily White Washita Oilstone. [ 



We will speak out, we will be heard ; 

Though all earth’s systems crack ; 
We will not bate a single word, 

Nor take a letter back. 



The accompanying illustrations represent the 
Lily White Washita Oilstone, manufactured by 
the Pike Manufacturing Company, of Pike Sta- 
tion, N. H., and 151 Chambers street, New York. 

The Washita oilstone has been the principal 
oilstone for sharpening carpenters’ and joiners’ 
tools for a great many years past. Previous to 
its introduction on the American market, some 
fifty years ago, the imported Turkey stone was 
principally used for mechanics’ tools. The 
Washita, by reason of its fast cutting qualities 
and freedom from cracks and seams, soon began 
to crowd the Turkey stone out of the market 
until to-day very few, in fact almost none, are 
sold in America. We understand that the 
Washita stone is now sold by all the best tool 
trade in Europe, as well. 





We speak the truth, and what care we 
For hissing and for scorn, 

While some faint gleamings we can see 
Of freedom’s coming morn. 

Let liars fear, let cowards shrink. 

Let traitors turn away ; 

Whatever we have dared to think 
That dare we also say. 

—James Russell Loivell. 



The Board of Public Works of 
Duluth, Minn., has sent notices to its 
street foreman to the effect that Aider- 
man Neff’s resolution making eight 
hours a day ’s work for city employees 
and making the rate of pay twenty 
cents an hour, will go into effect at 
once. 












The only drawback to the. Washita stone has 
been the fact that it required a considerable ex- 
perience in oilstones to select just the right 
grit for different purposes. Some Washita stones 
are soft and very fast cutting, while others are 
quite hard, fine gritted, and cut much slower. 
The soft porous stones with medium coarse, 
fast cutting grit, are the best adapted to sharp- 
ening ordinary carpenters’ tools, such as plane 
bits, chisels, gouges, etc. These stones impart 
a quick, medium coarse edge, suitable for work- 
ing soft wood and other uses in general. The 
hard, fine Washita, on the other hand, imparts 
a finer edge, such as required by machinists or 
for wood working tools to be used on hard wood 
or fine cabinet work ; but this stone cuts slower 
than the soft, and as it wears very slowly, is apt 
to become glazed unless used understanding^* 
Up to the introduction of Lily White brand oi 
Washita, most dealers carried nothing better 
than the No. 1 quality, which contains both the 
hard and soft stones without any distinguishing 
labels. The result has been that a great many 



carpenters, supposing the No. 1 quality to be the 
best, and not being able to distinguish a hard 
from a soft stone, have selected a grit that was 
not suitable for their purpose, and have there- 
fore condemned the Washita stone, when the 
real fault was not in the stone at all but due to 
a hard stone having been selected when the user 
should have selected a soft stone, and vice versa . 

The Lily White Washita is put up for the es- 
pecial purpose of preventing mistakes of this 
kind. It is manufactured from the very highest 
grade of Washita rock, by skilled employees of 
long experience. The finished stones are care- 
fully selected and tested by experts at the fac- 
tory, wheie each stone is labeled either “ soft ” 
or “hard,” according to what the results of the 
test may prove it to be. The soft, medium coarse 
brand is especially recommended for ordinary 



use: while the hard, medium fine stone is adap- 
ted to sharpening tools requiring a very fine, 
smooth edge. It is a splendid finishing stone. 

The Lily White brand is made up in various 
sizes and shapes for sharpening all kinds of 
edge tools. Every stone is guaranteed by the 
manufacturers to give satisfaction. Should any 
Lily White stone fail to do this, dealers are 
authorized to refund the money or replace the 
stone, as the customer may choose. 

In a later number of The Carpenter we shall 
show other forms of oilstones, and shall have 
something to say on the use and care of oil- 
stones, a subject which is of quite as much im- 
portance as that of selecting the stone. 






THE CARPENTER 



ID 



3ur gcfüßigfieti 92otij. 

©oßte irgenb ein SBruber ber Brotherhood 
of C. & J. of America, Slugfunft geben 
förnien über 3o§anne8 Älein, aug SBalben» 
buch, Deutfdjlanb, früheres SJHtglieb ber 
Cabinetmakers’ Union No. 7, fo möge 
derjenige gefäßigft bie Slbreffe an Sßilfj^Im 
S'tudjle, Sio. 161 SB. 32 ©tr., ober bei bem 
^inana:©e!tretär @. $uef)l, Socil Union 
302. Siero 2)orf, angeben. 

N. B.— -Da bringenbe gamilienoeiljältniffe 
feine ©*genroart nolf)roenbig machen. 




Der ßroletarifdje Söcllfeicrtag. 

me groß«, eine erhabene 3bee roar 
eg, bie in ben £erjen beg $ro» 
letariatg ber ganzen SBelt freu» 
bigen Sßiberljaß fanb, b?n erften 
2ßai alg Demonftrationgtag für 
bie internationale ©infütjrung 
be8 gefeßlidjen 2ld&tftunbentage8 ju et Hären. 

9lad) früheren oergeblid&en SJerfudjen, bie 
internationale' über bie ©rünbungsftabien 
(jinaug ju frifdjem fröl)lid)em Beben au ent» 
rotcfeln, roar eg eine erljebenbe ©jene, alg auf 
bem aur gorberung beg internationalen Sir» 
beiterfongreffeg in $arig, 1889, unter bem 
lauten unb etnfiimmigen Söeifaß ber Dele» 
girten bie Dfjefe aufgefteßt rourbe, baß bie 
fcerabfefcung ber Slrbeitgjeit bie ©runbform 
beg SIrbeiterfdjußeg fein rnüffe. 

Hflit ber Sluffteßung biefer X^efe roar mit 
einem ©djlage bie internationale perfeft ge» 
roorben. SSerlüraetung ber Slrbeitögcit roar 
rum nun an bag junäc&fi a u erftrebenbe giel 
in bem ftdj bag proletariat einig mußte. Der 
Kongreß in Pari8 gab auf Antrag beg fran» 
aöfifc^en Slbgeorbneten ßaoigne folgenber, im 
tarnen beg Äomiteg beg fftationaloerbanbeö 
ber ©ijnbitatgfammern unb gadjoereine ge» 
fteßier Stefolution einbettig bie 3uftimmung: 

1. @8 möge eine große einheitliche SJtani» 
feftation ber Arbeiter aller Bänber berart 
oeranftaltet roerben, baß an bem nämlichen 
oereinbarten Dage in allen Bänbem bea. 
aßerorig bie Arbeiter bie Vertreter ber hcrr» 
fchenben ©eroalt aufforbern, bie gefeßlidje 
Dauer beg SlrbeitÖtageg auf acht ©tunben au 
befchtänfen. 

2. in ©rroägung, baß eine ähnliche Sßani» 
feftation oon bem im Dezember, 1888, ftatt» 
gehabten Kongreß ber Sltnerifanifd&en geber» 
ation ber 21t beit, für ben 1. Sftai, 1890, be» 
fchloffen roorben, ifi biefeö Datum für bie 
internationale Demonstration au beftimmen. 

3. in jebern Sanbe foflen bie Slrbeiter bie 
SRanifefiation in ber SBeife oeranftalte«, 
roelche bie ©e{eße unb bie SBerhältniffe bafelbft 
bebingen, bea- ermöglichen. 

Die Proletarier aller Bänber fjaben jutn 
größten Dljetl ben Söefdjluß treulich auöge» 
führt. Der 1. 3ßai ift proletarifdjer SBelt» 
feiertag geworben. 

3um neunten SJlale lüftet ftch ba8 arbei» 
tenbe Pol! aller Bänber ben Äongreßbefchluß 
aur Slugführung au bringen. Pon iahr au 
iahr ift bie Demonstration eine großartigere 
geworben, immer gewaltigere SWaffen treten 
auf ben Plan alg mahnenbeg ©erotffen ber 
bürgerlichen ©efeßjdjaft, ihr bie Perfünbig» 
ung an ber Slrbeiterllaffe burdj ihren Sluf» 
marfch oor Slugen führenb. Sttit ber Slufftel» 
lung ber gorberung beg gefeßlidjen Sicht» 
ftunbentageg bat ber Parifer Kongreß ben 
glücflichften SBurf gethan, ben Die proletarifd&e 
Propaganba aufauroeifen hat. Die Slrbeiter» 
Haffe aller Bänber hat bamit angefangen, 
einen bewußten, einheitlichen SBißen au be» 
lunben. Dag ©treben nach ber Perroirflich» 
ung ber gorberung trägt unenbiich oiel aur 
SBecfung unb Slugbilbung beg 5Uaffenberoußt» 
feing bei. Die Slrbeiter aller Bänber ftreben 
banacb, eine geeinte Sttadjt au bilben unb alg 
folche hanbelnb aufautreten. ©in unenblicher 
(gewinn für bie enbgültige Pefreiung ber 
Slrbeiterllaffe. Die flaffenberoußte Slrbeiter» 
fchaft, bie ©oaialbemolratie, weiß, wie fchroer 
eg hält, im Söege ber tljeoretifchen Slufllärung 
bie inbiffeanten Sßaffen aufaurütteln, aum 
Stachbenlen anauregen unb fte aur Peihülfe 
im Älaffenfampf heranauaiehen. Diefe trägen 
Hßaffen müffen in Peroegung gebracht roerben, 
ihr materieUeg Sntereffe rotrb ihnen ein ficht» 



bareg, greifbareg, fte lernen einfehen, baß 
nur an ihnen liegt, ihr ©chidfal aum Pefferen 
au roenben, baß fie $ülfe oon Slugroärtg nicht 
erwarten bürfen unb auch nicht au erwarten 
haben. 

Die bürgerlichen Defonomen erllären bem 
arbeitenben Polf, feine Stothlage, feine Slug» 
hungerung fei eine golge ber au oiel probu» 
airten ©ütermenge. Stun, bie Slrbeiter roüß» 
ten gerabeau auf ben $opf gefallen fein, 
wollten fte nicht antworten : ©ut, fo arbeiten 
wir weniger bei gleichbleibenbem Bohn, bann 
wirb unfer Slntheil an bem ©üteroerbraud) 
ein größerer roerben. SBir haben Pebürfniffe, 
aHernothroenbigfte noch bie große SJtenge, 
lönnen fte aber leiber nicht befriebigen, ge» 
fchroeige benn in 3eiten gesteigerter Slrbeiig» 
loftgleit. 

Durch bie prioatfapitaliftifche Probultion 
werben bie Slrbeiter gerabeau gebrängt, bie 
Perfüraung ber Slrbeitgaeit anauftreben. Die 
prioatfapitaliftifche Probultion ift bie fjerr» 
fchettbe in allen Äulturlänbern, barumlonnte 
bie gorberung beg Slchtftunbentageg mit 
einem ©chlage bie ©runblage beg inter» 
nationalen Punbeg ber SSlrbeiterllaffe roer» 
ben. ©omit ift bie gorberung beg Slchtftun» 
bentageg bie Parole ber Proletarier aller 
Bänber geworben. 3 ro ar bebeutet bie @r» 
oberung beg Slchtftunbentageg nodfjt nicht bie 
Pefreiung ber Sir b ei terll affen 00 m 3od) ber 
Bohnfllaoerei, aber bie ©roberung wirb b*r 
Slrbeiterllaffe au Stufen unb in ihrem Pe» 
fretungslampfe eine erhöhte Pefähigung unb 
größere SBiberftanbgfähigleit oerleihen. 
Sange Slrbeitgjeit unb geringer Perbienft 
müffen aur ©ntneroung ber Slrbeiter führen, 
©tumpfftnn unb ©leichgültigleit muß ftch 
ihrer bemächtigen. Slpathifch taffen fte Stlteg 
über ftch ergehen. 3h* £ e &en ifl etu ftänbigeg 
©iechthum. 3Bo bie Stoth unb ihre ©ntbeh» 
rungen ihren ©inaug halten, bleibt bag Bafter 
unb bag Perbrechen auf bie Dauer nicht fern. 
©0 fehen roir, baß burch bte übermäßige, 
jammerooU entlohnte Slrbeitgaeit bie SJtenfchen 
nicht nur lörperlid) oerlümmern, fonbem 
auch moralifd), fltttich oerlrüppeln, aum Slb» 
fchaum ber SJtenfchheit h^rabftnlen. 

Die ©rfahrung lehrt gleichfalls, je lüraer 
bie Slrbeitgaeit, befto höh e * her Sohn. 3n ben 
Perbänben ober auch in ben 3^eigoerbänben, 
in ben en fleh hie Slrbeiter lurae Slrbeitgaeit er» 
rungen haben, werben bie haften Böhne be» 
aahtt. Peibcg übt auf bie Slrbeiter eine wohl» 
thätige SBitlung aug. Die Slrbeiter roerben 
ftch beffer nähren lönnen. ©ie roerben 3eit 
finben, ihr SBiffen au bereichern, ftch Pitbung 
unb beffere ©itten anaueignen ; luraum, Per» 
langen tragen, an ben oerfchiebenflen 3weigen 
beg Äutturlebeng theilaunehmen, bie ihnen 
heute nicht weiter alg höchfleng ben Stamen 
nach belannt fttib. Die Perlüraung ber 
Slrbeitgaeit wirb bie Slrbeiter erft in bie Sage 
oerfefcen, bie SBohlthaten beg gamilienlcbeng 
au genießen, bag ihnen heute burch hie lange 
Slrbeitgaeit unb bie Slugbeutung ber grauen» 
unb ßiitberarbeit oerlümmert unb oerleibet 
wirb, ihnen mehr alg eine Saft, benn alg eine 
Perfchönerung beg Sebeng erfcheint. 

Stach aßebem muß ber Slchtftunbentag 
ftärlenb in pfjpftfcher unb oerebelnb in ft tt» 
lieber Peaiehung auf bie Slrbeiterllaffe toirlen. 
Daburch wirb bie Slrbeiterllaffe für ihren 
Pefreiungglampf aug b^n geffeln ber Sohn» 
arbeit befähigter, in ihrer Slßgemeinheit bem 
Unternehmerthum überlegen au roerben. Stach 
alfebem fteht aber auch außer aßem 3weifet, 
baß bie ©inführung beg Slchtftunbentageg 
eine Pefchränlung beg Ur.ternehmerprofitg 
bewußter SBeife herbeiführen muß unb foß. 
Der Slchtftunbentag ift nicht 3roecf ber Sir» 
beiterberoegung, fonbem ein SJtittei ber Pro» 
paganba, ben 3wecf au erreichen. Der Sl^t» 
ftunbentag ift eine ©tappe, auf ber bie Slrbei- 
terbataißone ftch famnteln unb oorbereiten, 
in bie foaialiftifche ©efeßfehaft au marfchiren! 

Der etfte 3)tai ift bag gamiltenaeichen ber 
proletarischen Peroegung, welches anbeutet 
baß bag Proletariat aßer Bänber praltifch 
auf fein 3tel logfteuert. Die Äinberfd^uhe 
ber Utopifterei muß bie proletarifche Peroe» 
gung abftreifen. Porftchttg aber ficher unb 
ftegegfroh marfchtrt bag llaffenberoußte 
Proletariat oon ©tappe au ©tappe ooran. 
§och ber erfte SJtai! 

$. D., SJtitgtieb ber 

B 0 1 a l U n i 0 n 375, 

Stern 2)orl. 



“ A GREAT SUCCESS” 

Hundreds of Carpenters praise the best books 
printed. 

JIOW TO FRAME A HOUSE, 

or House and Hoot Framing 

By OWEN B. MAG1NN1S 

It is a practical treatise on the latest and best 
methods of laying out, framing and raising tim- 
ber for houses, together with a complete and 
easily understood system of Roof Framing, the 
whole makes a handy and easily applied book 
for carpenters, both foremen and journeymen. 

OON rENTS.— Part I. 

Chapter I. General description of Balloon 
Frames, Framed 8ills and their construction. . 

Chapter II. First Floor Beams or Joists, Story 
Sections, Second Floor Beams. Studding Fram- 
ing of Door and Window Openings, Wall Plates 
and Roof Timbers. 

Chapter III. Laying out and Working Bal- 
loon Frames, Girders, Sills, Posts and Studding. 

Chapter IV. Laying out First and Second 
Floor Joists or Beams, Celling Joists and Wall 
Plates. 

Chapter V. Laying out and Framing the 
Ro'*f. 

Chapter VI. Raising. 

PART. II — “rtoof- Framing.” 

Chapter I. Simple Roofs. 

Chapter II. Hip and Valley Roofs. 

Chapter III. Roofs of Irregular Plan. 

Chapter IV. Pyramidal Roofs. 

Chapter V. Hexagonal Roofs. 

Chapter VI. Conical or Circular Roofs, etc , etc, 
PART III. 

How to Frame the Timbers for a Brick House. 

Chapter I. General Desciiption First Htory 
Fireproof Floors, Studding and Wood Floor 
Beams. 

Chapter II. Second and Upper Story Beams, 
Partitions, Bridging and Angular Framing. 

Chapter III. Fireproofing Wood Floors, 
Partitions and Doors 

Chapter IV. Roofs, Bulkheads and Fronts. 

Chapter V Wood and Iron Construction. 

Chapter VI. Heavy Beams and Girders and 
Raising Same. 

Chapter VII. How to Frame a Log Cabin. 

Th« work is illustrated and explained by over 
80 large engravings of houses, roofs, etc., and 
bound in cloth. 

PRICE, ONLY - - SL 00 

ALSO 

“ROOF FRAMING MADE EASY.“ 

This splendid book contains 27 chapters and 
76 engravings and covers the entire subject. 
Its price is only $1.00. Bound in cloth with gilt 
title. Kvery Carpenter »hould have one. 

A practical and ensily comprehended system 
of laying out and framing roofs, adapted to mod- 
ern building construction. The methods are 
made clear and intelligible with extensive ex- 
planatory text. 

Send Cash or Post Office Order to 

OWEN B. HAOINNIS, 

310 West ia8th St., New York City. 



Eight-Hour Cities. 



Below is a list of the cities and towns where 



carpenters make it 
hours a day : 

Alameda, Cal. 

Ada Lorna Tex. 
Ashland, Wis. 
Austin, 111. 
Bakersfield Cal. 
Bedford Park, N. Y. 
Berkeley, Cal. 
Bessemer Col. 
Brighton Park, 111. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Carondelet, Mo. 
Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Heights, 111. 
Cleveland, O. 

Corona, N. Y. 
Cripple Creek, Col. 
Denver, Col. 

Detroit, Mich. 

Rast St. Louis, 111. 

El D ira, Col. 
Elmhurst, 111. 
Euglewood, 111. 
Eureka, Cal. 
Evanston, 111. 
Flushing, N. Y. 
Fremont, Col. 
Fresno, Cal. 
Galveston, Tex. 
Gilette, Col. 

Grand Crossing, 111. 
Haughville, Ind. 
Hauford. Cal. 
Highland Park, 111. 
Hitchcock, Tex. 

Hyde Park, 111. 
Independence, Col. 
Indiana polis, Ind. 
Irvington, N. J. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Kensin gton, 111. 
Kingsbridge, N. Y. 

La Junta, Col. 

Lake Forest, 111. 
Leadville, Col. 

Long Island City, N. 1 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Lynn, Mass. 
Maywood, 111. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mooreland, 111. 

Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

Mt. Vernon, Ind. 

Total 



rule to work only eight 



Murphysboro, 111. 
Newark, N J. 

New Brighton. N. Y. 
Newtown, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 
Oakland, Cal. 

Oak Park, 111. 

Omaha, Neb. 

Orange, N. J. 

Ouray, Col. 

Pasadena, Cal. 

Port Richmond, N. Y. 
Pueblo, Col. 
Randsburg, Cal. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Rogers Park, 111. 
Sacramento, Cal. 

Salt Lake, rtah. 

San Antonio, Tex. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
San Luis Obispo, Cal. 
San Jose, Cal. 

San Rafael, Cal. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Sheboygan. Wis. 
South Chicago, 111. 
South Denver, Col. 
South Evanston, 111. 
South Englewood, 111. 
South Omaha, Neb. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Springfield. 111. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Stapleton, N. Y. 
Stockton, Cal. 
Swampscott, Mass. 
Syracuse, N Y. 

Texas City, Tex. 

Town of Lake, 111. 
Tremont, N. Y. 
Unionport, N. Y. 

Van Nest, N. Y. 
Venice, 111. 

Victor, Col. 

Waco. Tex. 
Washington, D. C. 
Westchester, N. Y. 
Whatcom, Wash. 
Williamsbridge, N. Y. 
Woodlawn . N. Y. 
Yonkers, N. Y. 



105 cities. 



This Label 
. issued unde 

j) LA BEIL/ authority of tl 
Intern ationt 

Typographic* 

Union and of the German Typographia. Tt 
label is used on all newspaper and book worl 
It always bears the name and location of whei 
the printing work ia done. 



Constitution for Building Trades 
Council. 



ARTICLE I. 

Section 1. This organization shall be known 
as the Amalgamated Council of the Building 
Trades. * 

Sec. 2. This council shall be composed of dele- 
gates duly chosen from all societies in the build- 
ing trades, who shall, before being admitted, 
produce credentials signed by the president and 
recording secretary of their society, and shall 
have the seal of their union attached. 

Sec. 8. In case of a secret society, the seal of 
the lodge attached shall bea sufficient guarantee 
of their genuineness. 

Sec. 4. The officers of this society shall consist 
of a chairman, vice-chairman and recording sec- 
retary, corresponding secretary, financial secre- 
tary, treasurer and sergeant-at-arms. 

Sec. 6. The chairman and vice-chairman shall 
be elected at each meeting, and shall be nomi- 
nated from delegates of different societies, nor 
shall any chairman sit in judgment on any case 
affecting the union he belongs to. 

Sec. 6. The recording secretary, corresponding 
secretary, financial secretary, treasurer and ser- 
geantrat-arms shall be elected quarterly ; the re- 
cording secretary shall receive such salary as 
this council shall deem advisable. 



article n. 

Section 1. The executive functions of this 
council shall be vested in the officers and dele- 
gates while insession, and in such committees 
as this council may find necessary to conduct its 
business under this constitution. 

Sec. 2. The objects of this council shall be to 
centralize the untied efforts and experience of 
the various societies engaged in the erection and 
alteration of buildings, and that they may form 
one common council, and with common Interest 
to prevent that which may be injurious, and 
properly perfect and carry into effect that which 
they may deem advantageous to themselves, and 
for the common good of all. 

Sec. 3. All trade and labor societies repre- 
sented in this council, when desirous of making 
a demand for either an advance of wages or au 
abridgement in the hours of labor, shall 
through their delegates, report the same to this 
council prior to the demand being made, when, 
if concurred in by a two-thirds vote of all the 
societies present, at any stated meeting, the 
action shall be binding. This section shall not 
prevent any society from acting on its own re- 
sponsibility. 

ARTICLE III. 

Section 1. No trade shall bo entitled to more 
than thr^e votes on any question that directly 

affects the material interests of any trade society. 

Sec. 2. All trades or societies represented tliall 
be entitled to three delegates. 

Sec. 3. Any society having three or more 
branches shall be entitled to one delegate for 
each branch. 

ARTICLE IY. 

Section 1. Any trade or society represented 
In this council that mav desire material aid 
stiall state tbeir case to this council, and, if ap^ 
proved by the delegates, shall bring the matter 
before their respective organizations for imme- 
diate action. 



article v. 

Section 1. It shall be the special duty of this 
council to use the united strength of* all the 
societies represented therein, to compel all non- 
union men and *’ scabs" to conform to, and 
obey the laws of, the society that they should 
properly belong to. 

Sec. 2. It shall he the duty of any trade or 
labor society to use every lawful means to in- 
duce all non-union men or scabs to become 
members of their respective unions, and any 
trade society failing in their just efforts, shall 
bring the matter before this council through 
tbeir delegates, with ail the facts in the case, 
with the names of the men. if possible, where 
employed, and the name of the employer, the 
same to be presented In writing, with the signa- 
ture of the president of the society affected, 
when this council Bliall take immediate action in 
the matter, and if deemed advisable, this council 
may, by a two-thirds vote of the delegates then 
present, forming a quorum, order a withdrawal 
of any or all trades or societies who may be on 
any building where said non-union men or 
scabs may be employed This order shall be 
carried into effect through the agency of the 
Business Agents of the various societies. 



article vi. 

Section 1. All societies represented in this 
council shall pay the sum of two dollars each per 
month. 



article vn. 

Section 1. On demand of a union represented, 
a general Btrike shall be ordered to reinstate a 
member or members who have struck and are 
refused employment on the job that was struck. 

Sec. 2. Any Business Agent or Agents of any 
society ordering a strike without the consent 
of this council, the trade he represents shall 
be held responsible for the wages of the men on 
strike. This shall not prevent an Ageut from 
ordering a strike of the members of the society 
he represents to adjust iis own internal affairs 
without the assistance of this council. 

Sec. 3. Members of a union seceding from a 
parent organization and forming a separate 
union shall be excluded from tills council. 

Sec. 4. All branches of a union shall demand 
the same wages and the same hours of labor. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

Section 1. When the members of two unions 
represented in this couucll work at the same 
trade, it shall be unlawful for one to take the 
place of the other when on strike. 

ARTICLE IX. 

Section 1. No society or branch of a society 
shad be allowed to strike more than one em- 
ployer at a time, unless there are two or more 
employers on the same job. 

article x. 

Section 1 Two-thirds of all the trade repre- 
sented in this council shall form a quorum. ^ 

Sec. 2. It shall take two weeks’ notice of mo- 
tion and two-thirds mtyority to alter^or amend 
any article of this constitution. 



16 



THE CARPENTER. 




ALABAMA. 

296. Enslby. 

89. Mobile — D. French, 601 Charleston st. 

92. “ (Col.) W. G. Lewis, 751 St. Louis st. 

ARKANSAS. 

248. Fayetteville— R. M. Gant. 

86. Ft. Smith— H. G. Reed, Cor. 9th and Q : t. 

CALIFORNIA. 

194. Alameda— C. H. Thrane, 2975 Johnson avt. 
332. Los Angeles— S. Gray. Box 224. 

86. Oakland— Chas J. Jacobs, 1767 Grove st. 
235. Riverside— C has. Hamilton, 277 5th st. 

San Francisco — Secretary of Dist. Council, 
Wm. J. Kidd. 220 3d st. 

22. N. L. Waudell, 1133% Mission st., Sta. B. 

95. (Latin) L. Masarie, 14% Erie st. 

304. (Ger.) Wm. Jilge, 405 Ellsworth st. 

483. Guy Lathrop, 915*4 Market st. 

316. San Jose— W. J. Wilcox, 525 W. Julian st. 
35. San Rafael— J. J. Sheils. Box 194. 

CANADA. 

14. Brantford— I. W. Taylor, 158 Terrace Hill. 
83. Halifax, N. S.— Geo. Browne, 12 Willow st. 

18. Hamilton — W. J. Frid, 25 Nelson st. 

134. Montreal— (Fr.) E. Frechette, 1736 St. 
Catherine. 

376. “ Allan Ramsay, 157 Quesnel st 

255. Rat Portage, Ont. Jas. T. Marzetti. 

38. St. Catherines— James Hindson, Henry st. 
27. Toronto— D. D. McNeill, 288 Hamburg ave. 
617. Vancouver, B. C.— Alfred E Coffin, 1213 
Richard st. 

343. Winnipeg, Man. — R. Bell, 76 Schultz st. 

COLORADO. 



365 Marion — J. M. Simons. 609 E. Sherman st. 
592. Muncie— H. P. Baker, 412 S. Franklin st. 
629, South Bend -Geo. W. Givin. 

205. Terre Haute— R. W. Floyd, 1618 3d ave. 
658. Vincennes— Levi Taylor, 1205 Perry st. 

220. Washington— JaR. Ramsey, Jr., 8 S.E.7th st 

INDIAN TERRITORY. 

162. Muskogee— J. P. Hosmer. 

IOWA. 

315 Boone — G. L. McElroy: 

531. Burlington— J. Hackman, 905 S. Central av. 
308. Cedar Rapids. 

554. Davenport— H. W. Schweider, 1427 Mitchel 
106. Des Moines— U. S. G. Badgley, 1303 21st st. 
678. Dubuque— M. R. Hogan, 299 7th st. 

284. Fort Dodge.— A. S Jenkins 

767. Ottumwa— J.W. Morrison, 313 W. Fifth st, 

KANSAS. 

253. Argentine— M. Murphy, Box 347 
138. Kansas City— G. McMullin, 836 Muncie 
Boulevard. 

499. Leavenworth- Jno. E. Crcssley, 9th and 
Sherman. 

158. Topeka— A. M. H. Claudy, 408 Tyler st. 

201 Wichita— J. L- Taylor, 520 S. Osagg st, 

KENTUCKY. 

712. Covington— C. Glatting, 1502 Kavanaugh st. 
785. “ (Ger.) B. Kampsen, 262 W. 13th st. 

442. Hopkinsville— W. O Hall. 

103. Louisville— H. S. Huffman. 1737 Gallagher. 
214. “ (Ger.) J. Schneider. 1136 E. Jacob av. 

698. Newport— W. E. Wing, 622 Central ave 

LOUISIANA. 

New Orleans — Secretary of Dist. Council 
F. G. Wetter, 2220 Josephine st. 

76. Aug. Limberg. 711 Foucher st. 

704. F. Duhrkop, 617 Cadiz st. 

739. M. Joaquin, 1304 St. Roche ave. 

85. Shreveport- L. Malkus, Box 261. 

MAINE. 

285. Bath— E. C. Plummer. 97 Drummer St. 

407. Lewiston — C. F. Tinker, 19 Turner st.. 

Auburn. 

MARYLAND. 



264. Boulder— E. Lindborg. 

515. Colo. Springs— Frank Sawyer, Elk Hotel. 
Cripple Creek — S ec. of D C., Box 5, Macon 
P. O , Independence, Col. 

547. Cripple Creek— Will. Smith, 569 E. Myers. 

55. Denver— L. B. Reeder, 1332 California st. 

244. El Dora— J. H. Rehm. 

178. Independence— T. W. Reid, Macon, P. O. 
Box 5. 

234. Ouray— P. H. Shue. Box 519. 

584. Victor — C. E. Palmer, Box 381. 

CONNECTICUT. 

115. Bridgeport — Agustus Mullins, 72 Williams 
st. 

127. Derby — Geo. H. Lamport, 36 Bank st. 

43. Hartford— Alex. McKay, 57 Woosttrst. 

97. New Britain— A. L. Johnson, 114 Franklin. 

79. New Haven — W m. Wilson, 508 Chapel st. 

133. New London -A G. Keeney, 1 W. Coit st. 

137. Norwich— F. S Edmonds, 293 Central ave. 

746. Norwalk— William A. Kelloerg, Box 391. 

210. Stamford — R. B. McMilliu, 176 Pacific st. 

216. Torrington— C has. Stewart. 47 Forest st. 

260. Waterbury— Jos. E. Saudiford, 27 N. Vine. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

190. Washington— J. T. Kenyon, 1415 Rhode 
Island ave., N. W. 

FLORIDA. 

224. Jacksonville- (Col.) J. A. Sampson, 26 W. 

Union st. 

605. “ A. C. MacNeil, 815 K. Church st 

74. Pensacola — J. A. Lyle. 316% W. Zawagossa 
696. Tampa— C. B. Hester, 2407 Tampa st. 

GEORGIA. 

439. Atlanta -T. H. J. Miller, 16 Venable st. 

136. Augusta— (C ol.) T. P. Lewis 1809 Philip st 

240. “ W. M. Hare, 1927 Watkins st. 

283. 44 George Derst, 1580 McDonald st.^^ 

144. Macon — G. S. Bolton. 520 Eluist. 

261. Valdosta— S. W. Booker. 

IDAHO. 

272. Wallace. 

ILLINOIS. 

433. Belleville— Henry Steiner, 605 S. Illinois 
street. 

70. Brighton Park— O. Gratton, 3809 S. 
Albany Ave. 

293. Canton— J C Otto, 563 South 2nd ave. 

41. Champaign— Jas. M. Armingiou, 204 W 
Healy st. 

Chicago- Secretary of District Council 
Tnos. Neale, 187 FI. Wash st.. Room 7. 

1. W.G. Schardt, 189 E. Washiugt’n st., Room 2. 

10. J. H. Stevens, 6029 Peoria st. 

13. T. J. Lelivelt. 1710 Fillmore st. 

21 ( French) P. Hudou, 207 S. Center ave. 

54. (Bohem.) John Dlouhy, 12 j2 W. 21 PI. 

58. William W. Beuuette. 1041 Roscoe st. 

181. (Scan.) J.C. Johnson. 895 N Washtenaw ave. 

242. (Ger.) Hermann Voell, 4825 Paulina st. 

416. Jas. Bell, 1310 W. 18th PI. 

419. (Ger.) John Suckrau, 3253 S. Oakley ave. 

521. (Stairs) Gust. Hansen, 732 N. Rockwell st. 

204. Coffeen— Jas. Morgan. 

295. Collinsville— Jos. Vujtech, Lock Box 471. 

269. Danville— E. A. Rogers, 9 Columbus st. 

169. East &t. Louis— K. Wendling. 512 111. ave. 

62. Englewood— A. Wistrom, 6150 Aberdeen st. 
360. Galesburg— C. J. Johnson 879 Wa^h’n ave. 
141. Grd. Crossing— J. Murrav, 1299 E. 71st st. 

174. Joliet— G D. Kauagv. 305 Richmond st. 

431. Kensington— (F r.) Ed. Lapolice, 214 W. 
116th st. 

153. Kewanee— Chas. Winquist, Box 11. 

250. Lake Forest— Chas. Dean, Box 65. 

270. Madison— J. P. Farley, Box 111. 

241. Moline — John Carlson. J203 7th ate. 

80. Moreland— Jas. M. Parme, 2011 Monroe st. 

Chicago. 

280. Mt. Olivh — John Shreier. 

IS3 Peoria— J. H. Rice, 405 Belireuds ave. 

195. PERU— H. J. Baldeschmeler Box 550. 

189. Quincy— F. W. Huscher, 933 S. 8th st. 

166. Rock Island— Wm Krueger, Jr., 1101 4th. 

199. South Chicago— J. C. Grantham, 8023 Ed- 
wards ave., Sta. S, Chicago. 

16. Springfield— T. M Blankenship. 724 S. 14th 
495. Streator — Edw. Keaske, 1112 S. Blooming- 
ton st. 

448. Waukegan— J. Demerest, 719 County st. 

INDIANA. 

352. Anderson— G eo. Woodmauser. 1808 S. Mad. 
ave. 

652. Elwood— W. H Shaw, 1350 S. A. st. 

90. Evansville— F. W. Klein ,513 Edgar st. 

213 Hartford City— I. O. Bault. 

60. Indianapolis -(Ger ) Jno. Eiser, 1824 Sin- 
gleton st. 

281. 44 J. T Goode, 308 W. Maryland st. 
215. Lafayette -H. G. Cole, 2113 South st. 



29. Baltimore— W. H. Keenan, 1519 W. Mul- 
berry st. 

44. “ (Ger.) H B. Schrceder, 2308 Canton ave. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston -Secretary of Dist. Council, C. M. 
Dempsey, 272 Meridian St. 

33. “ C. J. Gallagher, 8 Rand PI., Roxbury. 

218. E. Boston— C. M. Dempsey .272 Meridian st. 
223. Fall River— Isiah Dion, 162 Suffolk st. 

82. Haverhill— R. A. Clark, 36 Dudley tt. 

424. Hingham— ff. E. Wherity. Box 113. 

123. Holyoke — F. Marchand, 46 Cabot st. 

400. Hudson — G eo. E. Bryant, Box 125. 

111. Lawrence — Wm, C. Gemmel. 17 Crosby st. 
370. Lenox — P. H. Cannavan, Box 27. 

49. Lowell — Frank A. Kappler, 291 Lincoln st. 

221. Marblehead— R. H. Roach, 9 Elm ct. 

151. Marlboro — J. O. Donohue, 37 School st. 

40 » N ew Bedford — C.G. Francis, 216 North st . 
275. Newton— C. L. Connors, 82 West st. 

193. North Adams— G. W. Houghton, 1 Ryon’s 
Lane. 

444. Pittsfield— Chas Hyde, 16 Booth’s Place. 

67. Roxbury— H. M. Taylor, 116 Whitfield st., 
Dorchester. 

307. So. Framingham- 

96. SPRINGFIELD— (French) P. Piovost, Jr., Box 
485, Merrick. 

177. “ P. J. Collins, 1365 State st. 

222. Westfield — H. G. Pomeroy, 30 Chestnut st. 
23. Worcester— W. A Rossley, 5 City View ave. 

MICHIGAN. 

105. Alpena — B. D. Kelly, 416 Tawas st. 

116. Bay City— E G. Gales, 218 N. Birney st. 

271. “ Chas. A. Richter, 1811 2d st. 

19. Detroit — T. S. Jordan, 427 Beaufait ave. 

303. 

196. Grand Rapids- A. Van Dyke, 61 Quimby st. 
130. Hancock— Louis Verville, Box 116 
297 Kalamazoo — 

173. Munising— A. L. Johnson. 

100. Muskegon— Harley W. Starke, 11 Marshall 
59. Saginaw— P. Frisch, 503 Ward st.. E. S. 

334. 44 Jacob Spindler, 1323 MacKinaw st. 

46. S ault St. Marie— A.Stowell.282Portaeeav. 

226. Traverse City— John J. Tisdale, 3187th st. 

MINNESOTA. 

361. Duluth— J ohn Knox, Box 283, W Duluth. 

7. Minneapolis— Henning vStubee, 2303 E. 22d 
266. Red Lake Falls— N. Holberg. 

87. St. Paul— N els Johnson, 707 Martin st. 

MISSOURI. 

4. Kansas City— H.- Thayer, 205 W. 29th st. 
110. St. Joseph— Wm. Zimmerman, 1223 N. 13th 

ST. Louis— Secretary of District Council, 

R. Fuelle, 604 Market st. 

5. (Ger.) Wm Lammert, 1910Lamist. 

45. (Ger.) W. Wamhoff, 1416 Montgomery st. 

47. (Ger.) A. Hoffmann, 2121 Victor st. 

73. Geo. C. Newman 703 N. 15th st. 

257. J. A. Steininger, 3635 Lucky st. 

578. (Stair Bldrs.) Edw. Bruggemann, 2624 Madi- 
son st. 

MONTANA. 

88. Anaconda— C. W Starr, Box 238. 

256. Belt— Andrue Eckerson. 

112. Butte City— C. F. Nugent, Box 623. 

286 Great Falls— O. M. Lambert, Box 923. 

153 Helena-H F. Smith. 1119 5th ave. 

28. Missoula— M. C. Pepple. 

NEBRASKA. 

427. Omaha— J. H. Maus, 831 S. 28th st. 

279. S. Omaha— P. M. Connell, 511 N. 17th st. 

NEW JERSEY. 

7.50. Asbury Park— Wm. H. Carr, Box 897. 

486. Bayonne— P. A. Miller, 13 E 53d si. 

121. Bridgeton — J. H. Reeves, 145 Fayette st. 

20. Camden— T. E. Peterson, 430 Walnut st. 

217. E. Orange— L. P. Sherrer, 34 Bedford st. 
167. Elizabeth— H Zimmerman 240 South st. 
987. “ (Ger.) John Kuhn. 11 Spencer st. 

265. Hackensack— T. Heath. 312 Union st. 

391. Hoboken— A. Crothers, 131 Jackson st. 

467. 44 (Ger.) H Sie vers, 400 Monroe st. 

57. Irvington— C has. Van Wert. 

139. Jersey City— Jos G. Hunt, 440 Communi- 
vaw ave. 

262* “ Jno. Johnson 131 Broadway 

282» “ (Framers) Herman Paap, 90 

. Willow ave . Hoboken. 

4 L. F. Rvan, 181 Ninth st. 

o61. (J. C. Heights) John Handorf, North st. and 
Boulevard. 

151. Long Branch— Chas. E. Brown, Box 241, 
Long Branch City. 

232. Milburn— J H. White, Short Hills. 

305. Millville -Jas. McNeal. 622 w. Main st 
429. Montclair — Jas. McLeod, 141 Forest st. 

638. Morristown— C. V. Deats. Lock Box 163 
Newark— S ecretary of District Council. W. 
M. Shaw, 415 Plaue st. 



119. H. G. Long, 10 Davis st., E. Newark. 

120. (Ger.) Fred. Tebe, 639 S. 18th st. 

143. Herrn. Henri, 287 Waverly st. 

303. A. L. Beegle, 120 N. 2d st. 

723. (Ger.) G. Arendt, 584 Springfield ave. 

319. Orange — M. Morlock, 17 Parkinson Ter. 
325. Paterson— P. K. Van Houten, 713 E. 27th st. 
400. Passaic— Geo. A. Quimby, 326 Moutgomeiy 

65. Perth Amboy- W. H. Bath, 33 Lewis st. 

399. Phillipsb URG- W. S. Garrison, 8 Fayette st. 
155. Plainfield— Wm. H. Lunger, 94 Wester- 

velt ave., N. Plainfield 

31. Trenton— J. J. Rourke, 25 Market st. 

612. Union Hill— (Ger.) J. Worischek, 721 Adam 
st.. Hoboken. 

299. West Hoboken— 

NEW MEXICO. 

298. Alamogordo- 

New YORK. 

274. Albany- L. B. Harvey, 492 3d st. 

659. “ (Ger.) Wm. J. Franklin, 450 Elk st. 

6 Amsterdam— L ester Covey, 20 Milton st. 

453. Auburn— E. B. Koon, 116 Franklin st. 

24. Batavia— F. S. Booth. 142 Harvester ave. 

233 Binghampton-F. W Sicklor. 23 High st. 
Bronx— Secretary of District Council, A. F. 

Roth, 18% South st., Mt Vernon. 
Brooklyn — Secretary of District Council, 
E. P- Mossein. 372 12th st. 

12. Otto Zeibig. 1432 De Kalb ave. 

32. (Ger. Cab. Mkrs.) Abraham Baumgartner, 157 

Hamburg ave. 

109. Edw. Tobin, 502 Schenck ave., Sub*Sta. 43. 
126. M. J. Casey, 85 Newell st. 

147. C. E. Brown, 272 Howard ave. 

175. W. F. Bostwick, 333 Rotbbng st. 

247. Chas. D. Monroe, 42 St. Mark’s ave. 

253. M. Spence, 342 Maoison st Brooklyn. 

291. (Ger) F. Kramer. 96 Hamburg ave. 

33L. S. E Elliott, 1295 St. Mark’s ave. 

451. Wm. Carroll, 792 Bergen st. 

471. H. S. Thurber, 318a 15th st. 

639. Jos. Mitchell, 311 53d st. 

Buffalo — Secretary of District Council, 
Miles Little, 17 Pooley st. 

9. W. H. Wreggitt, 78 Edward st. 

355. (Ger.) Jno. Groele, 536 Doat st. 

374 E. O. Yokom, 19 FeTguson ave. 

440. J. H. Myers, 83 Landon st. 

99. Cohoes — A. Van Aruam. 22 George st. 

640. College Point— G. A. Pickel, 5th ave and 

11th st. 

81. Far Rockaway— Robt. Mulvey, Box 236. 

323. Fishkill-on-Hudson— W.W.R owe, Box 215. 

714. Flushing — F. S. Field, 154 New Locust st. 
187. Geneva — G.W. Dadson, 26 Hollenbeck ave. 
229. Glens Falls— E. J White, 10 Gage ave. 

68. Hempstead— S. B. Chester, Box 82. 

149. Irvington — Robert Brown, Hastinga-on- 
Hudson. 

603. Ithaca— E. A. Whiting, 8 Auburn st. 

66. Jamestown'— O. D. Smith, 794 E. Second st. 
40. Kingsbr.idge — John E. Forshay, 864 Union 

ave.. New York City. 

251. Kingston— E. C. Peterson, 207 Smith ave 
591. Little Falls— T. R. Maugau, 142 W. Mon- 
roe. 

289. Lock port, N. Y.— 

34. Long Island City— W. Furman, 531 Jamaica 
ave. 

212. Mt. Vernon— A. H. Parker, 273 W. Lincoln 
avenue. 

493. 44 Jas. Beardsley, 133 N. 9th ave. 

301. Newburg — John Templeton, 159 Ren wick. 
42. New Rochelle— J. V. Gahau, 30 Birch st 
507. Newtown, L. I.— Peter A. Anderson, Box 13, 
Corona, N. Y. 

New York— Secretary of District Council, 
D. F. Featherston 309 W. 143d st. 

51. J. J. Hewitt 595 E- 133d st. Care Neilan. 

56. (Floor Layers) J. Hefner, 411 Steiuway ave., 
L. I. City. 

64. Thos. P. J Coleman. 7886th ave. . Care Molle. 
200 (Jewish) John Goldfarb, 84 E. 113th st 
30 ) (Ger. Cab. Makers) Simon Kuehl, 224 1st av. 
349. D. Vanderbeek, 138 W 133d st. 

375. (Ger.) F. W. Mueller. 537 E. 152d st. 

3S2. H. Seymour. 166 E- 67ih. 

457. (Scan.) O. Wallin, 24 W 118th st. 

464. (Ger.) Vincent Sauter, 677 Courtland ave. 

468. Jas. Maguire, 223 Delaucevst. 

473. Wm. Trotter, 358 W. 48th st. 

476. Wm. E. P. Schwartz, 2 Brown’s Point, 
Astoria, L. I 

478. J. J. Plaeger, 3417 3d ave. 

497. (Ger.) Geo. Berthold, 321 E. 12th st. 

509. John McGrail , 174 E- 82nd st. 

513. (Ger.) Jno. H. Borrs, 1571 ave. A. 

707. (Fr Canadian) Geo. Menard, 218 E- 74th st. 

715. Chas. Camp, 223 W. 148th st. 

786. (Ger. Millwrights and Millers) Henry Maak, 
357 Linden st., Brooklyn. 

474. Nyack — R F. Wool, Box 493. 

101 Oneonta — C. W. Burnside. 9 Walling ave. 
163. Peekskill— C. T. Powell, 306 Simuson pi. 

77. Portchkster— Frank Stepaen, 213 Madi- 
son ave. 

203. Poughkeepsie— J. P. Jacobson, Box 32. 

72. Rochester — H. M. Fletcher, 5 Snyder st. 
179. “ (Ger.) Frank Schwind, 4 May PI. 

231. “ John Buehrle, 30 Buchan Park. 

146. Schenectady — Henry Bain. 326 Craig st. 
Staten Island— Secretary Dist. Council. 

J. W. Sheehan, 174 Broadway, West New 
Briehtou 

606. Port Richmond— J. Keenan, 238 Jersey st., 
New Brighton. 

567. Stapleton — P. J. Klee Box 545. 

Syracuse— Secretary of Dist' ict Council, 

D C. Parke, 537 Renwick ave 
15. (Ger ) J. R. Ryan, 125 Gebhardt ave 
20 E. E Battey. '517 K. Genesee st. 

192. Chas. Silvernai». 626 Vine st. 

78 Troy— David King Box 65. 

125 Utica— G. W. Griffiths, 240 Dudley ave. 

580. Watertown- W. J. Mullen, 121 A. Main st. 
278 44 Robt. Parham 

172. Westchester— Frank Vanderpool, Blon- 
dell ave. 

128. Whitestone— Geo. Belton, Box 8. 

593. Williams Bridge— John Edgley, White 
Plains ave , bet. 1st and 2nd sts. 

273 Yonkers— E. C. Hulse, 47 Mapl** st. 

726. “ F. M. Tallraadge. 216 Elm st. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

384. Asheville— G. C. Lumley, 51 Blanton st. 

OHIO. 

84. Akron — A. H. Bates, Flowers’ Court. 

17. Bellaire — G. W. Curtis, 3638 Harrison st. 

170 Bridgeport— John D Glenn. Box 41. 

1 10. Bucyrus— Wm. Rein, 622 E Rensselaer st. 
245 Cambridge— V. C Ferguson, 937 E. Stuben- 

ville ave. 

143. Canton— Chas. A. Rimmel,525N. McKinley 
ave. 

Cincinnati— Secretary of District Council, 
J. H. Meyer, 23 Mercer st. 

2. J. E Overbecke, 2622 Hackberry st., Walnut 
Hills. 

209. (Ger.) August Wei>s, 969 Gest st. 

327. (Mill) H. Brinkworth. 1315 Spring st. 

628. A. Berger, 4229 Fergus st. 

667. D. J. Jones. 2228 Kentou st . Station D. 

676. Jos. Lang, Box 301, Carthage. 



692. J. P. Luckey, 2427 Bloom st. 

Cleveland— S ecretary of District Council. 
W H Schullz, Room 1, Aich Hall. 398 
Ontario st. 

11. H. L. Lepole, 18 Poe ave. 

39. (Bohem.) V. Plechaty, 45 Jewett st. 

393 (Ger ) Theo. Welhrich 16 Parker ave. 

419. (Ger ) Albert Karp. 953 Clark ave. 

61. Columbus— A. C. Welch, 1127 Highland st 
104 Dayton— W. C. Smith, 132S. La Bellest E. 

B Gregg, pro tem.. 34 Herman ave 
346. 44 (Ger.) Jos. Wirtta, 311 Clover st. 

328. E. Liverpool— R. M. Newell, 5th st. 

294. E. Palestine- 

617. Hamilton— W. C. Musch, 529 Heaton st. 

182. Lima- D. E Speer, 114 E. Second st. 

703. Lockl and- Charles E. Hertel, Box 182. 

356. Marietta — J. W. Forester, 2 Wo&ter lane. 
650 Pomeroy— E. D. Will. 

437. Portsmouth- C. Thoman, 110 Campbell 
ave. 

186. Steubenville— D. H. Peterson, 706 Adams. 
243. Tiffin — R. S Dysinger, Hedges st. 

25. Toledo— M artin Terwilliger, 526 Norwood 
ave. 

168. 44 (Ger.) P. Goetz, 236 Palmer st. 

171. Youngstown— W. S. Stoyer, 715 Augusta st. 

716. Zanesville — Fred. Kappes, Central ave., 

10th Ward. 

OKLAHOMA TER. 

276. Oklahoma— F. F. Biand, 22J4 E Main st. 

OREGON. 

50. Portland — D avid Heuderson, Portland 
Heights. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

ALLEGHENY CITY— 

211. J. W. Pitts, 181 Washington ave. 

237. (Ger.) A. Weizman 66 Troy Hill road. 

135. Allentown— A. M. Moyer, 136 N 5th st. 
246. Beaver Falls— A. uurry, Box 611, New 

Brighton. 

406. Bethlehem — I. M. Swinker 412 Broadway, 
S. Bethlehem. 

124. Bradford— W. H. McQuown, 3 Charlotte 
ave. 

207. Chester— E ber S. Rigby, 316 E. Fifth st. 
239. Easton — F rank P. Horn, 914 Butler st. 

122. Germantown— J. E. Martin, 126 E. Duval. 
462. Greensbukg— J H. B. Rowe. 236 Concord. 

287. Harrisburg— W. Bohner. 222 Peffer st. 

12). Hazleton— C has. Slover. 407 W. Oak st 

288. Homestead — E dwin Rowe, jr., L. Box 527. 

208. Lancaster — J os. Smith, 229 Chester st 
206. New Castle— C. C. Norris, 382% W. \\ ash- 

ington st. 

333. New Kensington— C. S. Aulenbach. 

262. Peckville- W. J. McKelvv. 
Philadelphia— S ec District Council, John 

Watson, 2618 Jasper st., Station K. 

8. W. C. Hall, 1133 S. Nineteenth ‘t. 

227. (Kensington) John Watson, 2618 Jasper st. 

Station K. 

238. (Ger.) Joseph Oyen, 814 N. Fourth st. 

359. (Mill) J. Dueringer, Jr.. 1909 E. Huntingdon. 
Pittsburgh— S ecretary of District Council, 
J. G. Snyder, 412 Grant st. 

142. H. G. Schomaker. 126 Sheimau ave., A leg. 

164. (Ger.) P. Geek, 9 Lookout Aliev. 

165. (E. End) H. Robertson . 322 Princeton pi. 
202. O. W. McCausland. 130 Lambert st., E. E. 
230. W. J. Richey, 1601 Carson st. 

254. J. M. Kichard. 159 Mayflower st. 

402. (Ger.) Louis Pauker, 184 Industry st., 31st 
Ward. 

150. Plymouth— G. H. Edwards, Box 1040. 

145. Saykb— B enton House 

563. Scranton— H. C. Scoit, 737 Lee C urt. 

484. S. Scranton— (G er.) T. Straub, 608 Alder at. 
37. Shamokin— H. A. I, Smink, 510 E. Cameron. 
268. Sharon— S B. Craig. 

757. Taylor — G eorge Wicks, Box 45 

93. Wilkes-Barre— D A. Post, 17 Cinderella st. 

102. 44 A. H. Ayers, 63 Penn si. 

191. York— C. Snvdeman. 301 N. West st. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

176. Newport— P. B. Dawley, 18 Levin st 
342. Pawtucket— J. B. Parquet, Box 183, Valiev 
Falls. 

94. Providence— P. Dolan. 9 Lawn st. 

117. Woonsocket— J. A. Praray, 84 Orchard st. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

52 Charleston— (C ol ) John Pinckney, 36 H st. 

69. Columbia— (C ol.) C. A. Thompson, 1523 E. 
Taylor st. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

197. Lead City— W. E. McGimans, Box 794. 

TENNESSEE. 

259. Jackson— D. E. Holland, 303 Long st. 

225 Knoxville- W. W. Ramsey, 310 Fousha st. 
152. Memphis— (C ol.) D H. Harris, cor. Larasand 
Austin ave. 

219. “ Chas. Miller, 148 Daine st. 

394. 44 JE Wright, 82 Manassas st. 

TEXAS. 

300. Austin— J. B. Webb, 505 W. 11th st. 

185. Cleburne-J. C. Green, L. Box 300. 

198. Dallas— W m. W’atkins, Box 299 
371. Denison— W. W. Neighbour, 1315 W. 

Gandy st. 

Galveston— S ecretary of District Council, 
H. L. Weinberg, 1221 Ave. A. 
526. J. E Proc! or, 1414 19th s’ 

611. (Ger.) Charles L. Walter 2116 Ave. M 
114. Houston— E Shoop, 710 Capitol ave. 

53. Orange— C. B. Payne. 

460 San Antonio— (Ger.) Aug. Ries, 302 Plum. 

717. 44 41 A G. Wietzel, 135 Centre st, 

622 Waco— A. E. Wiilmer, Labor Hall. 

UTAH. 

184. Salt Lake City— A. Tracy, 976 Liberty ave 

VERMONT 

263. St. Albans — G eo. W. Bromson, 12 Lower 

Weiden st. 

WASHINGTON. 

131. SKATTLE-Fred. Blenkius, Fremont. 

98. Spokane — J. A. Anderberg, 1929 Gardner ave 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

236. Clarksburg— J . W. Stealey. 

428. Fairmount— W. R. Hickman, 428 Benoir. 
ave. 

3. Wheeling— A. L. Bauer, 1619 Jacob st. 

WISCONSIN. 

588. Green Bay— H. Meister, 1128 Cherry st, 

161. Kenosha— H. C Goseline, 7 Park Court. 

290. Lake Geneva— E d. Rowland. 

Milwaukee— S ecretary of District Council, 
Charles Heuer, 501 Twenty- fifth st. 

30. (Ger.) John Dettman. 1069 Maiden Lane. 

71. (Millwrs.) W. Trautmaun,l221 Vliet st. 

188. Aug. J. Hagen, 781 34th st. 

292. South Milwaukee- (G er.) Harry Von 
Hatten. 

302. (Ger.) 

228. (Ger.) R. Meyers, 622 Union at 

522 (Ger.) Chas. Runge. 1219 Garfield Ave. 

252. Oshkosh— C asper Fluor 69 Grove st. 

91. Racine— M. G King. 1517 Phillipsave. 

wyominü. 

267. Diamondville— F. J. McCann. 



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•*ä»r !•«»»• ap la flk.eO* 

|MO >*<lir «•» I'fva* »krf» "t 
!*••' UlRMT *14.99 

•• i • • I r«|iM’»» • hsiK 



515 CHERRY ST. f 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
manufactvrkbs or 



r , Panel 
and Rip {tau/s, 

FROM THE VERY BEST CAST STEEL. 



in Carpenters’ 
and Joiners’ 
TOOLS. 



Send for our Tool Catalogue. 



i « *» n " liem * 

THI VICUNA 

■“TTT. . .. ... I ui« I». 



LOUIS ERNST &S0NS 



|K | lit I Ml I* HI A Ml * I** 
IM. MiluMlN Frame 

^ ‘ |. ft or !4 trn h mailr 

f r ke.t .».«I... uklat, Pnr.f Iw.» nlrrr IW-iaa a ^ rl ^ - 1 [- l^dela NIMH 

**r««.r m»r+mm. Msli > nidrl «nI»»m* 1, ‘ ih r Uiilhff lw .•«.in !•>'«*' with all for »Is atul rr|»air *■ »r* 11 

caoii t'ooav . "V ut'i tV«»M «*• l ' k " 1 •°* TI1 'I ^cidlCACO ILL 

SEARS, ROEBUCK & CO. f CHICAGO, ILL. 



Warranted the Best in the World 129 & 131 East Main St 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



HAND MADE. 



ECLIPSE ADJUSTABLE FOLDING SQUARE 

I j Yff - ' i » • » »-»«mi a • 



Th« Ihr«« lllu.WAtlnn« o» th« Hell,.»« 
Adj<i.Ul>1e FoMIok Squar« »hown here- 
with, «shihit« ih« »quAir open. partially 
closed or art forengiea, end phut. Th© 
Improvement In making Folding Hqua ree 
coneiete to securing the ehort b'ede by 






two clamping platea and screw« whereby 
they ere n-bT rigid * * 



rhilr being ueed ee e 
ktni 



square It aleo'form» e locking device 
when the square te fold d. which can 
readily oe eeen by the depressed portioa 
of the clamping pletea which elide in a 
gro *ve provided for the tame. Wh« n 
cloeed it can be folded end packed in a 
ame’l cheat provided for the eeine and 
can be adjusted at right angle« ready for 
inetant mee when required. It doea away 
with cutting holes in th * top or e Idee of 
email cheete ami la protected from being 
bent or rutted when left standing or 
expoaed to the weather Further infor- 
mation may be obtained from the 
Manufacturers, ZUCK A LARK 



Cleveland, Ohio. 



R 




l.. • ■ • * > ■ 1 



.. -LeI' .i .• ,• i ifj if * * •" r ■" zjJJ- 




STANLEY’S ADJUSTABLE 

Beading, Rabbet, Slitting and Matching Plane. 

•* A rianing Mill within lUclf,”— aayu a Country Carpeutcr. 









1 ■ 

i • 











! 



i 



Wo. 45. Wickel PLted Stock and Peace, with Twenty Tool«, Bit», «tc., $S.oo 
SOLD BY ALL MASDWARS DIALERS. 





* • 



\/ 



THE CARPENTER. 




Lane’s 



BALL BEARING 



Parlor Door Hanger 



Unions 



THE 



Made 



* .• .1 .M I 







Between 47th and 48th Streets 



TELEPHONE 1030-38 



NEW YORK 




I® 5*~<> 

a *- r 



44 TRUE AS A DIE.'* 

WROUGHT STEEL LOCKS 

OROIDE FINISH 

Strong, Durable, Inexpensive 

For Sale by all Hardware Dealern 

Carpenters will appreciate the fact that the 
measurements of these locks are and Must be 
exact, as true as a die can make them. No 

» trouble and vexation in fitting 

Catalogue of Wrought Steal Locks aod Lock 
Seta, on application 

RUSSELL &. ERWIN M'F’G CO. 

Britain, Oonn. Ohioaeo. New Tork. 

Philadelphia. Baltimore. 




ball L> curing. 

Combine« all the valuable feature« of 
the ••LANE STANDARD " with t k 

the best form of BICYCLE BEAR - A 

INGS. Ask your dealer for LANE ^ 

HANGERS and «end to us for catalogue' 

We have other geeds that will Interest yeu * 

LANE BROTHERS COMPANY ' 4 V 

422-54 Prospect Street ^ * »j 

POUGHKEEPSIE. N. Y. 

C. A. Wayland’s Improved Roof Framer’s Bevel 

Th»« cut -hou- the tool In »llflrrvnt ptiatl'or« 
while* marking oil hip. valley ami jaog r*%ft*r. 

^ Thin h t lie tuo*t u«*fil ton) for root fr>n»ln* 

pver put on t ht n.tsrket Ii hanall ef lha heve**» 
fur any rafter lo or e toil. It nan ••l*t1ngu‘«*hlng 
letter« for eacti h'ade. P C f r plnmb i*ul» I* H 
A for top bevel and L C\ for level «mu t’a'penirr 

«*an'< tet • Mime«! alwvyagnt the rUhl bevel In 
WM (lie right p'ttte It htve* h*n<tl hr more* than 

one tool, it aavi « making mistake* wnVh oflen 
}Z>uliw344t ixvur In rot f framing it > a great titue aaver 

— i ,, mu I I ui I mm t P It ** wall ma«Je, ’ron handle. Mued *»i«-cl b adet. 

p I will k vefr*e with each to’>l a |trlt. led <Mag ram, 

mo intesl on wrod. of convenient *lrs* to carry to 
« Jt V Dtp p'wket. and Riven a 'hei a< flnldi I he 

HE^C .nClTa of the f-rtwoi f the Miner 

^ Vsr J coMimnn and , nu h rot N ••nablln,' the car 

£ 4 ^ 5*50 1 «enter to «et t he h'uile* tin* de-dr* <1 brvrh with- 

V* <nt any twlcula'lofi on the niter N 

\«x j y - \ ^ printed rule r«r obtaining the LeveH r«r r-.n»o 

1 f any plirh. Try ««neand f you ere not «tat I -fled 
return It within m day* and y« ur m* nay. |e«« 
transportation charge*, will he refunded. Price 
▼ f 1.00. If to be «ent by mall add 2»» cents for 

postage. Addree* C A. WAYL1ND, Box 612. Knotvilh*. Teno« ••**«•. 

FOX’S LOCK MORTISING TOOlT 






Pants 



BRAND 



PRINCIPLES 
OF 

ORGANIZED 
LABOR 
ANO 
WEAR 
UNION 
MADE 
CLOTHING. 

Oat your dealer to buy these goods- he’ll do It for the asking and you'll help the UN ION 
cause or we’ll send you tape measure, sample* and ael; measurement blank, with • 
dainty gilt edged Russia leather pocket memorandum book free. 

HAMILTON CARHARTT A COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIOAN, 

Tbo firm that la making UNION MADE nothing popular. 




AND 

Overalls 



; bl ca- 

CO 0O 



4 > 

blO 

3 

< 



09 


• w 


G 


<SJ 


O 

m 


03 

>< 




LU 



This la the Tool that saves one-hall the time in putting in Door hocks. It's the curve that 
toeeit. Why so? Because 00,000 carpet»» era say so. For sale by the trade, or sent post-paid on 
receipt of price, $1.00. Write for circular. 

P. L. FOX & CO., SOLE MANUFACTURERS 

BRIDGEPORT. CONN. 



P. C. ECKHARDT 

General Contractor $ Builder 

693 Ninth Avenue 



ANCHOR BRAND 
Adze Eye Nail Hammers. 



LARGEST MANUFACTURERS IN TNE WORLD. 

Fayatta R. Plumb, Fhlla., 

INCOIPOI ATBD. 



JESSE COX 
Attorney at Law 
HOWARD M. COX 
Mochanioal Englnaar 

PATENTS 

619 6 jf Stock Exchange 



£. Lockwood. 

CMks 1». __ 



Wc will make you to order a penknit 
like cut above, with your picture at) 
name thereon, with chamois case, for or 
dollar, or a biff two-bladed Carpenter 
Knife with German silver cap, bla* 

1 handle. 75 cents, or tortoise shell handl« 
one dollar. Blades warranted to stan \ 





La Salle and Washington Hta , Chicago ^ard woo< * coping. 

Conn* ctlon* In Waablngton, D. C. E LOCKWOOH 

190 Poplar Ht f Cbelsea f Ma- 



W. S. Thomson 

Manufacturer and Dealer in 

WOOD WORXERS’ SUPPLIES 

Pelting, Belting Hooks, Lacing, Band 
and Circular Saws, Files. Emery Wheels, 
Bsbbit Metal, Planing Machine Knives, 
Cutters, Etc. 

418 ud 420 West 27tb St. New Yerk 

All Orders by M.ll Promptly Attended To. 



1 ^}jy\ «* 

•tndrfis# 




I 










THE CARFSi/TER 



LANE'S BARN BDDR HANGERS 



Unions 



THE 



Made 



> A • . « . . 





d^LLLTäLLtTil 






••STANDARD." 



••SPBCIAlo” 50. 



We are the originators and largest makers of U-shaped hangers. Get 

the GENUINE LANE HANGER for best satisfaction. 



Pants 







ANO ^ 

OVERALLS 



AL80 LANE PARLOR DOOR HANQER8. 

Goods Sold by all Hardware Dealers. 

Send for our Catalogue of Hardware Specialties. 



LANE' BROTHERS COMPANY. 

421-54 PROSPECT ST. POUQHKEEPSIE, NEW YORK. 



Get your dealer to buy then* goods -he’ll do it for the asking and you'll help the UN lO® j 
cause or we'll send you tape measure, samples And sell measurement blank, with a 
dainty gilt edged Russia leather pocket memorandum book free. 



HAMILTON CARHARTT A COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHI8AN, 

The firm that is making UNION MADE Clothing popular. 



Norcross Brothers 



CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS 



eat 



160 Fifth Avenue, New York 
Tremont Building, Boston . . 
Worcester, Mass 



FOX'S LOCK MORTISING TOOL. 




This Is ike Tool that saves one-halt the time In pvtttlov in Door Locks. It's the curve that 
Aeas it. Why so ? Because UO.OUO carpenters say so. For sale by the trade, or sent post-paid on 
reosipt af price. 81.00. Write for circular. 

F. L. FOX Ic CO • t — 

BRIDGEPORT. GONN. 



693 Ninth Avenue 



Between 47th and 48th Street* 
TELEPHONE 1050-38 



: ?*ai 

IT ".Vi 

|B ~ 

m 



“TRUE AS A DIE.“ 

WROUGHT STEEL LOCKS 



OROIDE FINISH 

Strong, Durable, Inexpensive 

For 5 alc by all Hardware Dealers 




Carpenters will appveciate the fact that the 
measurements of these locks are and Must be 
exact, as true as a die can make them. No 
trouble and vexation in fitting .... 



Catalogue of Wrought Itssl Docks and Look 
Sots, on appUcatton 



RUSSELL & ERWIN M’F’G CO. 

Britain, Oonn. Ohloa^o. Now York. 

Philadelphia. Baltimore. 



z 


03 




L— 


O 

O 


O 

oZ 


or 


a, 




>— 


0 


cc 


s 


CO 




LxJ 


LÜ 


Ql- 


CO 


GO 

• 



u 

ba 

3 

< 



P. C. ECKHARDT 

Beneral Contractor 8t Builder 



ANCHOR BRAND 
Adze Eye Nail Hammers. 



LAR8EIT MANUFACTURERS IN TNI WORLD. 

FayBttn R. Plumb, Fhila 

INCORPORATE ». 



NEW YORK 




<*Ä 



t Lockwood. 
Chtlnca 



Adjustable and Folding H'dle D. K. 
MANUFACTURED BY 



A. J. Wilkinson & Co. 



180*188 Washington St. 

BOSTON, MAS 5 . 



We will make you to order a penknife 
like cut above, with your picture . nd 
name thereon, with chamois case, forgot 
dollar, or a big two-bladed Car|>entrdi 
Knife with German silver cap, bl.« 
handle. 75 cents, or tortoise shell han<! 
one dollar. Blades warranted to st. nd 
hard wood coping. 

E LOCKWOOD 



190 Poplar HL, 



Chelsea, Mud. 




\ +) : 

v V 




W. S. Thomson 

Manufacturer sod Dealer In 

WOOD WORKERS’ SUPPLIES 



Belting, Belting Hooks, Lacing, Band 
and Circular Saws, Files, Emery Wheels, 
Babbit Metal, Planing Machine Knives, 
Cutters, Etc. 

418 and 420 Wsat 27th 81. New Yark 

All Orders by Mail Promptly Attended To. 














f 







“PRACTICALLY 
| UNBREAKABLE 

Says the Worlds Fair Award (, 



FOR SALE BY DEALERS IN BUILDERS HARDWARE. > 



A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 



VOL. XIX.— No. 5. I 
Established 1881. ] 



PHILADELPHIA. JUNE. 1806. 



Fifty Cents Per Year. 
Single Copies, 5 Cts. 



For Quality and Finish 



“Disston” Saws and Files 



vyp manufacture our 
own steel and 
are therefore able to 
watch the quality 
closer than any other 
^saw maker. 



CANNOT 

No. 12, the Finest Saw Extant 



BE EXCELLED 



Write for our Book- 
let “ Practical Hints 
to Mechanics ” on the 
Saw, how to choose 
it and how to keep it 
in order. 



HENRY ÜISSTON & SONS, Inc.. Philadelphia, P a. 



ALL t.OODM BEARING OUR NAME ARE FULLY WARRANTED 






TAINTOR 
POSITIVE 
SAW SET 

Thousand* of lltli foal 
have been ro d, and thay 
ftro highly commended by 
ALL who uro them. 



if four Hardware Heal- 
er doe« not handle them, 
don’t take an Inferior set 
henau»* some one seys, 
*’ It’s Just as good.” 

TAINTOR MFQ. CO. 

9 to 15 MURRAY ST. 

New YORK. 



CARPENTERS’ 



APRONS 

A SPECIALTY. 



Reissmann’s Rafter and Polygon Gauge 

[Made of 3-ply veneer, size ii" x 13” x ‘ 4 ", highly polished and indestructible. 
With this ^HUge any angle or cut rt«|uired in the construction of building and roofs 
(can be obtained instantly ami with minute accuracy. Saves time for the skilled 
I mechanic and enables the ordinary workman to frame roofs with absolute cer- 
tainty. Price 50 cents postage paid. 



COST 



;s 



f nktn, of conns 19 years In busioeii, and never had n m trike - that * our labor record. 
It your dealer don't keep Keystone good*, mead In his name. 



CLEVELAND & WHITEHILL CO., Newburgh, N. Y. j 



F. RBI88MANN, We*t Polin, N. V. 



MOORE’S 

IMPROVED WROUGHT STEEL STORM 



PIKE’S LILY WASHITA 






N 



The Beat 



an Earth. 



A fast-cutting. evtn-jrltUd stone, imports a fine edge, 
grit and hsrd medium- fin e-gt it. ‘ 



Put up ii two grades — i soft medium, 

Kach stone labeled, telling whether hard or soft. 



an* guaranteed to give absolute satisfaction. The same stone mnde In gouge 

slf HI “ ..... 



ipa and all special shapes 



, All leading hardware dealers. 



Send for Catalog of Scytbe-stoneo, Oilstones, Rarer Honss, Kr fo Sharpeners, eto. 

THE PIKE MFQ. CO. PIKE STATION, N. H. 



WINOOW FASTENERS 



With these fasteners, storm windows can 
(«‘adjusted more easily, and held in place 
more securely, than in any other way yet 
Invented. 



LADDER REQUIRED. 



— 



NO 



Fastened from the inside, the only tool 
necessary being a small hammer. 

Send for Circular». 



The Stanley Works, D* P t, m. 

NEW BRITAIN, CONN. 

7g Chambers St., N. Y* 





t-*; . 



THE CARPENTER. 



HIGH grade MACHINERY STANDARD WOOD WORKING MACHINERY 




No S. Variety Wood Worker. 

A rooit valuable machine for Carpenter« 
Builders. 8a**h, Door and Blind Makers, etc., 
•a on It you can perform a variety of work 
which would otherwlae require the use of 
erveral machines. 



CARPENTERS. BUILDERS. SASH. 

DOOR, BLIND MAKERS, ETC. 1 

Estimate« on Single Mathiiis« sr KquIptnenU 

Ask for “Wood Worker" Catalogue — 

J. A. F^HV Ä CO., SoT^L*Z^r.^U^h Kit i,D Mol-Mll-H. 

j planes, one aide, 24 Incites wide by 6 Inches 

^ — 5 I 4"534 W. Front St«» Matches 12 Incites wide; 

An Invaluable machine for aemall or medium 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. sized shop 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

If In ne»<l of anything In our line permit u< t , 
finit e with jr«»u r aa we can most probabl 7 
save you money. 

Illustrated 312 page catalogue tree If yo . 
*ave good use for It. 

The Egan Company, 

406-426 W. Front Street, 

'^fc^CINCINNATI, OHIO 




FOOT S HAND POWER MACHINERY /fc*- 



COMPLETE OUTFITS. 
Carpenters and Builders without steam power 
can successfully compete with the large shop* 

hv naino mir V’ »• » I .kn. n., wi...,. 



Solo ON TRIAL. 8c*o fos Cataloouc A. 

SENECA FALLS MFG. CO. 

»* W.ter 3t., Seneca Fall«. N. Y., V. S. A. 




18 BY 20 INCHES, 
— — — • — - 

Simple, P^eneA 

Va,hJ\qlz. 

Price: 



f * V 1 1 > N M \ 1 1 1 II \T\ 



< Ihr» , or lias any detached la 
*»"i Imiv from him, ns his )»!»< 
frit, and In-. lint* may l»e th» 
non union labor. 



Ilii.s I.abrl i* 
abt nt nil inch and 
a half stjtiare and 
i« printed oil hufl 
colored pi pet It 
in placed « *ti every 
union mnitc hut 
1 »eh »re it leaves the 
v.orkmairs ltand>. 
If a dealer takes a 
la!*el from one hat 
and places it in t n- 
I* K in hi* sture, «lo 
N tiisy la' counter- 
pr* < I net ol *-cab or 



UNION MADS CLOTHES. 
TiTÜTo BY «UTHORITV S r 



sm 






PHTI 
1b 1 




THE SQUARE ROOT 
DELINEATOR 

0(^ KEY TO THE STEEL SQUARE , 

BY A. W. WOODS, 

GIVES m PLAIN FIGUfjES THE LfNGTH*. 
TfUHS, ff/SPS, PITCH, DP&fPP6, COTS AND 
BPVPLS rOff PVPN AHO UNPVPM PHeHO, 
HOPPPffJUJTS, BOAPO MEASUffC PTC., 

5fNT post'paio. PfTICt $1.00 

^HE CARPENTER. 



< U MüABVTli /Sfo-fc o 

<J WCftlSTCNCD png m 

This babel is the only positive yus sntee that 
Ready-made Clothing, including overalls and 
lack eta, is not made under the dreaded, disease- 
infested tenement houae and sweating system. 

You will find the linen label attached by ma- 
chine stitching to the inside breast pocket of 
the coat, on the inside of the buckle strap of the 
vest, and ou the waistband lining of the pants 



Harten Doscher 

MANUFACTURER SAUGATUCK, CONN. 

Carpenters’ Bench and Moulding 



Ve Make ’em, Yon Want ’em 

If you|are a carpenter, 
a contractor, a lumber 
dealer, a real estate 
agent, or if you are 
going to build a house, 

-*nd 5 cents for Hicks’ 
Illustrated Catalogue 
of artistic designs. . . 



P. HICKS 



3« Station A 
Omaha. Nan 



/Your Work 

r ^JIK If jr*»»i *r«- >ha»«t -«in-il xVaM II 

^ "»ft* * r »'• i • t -a | m 

' wry, »• t it|i . ,1 

«u« ' • «*-, »I • T f . • I • * • r * . « t «I 

f C*irr*»-|»<*«*- 1 * •>> • N ** r,* » Pa 

W ami I » r 1 1 l % >i ■ r» •< **<t *.»»*•«! at- ifettu g^e* 

An Education by Mail) 

V Still--»*» + it» fh* • r-- - » M"' l * n nt * r I’V. • A 
Hk tr»* sl K'.tfin. r \r »i »• » ir , r •»• > i J 
• ■ il I. (.••mi* t *jr-- . a»- - 

f «*•* •?» i.. •» t -r »r r I ir.it- 

ii-k’ r •«» I» - 1 1 n- Writ»» W - 

» »*• — MR. 

H "f ''k«*"k.yr ^ • - 



T5Y> 



II- * a I mil* 

kfi int«n. 
I'm. 



a 



PLANES 



Hand Made. 



handles, 

MALLETS, Ac. 



AM YOUR HARDWARE DEALER FOR 

DOSCHER'S PLANES 



TOWER Sc LYON 96 Chambers Str.ot, 

ol U J. V-FIY , NEW YORK. 



Manwfnotiirers of 



in* isi|«Rt«u(i mutt 
i — i complete line of Wood- 

/\ /\ worklww Machinery I» 

iL\/ \ the world for Cnrpon* 

f jh— 4 tors end Joiners nod 

Wood-workers gener- 

Amsrioan Wood Working 
A Ma bins 0o- 

J irfVHMOM to 

Kgy^Tr 1 i J r H Clement Oa, O Jen Cove 
Mch. oo . lul. «oodeii a 
Waters, Hoyt A Bro. Co.. 
The Levi Houston Co, 
I «Hf71 Lehman Mch Co , MUaao 

V / hoe Hander Mfg Co tt B 

Rogers A Co., Rowley A 

Hermanoe Co.. Williams 
^ > 1 gort McXl Oo., Young Bros 

Address neoreat salesroom and state yoar require- 
menu: 100 Liberty hl. Npw York 46 8. Canal Hi , 
f^bioaga 04 Pearl Hi , Boston Church and Basin 
HU . Williamsport Pa. 



ALLEN B. RORKE 

Builder <« 

% lnd 

Contractor 



Offices i — 

Philadelphia Bourse» 



..«.PHILADELPHIA 




FINE TOOLS. ~ 

Chaplin s Pat. Planes. | 

Corrugated Face or Smooth Face. 

Checkered Robber Handle« or Enameled | 
Wood Handles. 



LEVER ADJUSTMENT. 
TOWER’S CHAMPION 8CREW DRIVERS. 

f etMl. TMUd T#ngh Temptr. ’. Solid Taa;od BoltUr. Hmt» Mali FoniU. FloUd Hand!.,. 

a»w*BD or niBTATioan. 




Be sore the trade mark CHAMPION U oa eaek blade. 

Sworn Circulation of THE CARPENTER 

19,000 COPIES MONTHLY 

Best Advertising Medium for Tool Manufacturers, Wood 
Working Machinery, Hardware, Lumber and Building 
Materiale. Alto of Special Advantage to Contractors, 
Architects and Business Men. 




V I>cftign. 



Satisfaction 

is given all around when the house is 
trimmed with Sargent's Hardwa e. The 
Architect is pleased because he speci- 
fied it ; the owner is pleased each time 
he looks at the trimmings because they 
add so much to the beauty of the home, 
and everybody is pleased with the work- 
ing of Sargent's Easy Spring Locks. 

Sargent & Company, 

Makers of Artistic Hardware and Fine 

New York ; and New Haven, Conn. 







In June. 

Sre glori'iu* summer »tan*! 

In all her loveline'». 

Wild flowers in her hand 
Ktnhroiderrd on her dress 
Her radiant forehead crowned 
With wreath of rosessweet. 

And yellow kitig-cup» nodding round 
Her soft, grass sandalled feet • 
see, a*« »he turn» her face 
The amllr upon her lips ; 
see with what gentle grace 
Ileaidenthe stream she trips. 

I. et» fall from her full hand 
Wild flower» here and there 
To make an un irequentcd land 
With her own beauty fair ' 

What songs are sung to her 
To inal^e her heart rejoice 
Warm praise of worshipper 
In linntt'» tender voice 
She ha» come forth to see 
Our earth at wooing-tlde. 

And blushes nowto find that ^he 
Is greeted as the bride. 

ISA A v. II NSsF.TT ClIOATK 



Certainly a Oood Showing, 

In the past three months we char- 
tered t6 new unions, and since Feb- 
ruary ist gained 6,1X5 members in 
good standing. On February ist last 
we had 30,66« > beneficial members and 
on June ist the membership increased 
to 37.115 beneficial members. In 
April our gain was 2,663 members, 
and in May 3,205 The prospects are 
still better for a larger increase this 
month, 

Successlul Trade Movements Among 
Carpenters This Season. 

Ou April ist, Union 1X2, I.lma, O., 
established the nine-hour day. Union 
31. Trenton, N J., secured the eight- 
hour day Saturdays, with nine hours 
per day the other five days of the 
w^k, making fifty- three hours per 
week. Union 1X5, Cleburne, Tex., got 
the nine-hour day and Union 25«», 
Jackson, Tenn., made an advance of 
five cents per hour, and inaugurated 
the nine hour rule. 

Union 716, Zanesville, ()., on April 
ist, established an excellent code of 
trade rules and the nine hour day in 
the planing mills of that city, as it 
had beeu the rule on outside carpenter 
work several years. 

In E. St. I.ouls, 111 ., Union 169 de 
dared a strike, April ist, for the eight- 
hour day and enforcement of trade 
rules and won in less than two days. 

Boulder, Colo., carpenters instituted 
the eight hour day without opposition. 
Union 55, Denver, Colo., secured a 
standard rate of S3 per day and eight- 
hours, May ist, and had no trouble to 
get it by thorough organization. 

On May ist, by decisive stands 
made by our carpenters' unions in 



Pittsburg, Pa. ; Springfield, Mass ; 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Cleveland, O., Chi- 
cago, Springfield, 111 . ; Muncie, Ind. ; 
Passaic, N. J. ; Torrington, Conn. ; 
Perth Amboy, N. J., and Peckville, 
Pa., wages have been advanced and 
union trade rules enforced for the pro- 
tection of the craft. 

Marion, Ind., carpenters went out 
May 16th and were four weeks on 
strike, to establish trade rules and 
nine hours a day, and finally were vic- 
torious. 

Union carpenters in Belleville, 111 .: 
Elizabeth, N. J.; Jersey City, N. J.: 
Hoboken, N. J : Bayonne, N. J., and 
New Rochelle, N. Y., were successful 
in winning the eight-hour day last 
month with very little trouble, and 
all through the power of unionism. 

On June is f Union i8«j, 'Juincy, 111 ., 
ordered a strike to establish trade 
rules and the contractors capitulated 
the third day. 

Strikes of Carpenters Now In 
Progress. 

The members of Carpenters Union 
7X, Troy, N. Y., have been out on 
strike since April ist for a restoration 
of the old scale ol wages and the ob- 
servance of trade rules. For over ten 
weeks the ranks have remained un- 
broken. All the building trades are 
out together in this fight. 

Memphis, Tenn. — Members of the 
U. B. are on strike against the Cole 
Manufacturing Company. 

Oi R members are on strike in 
Scranton, Pa., and Winnipeg. Mani- 
toba. In Scranton the fight is for the 
eight- hour day and trade rules, and 
the men have been out since June ist. 
In Winnipeg the men are on strike 
since May ist for the nine-hour day 
and a standard of 30 cents per hour. 

The Carpenters Unions of Wilkes- 
barre. Pa , established the nine-hour 
day, May ist, without any difficulty, 
but now the Builders FJxchange 
refuses to concede the minimum wage 
asked for by the unions and a strike 
is imminent this month. 

Schenectady, N. Y.— All the 
members of Union 146 were locked 
out on 17th inst., and the contractors 
demand severance of our connection 
with the Building Trades Council of 
this city. We declined to withdraw 
from the Council and propose to fight 
it out. 

Peekskill, N. Y. — Members of 
Union 163 are on strike against Hop- 
kins & Co., and a few other firms, 
which refuse to comply with union 
terms. 



Success of the Eight-hour Movement. 

The eight hour law went into effect 
in British Columbia on the 12th inst. 



The Filipino and American Peace 
Commissioners hold eight-hoar ses- 
sions. 



The Union Painters of Denver, 
Colorado, have won their demand, 
52.. So, and the eight-hour day. 



T he New Haven Railroad has issued 
an order making eight hours a full 
working day for its employees. 



Union No. 714 of Flushing, N. Y., 
has succeeded in securing the eight- 
hour day and $3 00 scale of wages. 



At New Rochelle, N. Y., l.ocal 
Union No. 42, has been successful 
since May ist, in securing the eight- 
hour day. 



A dispatch from Centerville, Iowa, 
states that the miners’ and operators’ 
joint conference has agreed to an eight- 
hour day. 



The bricklayersof Syracuse, N. Y., 
have been conceded forty- five cents 
an hour instead of forty, and the 
eight-hour day. 



The eight-hour day has been adop- 
ted by the City Council of Memphis, 
Tenn., for all laborers and mechanics 
working for the municipality. 



The carpenters’ strike in Cleveland, 
O., is ended. The men have been 
conceded twenty-seven and one half 
cents an hour with an eight-hour day. 



The International Miners’ Congress, 
which is sitting at Brussels, has voted 
by an immense majority in favor of 
the enforcement of a legal eight-hour 
day. 



Practically all the Des Moines, 
Iowa, mines have conceded the de- 
mands of the miners for an eight-hour 
day, anu the continuation of the winter 
scale all the year round. 



The demands of the Jersey City 
bricklayers and masons for an eight- 
hour day and compensation at the 
rate of forty five cents an hour, have 
been conceded by the employers. 



A strong local of the Brotherhood 
was Installed in Hershberger's Hall, 
Pittsburg, Pa., last week. The charter 
will be kept open until July ist, when 
it is expected to have a membership 
of fully 200. 



The sewer laborers and contractors 
of Detroit, Mich., have compromised 
their differences on the basis of eight 
hours instead of ten. $1.30 for men 
above ground, $1.50 for men below 
and #2 80 for bricklayers. 



The eight-hour situation at Ward, 
Colo., has been settled. Three dol- 
lars per day will be paid by the big 
mines for eight hours’ work. The 
Boulder County mines are all busy 
and promise a good output. 



Union No. 167 of Elizabeth, 
N. J., have gained the eight-hour 
day and everything is moving along 
smoothly. The membership is rap- 
idly increasing. The plumbers and 
tinners have been organized. 



In New York State, Factory In- 
spector John Williams has made a 
decision to the eflect that the em- 
ployees of the Street Cleaning De- 
partment come under the provisions of 
the eight hoar law, P. J. McNulty, 
the walking delegate of the Hostlers 
and Drivers Union, which takes in the 
street cleaners, lias been instructed by 
the union to ask the Mayor to see 
that the provisions of the law are 
strictly enforced. 



The Mason Builders’ Association 
has conceded the demands of the 
Laborers’ Union of New York and 
Brooklyn for thirty-three cents an 
hour (an 1 l crease of three cents), the 
eight-hour work day and the Satur- 
day half holiday. An agreement for 
a year embodying these terms has 
been signed. The agreement also 
provides that the laborers are to re- 
ceive double wages when they work 
overtime, and at the rate of time and 
half when they work on holidays. 

( Continued on page •* ) 








THE CARPENTER. 




A Question of Economics. 

BY SAM. L. LKKPINGWKLL. 

OMETHING ot an object 
lesson came under my ob- 
servation, a few mornings 
ago as illustrating an uttei 
ignorance if not total in- 
difference as to the use and applica- 
tion of a vote in the exercise of 
sovereignty in the franchise. One of 
my neighbors is a carpenter. He 
does not belong to the union as he 
considers himself a sort of contractor 
— that is, he takes plans already pre- 
pared, the copying, dimensions, 
lumber, etc., and puts the material 
together till it assumes the altitude 
and conditions of a house or dwelling 
place. Upon inquiry he complained 
that business during the winter had 
been only fair — nothing to brag of. 

44 But,” I suggested, 44 the premises are 
bright for a lively season in the 
building line, from the number of 
permits announced in the dailies— 
even more so than at this period last 
year.” 

44 It may appear so ” said he, 41 but 
the fact is lumber is too high, and is 
still going up in price. Now it has 
gone up about two dollars a thousand 
in the last month. Why the fact is it 
is affecting men of large means and 
men of smail means, and working 
people who might have any notion of 
venturing into projects to build them- 
selves homes are utterly discouraged. 
They fear to tackle the increased 
expense ” 

41 Did you ever give any thought, 99 
said I, “to the cause or reason for 
this advance in the price of lumber ?” 

44 No,’* said he, 44 unless it is that 
several of the larger lumber companies 
have joined together to raise the 
price. 99 

44 What enables them to do this, 
John ? ’* said I. 

44 1 don’t know, unless it is because 
they have all the money on their 

( side; can afford to buy largely and let 
the lumber lie in their yards if no one 
r wants to buy at their prices . 99 

4 4 John, ’’said I, 44 don’t you know 
that there is a government tax upon 
every inch of lumber that is brought 
into the country from foreign fields ? 
Don’t you know that all the lumber 
thus brought in — imported — has to 
pay a tax of one dollar or two dollars 
— it has been as high as two dollars — 
upon every thousand feet before it 
can be considered as entered ? ” 

44 But that is to protect our own 
lumber, the lumber produced in this 
country, M said John. 

“Yes, I know that is the theory, 
John ; but how does it protect it ? 
Who gets the benefit of the protec- 
tion ? M 

44 Why, I suppose the producers of 
lumber in this country who are thus 
protected against foreign competi- 
tion.” 

44 Is that all, John ? Does the gov- 
ernment, which imposes this tax, 
receive no benefit t 99 

44 1 suppose the government gets 
the benefit of what tax is paid on the 
lumber brought in as revenue." 

44 But how are the producers of lum- 
ber in our own country benefited ? 99 
44 Why, by keeping out the foreign 
lumber, of course/ 1 



44 Then you believe that without 
the government tax there could be 
more lumber brought into the country 
and lumber would be cheaper ? ** 

“Well, yes, that would be the 
case." 

“ Then our own product would cost 
no more than the price of foreign 
lumber? ” 

“ Well, it looks that way.” 

“Don’t you know, John, that the 
absence of foreign lumber is not the 
only advantage to be leaped by the 
home producer, in the imposition ot 
two dollars per thousand tax on the 
foreign product? Don’t you know 
that upon every thousand feet of 
lumber produced and put upon the 
market in our country, the two dol- 
lars— or whatever the tax upon the 
foreign product may be— is added 
to the home producing price of 
the lumber before it reaches the buyer 
or consumer ? 99 

“ I suppose that is so.” 

4 4 Well, does not that make the 
lumber dearer to the buyer of lumber 
the consumer— the house builder — 
the man who wants the house built ; 
the man who wants lumber for any 
purpose? Doesn’t the higher price 
of lumber deter a larger number of 
people from investing in building im- 
provements? Doesn’t it prevent, 
in a large measure, the man of mod- 
erate means from venturing in the en- 
terprise of a new homestead ? Does 
it not decimate the uses to which 
lumber can be applied, cripple the 
efforts of the artisan and mechanic, 
lessen the demand for labor in all 
branches of the building trade and 
cause hundreds to remain idle and in- 
active who might otherwise be em 
ployed in useful avocations providing 
for themselves and dependents and 
bringing happiness and contentment 
to thousands otherwise desolate and 
despondent ? M 

“I never looked at it in that way.” 

“Well, you want to look at it in 
its true light. You want to investi- 
gate it and give it serious, unbiased 
thought. You want to remember also 
that there is no power under the Con- 
stitution by which Congress can pass 
any kind of a law that takes the money 
out of the pockets of one class of 
people and puts it into the pockets of 
another class. Congress has power 
only to levy taxes and excises as' a rev- 
enue to meet the expenses of an econ- 
omic government. That may look 
like talking politics, John, but there 
is nothing partisan in it. I want to 
impress upon your mind that the man 
who foMows blindly the line of party 
politics, and in the exercise of sover- 
eignty casts his vote in such manner 
as to increase the burdens which 
weigh upon himself and others of his 
class, is little fitted to express judg- 
ment upon the betterment of condi- 
tions. Politics, John, is the science 
of government, in its best sense, but 
when manipulated by bad, designing 
men, inspired by methods of cor *upt 
purposes, it becomes the tool of polit- 
ical tricksters, and the honest, well- 
intending mass es are most generally 
the victims of deception and fraud, in 
class legislation, benefiting only the 
very few, already well-todo, at the 
expense of the many, contending and 
struggling for the right to maintain 
what, at best, is a mere existence.’ 1 



44 Well,” said John, “I never was 
much of a politician ; I never gave it 
much thought ; I seldom go the polls , 

I sometimes go when there is hot 
contest here in the city, but I don’t 
go much on party'. They’re all alike to 
nie — one is about as had as the other, 

“ That’s all right, John, Jrom your 
standpoint,” said I, 44 but without 
questioning your party* affiliation, 
would it not bt some satisfaction to 
you to know that, after weighing the 
results in your mind you had cast 
your vote in such manner as would 
bring about an improvement of your 
condition and better enable you to 
provide for the necessities of your 
large and growing family of depen- 
dents, than to find that you had 
assisted in bringing about a state of 
affairs which daily and hourly erip- 
p’ed your responsibilities, brought 
additional burdens upon your advanc- 
ing years and caused you to conclude 
that life was not worth the living.” 

John assumed a somewhat reflective 
mien, and, with the compliments of 
a bright Sunday morning, we parted. 

Now, this does not only apply to 
John, the carpenter, but its application 
is just as strong in other directions. 
It has peculiar significance as apply- 
ing to any and every class of working- 
men, and to trade unionists it should 
be a serious matter of thought. It is 
not necej*. iry, nor is it proper to in- 
troduce the discussion of partisan 
politics into the business of a trade 
union ; that would be foreign to the 
purposes and designs of the organiza- 
tion. But there is certainly nothing 
in trades unionism that forbids or 
prevents a man from entertaining be- 
lief or opinion on any subject worthy 
of thought— religious, political or 
otherwise ; and as the question of 
economics is one in which he is im- 
mediately— vitally— interested, the 

quantity of dollars ami cents which he 
may count up to his profit or loss be- 
comes one of most essential consider- 
ation. Weknow it is a serious adven- 
ture to tramp on the toes of a strictly 
party adherent ; but, to express an 
individual belief, the man who would 
coolly, calmly, almost maliciously, 
cast a vote to increase, by tax of any 
kind, a drain upon his resources, 
without remunerative increase in his 
income, should be considered as one 
incapable of regO ling his own affairs. 
To conclude with a passing thought, 
the man who votes for the adoption 
of measures that will increase the cost 
of his necessities to $u>o a year over 
what it was the year previous, and 
plods the year through without in- 
crease in his earnings over that of the 
previous year, is forced to a reduction 
of about $2 a week in his wages. 

That is plain enough, and sensible 
and reflective met may give it what 
consideration they please. 



Information Wanted 

Concerning the whereabouts of 
Frank E. Thompson, of 370 West 1 27th 
street, New York city, who disap- 
peared from his home on April ist. 
He was a member of Ix>cal Union 
509. Please communicate with Wil- 
liam Nicholson, 482 Brook avenue, 
New York, or with P. J. McGuire, 
Box 884, Philadelphia, Pa. 



New Labor Saving Device. 

A report from London says that the 
latest device in the way of labor-sav- 
ing machinery is described as a 
44 mechanical bricklayer ” for use in 
44 automatically laying, cementing 
and leveling bricks, slabs and stones 
in the construction of fortifications, 
piers, bridges, viaducts, warehouses, 
dwelling houses and buildings of 
every description.” 

Such an apparatus has bet n 
patented in Great Britain and abroad 
by \ Birmingham consulting engineer 
and his son, who say that it will save 
two thirds of the time occupied in 
laying bricks by hand. 



Spinning Metal. 

James II. Bevington.a Cleveland, 
Ohio, inventor of note, has completed 
a device for spinning metal which 
promises to work important changes 
in various lines of metal man 11 fact tir- 
ing. The principle upon which tht 
discovery is based is extremely sim- 
ple. The metal that is spun is in 
tubular form, and is placed in a lathe, 
which turns at the rate of i.Soo revo- 
lutions a minute. In a moment's 
time the metal becomes hot and soli 
ens from the friction and can then be 
shaped by the operator, according to 
his wishes The tool, which consists 
of hard steel jaws, touching on eithei 
side of the revolving tube, can be 
readily engaged to any desired width 
and the softened natal nuy be spun 
down by means of pressure to any 
size or shape, so long as a ciieular 
for 111 is retained 



Filipino Actors Admitted. 

Mr. Powderly, the Commissiotier- 
General of Immigration, with the ap 
proval of the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, has issued instructions to the 
officials of his service at San Fran- 
cisco to land the company of Filipino 
actors who have been detained there 
some weeks pending a final determin- 
ation of the case. 

In the course of his letter Mr. Pow- 
derly says that the persons who have 
a contract with the Filipinos, and 
who were instrumental in bringing 
them to this country, assert that it 
was their intention “to procure the 
services of natives of the Philippine 
islands who w lid lie fair types of the 
people of that race. That in addition 
they should be competent to illustrate 
the domestic life, habits and customs 
of their countrymen, and that they 
should be actors of such recogni/.td 
ability as to enable them to faithfully 
portray, as actors, the scenes and 
incidents of life in the Philippines ’ 

Continuing, M*. Powderly says: 
44 The testimony given in this case 
goes to show that the appellants are 
actors, and that their performance was 
witnessed by one who testified to that 
fact. It is true that they follow other 
occupations, but that is also true of 
many well known actors in the United 
States. The point raised as to their 
-compensation is not material, since 
there is no recognized rule or standard 
by which managers of theatres are 
governed in paying the salaries oi 
actors / 9 v 







* 



r 







THE CARPENTER. 



Cuba’* Undeveloped Resource*. 



UBANSart learning Ameri- 
can ways very quickly 
says the correspondent of 
the Philadelphia ZWss. 
Although wages have 
been generally increased, and in no 
case has there been a decrease, yet a 
number of strikes have taken place 
•ince January ist, including one by 
the railroad employees. Under Span- 
ish rule there never was, so far as can 
be learned, more than one important 
strike on the island. The way the 
Spanish ended that strike discouraged 
further efforts by workmen in that 
direction. 

It was a strike of longshoremer .it 
Cienfuegos in 1891. The strikers 
were arrested and deported as crimi- 
nals. And yet some of those same 
men, who returned to Cienfuegos, 
after having received under American 
rule an increase of 50 cents a day in 
their wages, struck for more in April 
last, and put the government officials 
to considerable trouble. There is a 
little too much of that kind of " grati- 
tude ” shown on the part of a cer- 
tain class of Cubans to make it 
pleasant. 

With more freedom the workmen, 
who already have organizations of 
their own, will no doubt become a 
power. This will be particularly true 
of the cigar makers in Havana. There 
are many thousands engaged in that 
trade, as there are 125 large cigar 
manufactories in the city and a very 
large number of small ones. These 
workmen have already shown their 
power in refnsing to dispense with 
readers. It is the custom for the fac- 
tories to employ persons to read aloud 
to the men while at work. The num- 
ber of readers must be great enough 
ao that the workmen can all be wilhin 
hearing distance of a reader. 

The selections are of a varied char- 
acter, but principally romances. This 
entails a considerable exj>ense on em- 
ployers, but all attempts to break up 
the practice have caused so much 
trouble that readers are still em- 
ployed. 

There are many odd things to 
American eyes in Cuba. For one 
thing there are no chimneys on the 
houses. There is little need of ever 
heating the houses, and no provision 
is made for that purpose. The cook- 
ing is done with charcoal, hence there 
is no need of chimneys for any pur- 
pose. The exception is in the case of 
factories and large establishments 
using steam power. 

When a Cuban motions to a person 
to draw nearer he opens the palms of 
his hands and makes a movement 
exactly the opposite from that used in 
the United States— in other words, an 
American, unless aware of this pecu- 
liarity, thinks the Cuban is beckon, 
ing to go away from him. When try- 
ing to arrest the attention of a person 
the Cuban utters a hiss. The Ameri- 
can is liable to mistake this for an 
insult. 

• While sea bathing ought to be pop- 
ular here it is done under difficulties. 
The haibor water is so dirty that only 
urchins bathe in it. At Playa de 
Mariano, a suburb on the ocean front, 
the water is so clear that the bottom 
can be aeen at a depth of twenty feet. 
But in Havana harbor the bottom 



cannot be seen at a greater depth than 
two feet. The presence of sharks 
makes bathers cautious. 

But the coral rock bottom is a still 
greater objection. At several points 
the coral bottom has been hollowed 
out and fenced in, so as to make 
bathing safe. A charge is made for 
bathing at such places. 

The clearness of the water about the 
island is remarkable. Around Bata- 
bano, the port south of Havana, where 
sponge “ fishing ” is carried on wholly 
by naked divers, the water is exceed- 
ingly clear. Going eastward on the 
Menendez line of steamers for Sant- 
iago for a distance of 100 miles the 
white coral bottom of the sea can be 
distinctly seen. The fishes and marine 
plants, including occasional sharks 
and other large fish, make the voyage 
a peculiarly interesting one. This 
shoal water, however, does not pre- 
vail for only a part of the distance to 
Santiago. 

The numerous species of fish, over 
600, found in the waters of the island, 
make that along the coast a very gen- 
eral article of food. Crustaceans, such 
as lobsters, shrimps and crabs, are 
numerous. Oysters can be found in 
great quantities on the mangrove 
bushes and other vegetation growing 
along the water’s edge, but while 
numerous they are too small to be 
used much in any way excepting raw. 
Two dozen of them are generally 
served at one time. The repulsive- 
looking land crabs are used by the 
natives for food. They are numerous 
along the eastern coast, and cross ir 
armies of millions from one shore to 
the other. They grow to over eight 
inches in diameter, and are ver> pug- 
nacious. The marching of this army 
of crabs is accompanied with a very 
disagreeable noise. They will climb 
vertical walls and dig tunnels and 
thus oveicoine obstructions. 

Excepting on high ground, swept 
by the trade winds, Cuba, in the 
matter of mosquitoes, is worse than 
New Jersey. Flies are another similar 
nuisance. Ants, ‘'jiggers,” scor- 
pions, lizards, centipedes, tarantulas 
and other such animals are plentiful, 
but the bites of the poisonous ones 
are rarely fatal. 

The same thing is true of snakes, of 
which, however, there are few varie- 
ties on the island. There are no 
rattlesnakes, copperheads *\nd other 
sn; common in the United States. 
The largest snake found in Cuba is 
the “ waja." It is not poisonous and 
never attacks human beings, though 
it sometimes grows to a length ot 
eighteen feet and a diameter of eight 
inches. This snake lives near houses 
or barns, and is fond of poultry. 
Game is plentiful, such as rabbits, 
deer, wild boar, wild fowl, which 
come from the north in the winter 
season, wild turkey and guineas, and 
numerous birds, some of which are 
not found in the United States. 

Humboldt long ago remarked on 
the strange fact that in Cuba can be 
found, almost side by side, the vege- 
tation of both colder and warmer 
countries. On the Isle of Pines, 
mahogany and pine trees grow near 
together. The pine tree is also found 
on the mainland. The 16,000,000 
acres or more of untouched forests 
may even contain timber not known 
to be on the island, as there are vast 



tracts of forest land which have never 
been explored. 

There are thirty-five kinds of palm 
trees, all of which have some specific 
value. Ebony, Hgnum-vitae, Cuban 
cedar, mahogany, logwood and other 
dye woods, and numerous other woods 
are exported to some extent But the 
lack of roads and trauspo»tation facili- 
ties retards the growth of that indus- 
try. Where there are good transpor- 
tation facilities, which are rare, wood- 
land will bring high prices. But 
similar land will sell for one-hundredth 
part as much when situated even a 
comparatively short distance away 
from the transportation routes. 

In the Isle of Pines, which perma- 
nently belongs to the United States, 
there will be opportunity for Ameri- 
cans to try both the lumber business 
and the cultivation of the ground. 
That island is about sixty miles long 
and twenty-five miles wide. It has 
less than 2,000 of population. It has 
a large growth of pine, as well as of 
cedar and other woods. 

A number of Americans have been 
to the island to look over the ground 
with a view to fruit culture. Catch- 
ing turtles is one of the island’s in- 
dustries. It is really two islands 
connected by rocky ledges through a 
swamp There are said tobe valuable 
minerals on it, but there has been no 
satisfactory investigation of its capa- 
bilities, and it lacks a good harbor, 
while the water is too shoal for large 
vessels to enter any of the ports. 

Intoxicated bees are one of the 
curious things to be seen in Cuba. 
Rum is a by-product of sugar mak- 
ing, and the bees often desert the 
sugar to sip the rum. The result is 
amusing. Cuba is a great place for 
the bees. Flowers bloom all the year, 
while the sugar mills are attractions. 
The bees do not go into winter quar- 
ters, as they do in the United States, 
but can work every day in the year. 
Still there has been no attempt at 
systematic apiculture. The exports 
of wild honey and beeswax amount to 
nearly $75,000 worth in normal times. 
If systematically conducted, the pro- 
duction of honey should prove a very 
profitable industry. 

The field for development in Cuba 
seems unlimited. There are particu- 
larly no banking facilities outside of 
two or three cities, and they are very 
limited in those cities. There is not 
a regular savings bank on the island. 
Until the United States government 
established the postal money order 
business here there were no facilities 
for sending small sums of money to 
interior towns, excepting the risky 
one of putting the money in a letter. 

Banking as known and understood 
in the United States is unknown in 
Cuba, excepting in Havana. There 
are note shavers and money lenders, 
who, having no banks to compete 
with, have been in the habit of driv- 
ing hard bargains. A banking system 
is one of the great needs of the island. 
As the British Foreign Office says 
that there is $50,000,000 of British 
and French capital invested in Cuba, 
there is hope expressed here by Cu- 
bans for further aid in capital from 
those nations. But capital will not 
be invested in Cuba to any extent 
until the island has a permanent gov- 
ernment th*t will be satisfactory to 
capitalists, There will not, in this 



generation, be any such satisfactory 
government in Cuba unless it is that 
of the United States. 



Is Civilization Really Worth While? 



Why civilize the Filipinos ? Is it 
a good thing that the Japanese and 
Chinese, under the touch of Western 
life, areawakening to 4 ‘become as one 
of us ? ” Is civilization worth while ? 
Does it not mean the jostling of these 
primitive folk out from their placid 
order into the turmoil of our con- 
tentious state ? These are questions 
now being asked, loudly by the pes- 
simist, timidly by the optimist. A 
gentleman late returned from Japan 
said : “ It seems a pity to disturb the 
Arcadian simplicity of those gentle 
people by bringing them into our 
fevered social and commercial condi- 
tions ” 

It has always been our way, in 
certain moods, to contemplate with 
envy the content of ignorance. We 
sometimes covet the peace of the day 
laborer, as he leans back against the 
wall to snooze in the run after his 
morning toil and his midday lunch ; 
he has no cat king worry such as ours ; 
he is called from labor to refreshment, 
and his “ little life is rounded with a 
sleep.” We at times count the swine 
fortunate in his sty when our 
harassments overwhelm us. But this 
is all a mistake 

Swine, bumpkin and child are not 
happier than we, with our troubles of 
conscience and of duty. They are not 
so happy as we because they are not 
so unhappy. The capacity for joy is 
mersured by the capacity for sorrow. 
Life Is no higher than it is deep. The 
child’s laughter is as superficial as 
his tears. So when the Christ said 
He came to us that our "joy might 
be full," we think it is a strange 
statement, observing Him to be “a 
man of sorrows and acquainted with 
grief, "until we come to understand 
that it was only by showing the 
world how to suffer divinely, how to 
take the burden of all men’s wretch* 
edness within our heart, that we 
could be taught how to be glad 
divinely, how to know " the peace of 
God which passeth all understanding.” 

Japanese, Filipinos, Chinese, all 
heathen peoples, will find the program 
of Christian civilization to be no 
primrose path of dalliance. They will 
enter at once into no ideal social and 
governmental form, any more than 
have we ourselves. Bat the call of 
destiny has come to them in this 
nineteenth century, and, will they or 
nil they, there is for them only to 
take up their cross and go, through 
much struggling, to 41 the joy that is 
set before them." The larger life ot 
to-morrow can be born only by the 
travail of to-day. 

Salvation — civilization : both mean 
the rising of man from the lower to 
the higher life. Salvation is the 
Father’s uplift ; civilization is the 
upward push of mutual effort. The 
Father’s aid comes down by the cross : 
the brother's aid comes up by the way 
of the cross. Salvation — civilization : 
there is neither without Calvary. 

Frank Crans, 





1 




> -A 



4 



THE CARPENTER. 




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' | 



Trade Notes. 

Sprinoitelo, 111. — I'very union 
carpenter In this city is at work, and 
several large jobs have been union- 
ized during the past few weeks. 

New York City — Brother Thomas 
McOueen has been elected president 
of Local Union 509, to succeed Brother 
Alexander Nichol, who has gone to 
Mexico. 

v* 

Carpenters I nion No. 32. of Brook- 
lyn Borough, N Y., has reimbursed 
four members for the loss of their 
tools in the fire in Bierschenk 's shops 

„«* 

New Castle, I’a. — The union is in 
an exceedingly healthy condition. 
Within a short period we initiated 
fifty-six new members and reinstated 
quite a large number. 

Leavenworth, Kan —Local Union 
499 has succeeded in obtaining the 
eight-hour working day for its mem- 
bers, and this will certainly have the 
effect of largely increasing their 
number. 

Kansas City, Kans.— Brother W. 
F. Jones has been elected Recording 
Secretary of Local Union 138, vice- 
Brother H. K Clark resigned Brother 
K. D Cole has been elected Vice- 
President to succeed Brother O. B. 
Fuller. 

Holyoke, Mass. — Local Union 105 
held a grand mass meeting during the 
last week in May and another big 
demonstration at the beginning of the 
present month. They have a flour- 
ishing Union and the members are 
greatly encouraged. 



Paterson, N. J.— Work is plenti- 
ful here and wages are from 22'. to 
28 cents an hour, as against 20 and 
25 cents the prices paid during the 
past two years. Within twelve months 
ninety new members have been 
initiated in Local Union 325, and 
there is a forward movement for the 
union scale of wages and bttter con- 
ditions. 

* 

Bi tte, Mont —The union has won 
a big victory here. The Anaconda 
Company put up one of their scab 
carpenters for alderman in the fifth 
w- rd which is composed of a vety 
undesirable class of citizens. The 
union had a committee at work night 
and day for two weeks, and on elec- 
tion day the unsavory candidate was 
completely snowed under. 

City 01 Mexico. — Many improve- 
ments are in progress in Tampico. 
One of the most important is the 
erection of a large custom house. 
American bricklayers are in great 
demand there, the rate of wages for a 
first-class man being SS 00 per day. 
The government will begin the con- 
struction of new wharves there as 
soon as the custom house is completed. 
These will probably be constructed of 
stone. 
jA 

Sot th Omaha, Neb — Trade rules, 
eight hours and 30 cents per hour 
have' been adopted here and the con- 
tractors are willing to concede the 
demands, provided the men go easy 
with them on jobs now in course of 
erection. No trouble is anticipated. 
This will soon be one of the best union 
towns in the West Work is plentiful 
and there is a demand for first class 
carpenters. The work of organization 
is being pushed ahead. 



Louisville, Ky.— The carpenters 
and joiners of I«ouisville, Ky., have 
adopted a set of resolutions for pre- 
sentation to the Typographical Union 
of that city for the interest it took in 
having none but union carpenters 
employed on the Courier Journal 
building. 

Jersey City, N. J.— The bosses 
have conceded the eight hour work- 
ing day with an increase in wages. 
There are not many idle mechanics in 
this city at present. Hoboken has 
also been added to the list of eight- 
hour cities, and soon other points in 
New Jersey will be in line. 
jA 

San Francisco, Cal — The work 
of organization both here and in Oak- 
land is making considerable headway, 
and the unions are rapidly Increasing 
in membership. The reports from all 
sections of the coast are gratifying 
and encouraging, and indicate a 
general interest in the movement. 

Memphis, Tenn. The men em- 
ployed by the Cole Manufacturing 
Company, general wood workers, have 
been on strike for several weeks. The 
District Council did all it could to 
avert such action, but owing to the 
general dissatisfaction among the men 
because of frequent reduction of wages, 
and the unwillingness of the firm to 
listen to reason, a strike was ordered. 
The men are confident of success. 



An active building reason has set 
in. The increase in New York for 
March over March of last year was 75 
per cent ; Brooklyn, 29 per cent. In 
Chicago general neglect to build fire 
escapes is complained of, and over a 
thousand notices have been sent to 
owners. At Cleveland 3000 carpen- 
ters were granted the eight hour day 
and 27 yi cents an hour. Denver is to 
have a $400,000 auditoiium. A build- 
ing boom is on in Hartford, Conn. 

Minneapolis, Minn —The union 
is getting the scale and hours 
demanded. Only seven scab firms in 
the city, and these are classed as 
small contractors. The Building 
Trades Council has sixteen different 
trades affiliated with it and a B. T. C. 
working card has been adopted. This 
has resulted in putting all of the 
building trades, including the car- 
penters, squarely on their feet. The 
wood workers of the city number 
nearly 600 and as they are also 
affiliated with the B T. C. they are 
allowed to work side by side with 
carpenters. All cabinetmakers and 
stairbuilders belong to the wood 
workers. 

I EBkskill, N. Y. The members 
of Union 163 are making a determined 
stand against the firm of Hopkins & 
Co. The men are well organized, and 
have decided that all their grievances 
must be thorpoghly and speedily ad- 
justed. r 



New Law Affecting Public Works In 
New York. 



The following is the text of the 
new bill signed by Governor Roose- 
velt The labor unions of the state 
will see to it that the provisions are 
faithfully complied with : 

“ An act to amend Chapter 415 of 
the Laws of 1S97, entitled * An Act in 
Relation to Labor, constituting 
Chapter 32 of the general laws’ rela- 
tive to the hours of labor and the 
prevailing rate of wages. 

“Section 1. Section third of 
Chapter 415 of the laws of 1897, 
entitled 1 An Act in relation to labor, 
constituting Chapter 32 of the general 
laws , 9 is hereby amended to read as 
follows : 

“ Eight hours shall constitute a 
legal day’s work for all classes of 
employees in this state except those 
engaged in farm and domestic service 
unless otherwise provided by law’. 
This section does not prevent an 
agreement for overwork at an increased 
compensation except upon work by or 
for the state or a municipal corpora- 
tion or by contractors or sub con- 
tactors therewith. 

“ Each contract to which the state 
or a municipal corporation is «1 party 
which may involve the employment 
of laborers, workmen or mechanics 
shall contain a stipulation that no 
laborer, w’orkman or mechanic in the 
employ of the contractor, sub con- 
tractor or other person doing or con- 
tracting to do the whole or a patt of 
the work contemplated by the con- 
tract, shall be permitted or required 
to work more than eight hours in any 
one calendar day, except in cases of 
extraordinary emergency caused by 
fire, flood or danger to life or property. 

“ The wages to be paid for a legal 
day’s work as hereinbefore defined to 
all classes of such laborers, workmen 
or mechanics upon all such public 
work or upon any material to be used 
upon or in connection therewith shall 
not be less than the prevai ing rate 
for a day’s work in the same trade or 
occupation in the locality within the 
state where such public w’ork on, 
about or in connection with which 
such labor is performed in its final or 
completed form is to be situated, 
erected or used. 

1 * Each such contract hereafter made 
shall contain a stipulation that each 
such laborer, workman or mechanic 
employed by such contractor, sub- 
contractor or other person, on, about 
or upon such public work, shall 
receive such wages herein provided 
for. 

“ Each contract for such public 
work hereafter made shall contain a 
provision that the same shall be void 
and of no effect unless the person or 
corporation making or performing the 
same shall comply with the provis- 
ions of this section ; and no such per- 
son or corporation shall be entitled to 
receive any sum, nor shall any officer, 
agent or employee of the state or of a 
municipal corporation pay the same 
or authoiize its payment from the 
funds under his charge or control to 
any such person or corporation for 
work done upon any contract which 
in its r orm or manner of performance 
violates the provisions of this section, 
but nothing in this section shall be 
construed to apply to persons regu- 
larly employed in state institutions. 

“Section 4 of chapter 415 of the 
laws of 1897, article 1, entitled ‘An 
act in relation to labor constituting 
chapter 32 of the general laws/ is 
hereby amended so as to read as 
follows : 

“ Any officer, agent or employee of 
this state or of a municipal corpora- 
tion therein having a duty to act in 
the premises, who violates, evades or 
knowingly permits the violation or 
evasion of any of the provisions of 
this act, shall be guilty of malfeas- 
ance in office and shall be suspended 
or removed by the authority having 



power to apf>oint or remove such 
officer, agent or employee, otherwise 
by the ('»over nor. 

“Any citizen 01 this state may 
maintain proceedings for the suspen- 
sion or removal of such officer, agent 
or employee or may maintain an action 
for the purpose of securing the can- 
cellation or avoidance of any contract 
which, by its terms or manner of per- 
formance, violates this act, or for the 
purpose of preventing any officer, 
agent or employee of such municipal 
corporation from paying or authoriz- 
ing the payment of any public money 
for work done thereupon. 

“ All acts or parts of acts inconsist- 
ent with the provisions of this act. in 
so far as they are inconsistent, are 
hereby repealed. Hut nothing in this 
act shall apply to any existing con- 
tract for public w’ork. 

• This act shall take effect immedi- 
ately . 99 



When Papa’s Sick. 



When «ick, my rjo n«*M sake* ’ 

such awful, iiwlul times it make* 

He speak* in oil ’ *uch lonesome tones, 

And give* such ghastly kind of groans, 

A ml roll* his eyes Mini hold* hn head, 

And make* mi help him up to bed 
While Sis and Bridget run to heat 
lint water bags to warm hi* feat. 

And I must get the doctoi quick 
It > ha s to rump :i hr* fapo'\ ji. k . 

When papa'a aick ma hn* to stard 
Right aide the bed and hold hin hand. 

While Si* * ie ha* to fan an 1 fan, 
l or he saya he * ’* a dyin’ man,’* 

Anil want* the children round him to 
Be there when ” sufferin' pa gets through " 
And kis* u* all and then he’ll die ; 

Then moan* and **\* hi* htrai hin't thick 
It’* awful sail when papa’a sick. 

When p ip.»‘s *ick he act* that way 
t’ntil he heais the d«»ctor *a v, 

” You’ve only got a cold, you know, 

You’ll tie all right a a day nr *o " 

And then - well, aay 1 you ought to aee, 

He’s different a* a man can be. 

And growl* and «colds from noon to night 
Juat Vause hi* dinner ain t cooked right, 
And all he doea is fua* and kick 
It e'te alt m r t up . hrn papa ' j in k. 

Job l.ivioi.s, 

— ■ - 

The Poor Man’» Burden. 



Pile on the poor man’s burden 
Drive out the beastly breed ; 

Go bind hi* sons in exile 
To serve your pride and greed . 

To wait, in heavy harness, 
t’pon your rich and grand , 

The common working peoples, 

The aeifs of every land. 

Tile on the poor man’« burden 
Ilia patience will abide ; 

He’ll veil the threat of terror 
And check the show of pride . 

By pious caul and humbug 
You’ll «how Ilia pathway plain, 

To work for another’s profit, 

Ami suffer on in pain 

Bile on the poor man’ a burden— 

Your savage wars increase. 

Give him hia full of famine, 

Nor bid lit« sickness cense 
And when your goal ia nearest ] 

Your glory a dearly bought. 

For the poor man in his fury 
May bring your pride to naught. 

Pde on the poor man’s burden — 1 

Your monopolistic ring* 

Shall crush the serfs rind sweepei 
hike iron rule of kings 
Your joys he shall not enter, 

Nor pleasant roads shall tread ; 

He will make them with his living. 

And mar them with his dead. 

Pile on the poor man’s burden 
Theday of reckoning’« near — 

He will rail nloud on freedom, 

And freedom's God «hall hear. 

He will try you In the balance ; 

He will deal out justice true ; 

For the poor man with his burden 
Weigh* more with God than you. 

I.ift of! the poor man's burden 
My country, grand and great— 

The orient has no treasures 
To buy a Christian state. 

Our souls brook uot oppression, ' 

Our needs If read aright 
Call not for wide possession, 

But freedom's sacred light. 

0*0. K. Me N Bil l.. 



I 



THE CARPENTER. 



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FOR TAX, PINS AND 8ÜPPLIK8. 
During the month ending March !il , 1890. 
Whenever any efrora appear not' fy the G. 8.-T. 
without delay. 



k OR TAX, PINS AND SUPPI.IES. 

During the month ending April .‘10, 1*99. 

Whenevei any errors appeal notify the G.S.-T. 
without delay. 



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101- 


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Total 


• . . 




. 






, , 


. $: 


.ltiS 


76 




Total • . 


• 









OH- 
612 
HIT 
622- 
» 2 *- 
688 - 
63«- 
6-1- 
•152 

658- 

41V • - 

• 67 

«76 

67*- 

6*7- 

H*»2- 

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71 1 
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726 
73.» 
716 
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7**7- 



797-- II 



$6 H|K 32 



When Men are Strongest. 

. The muscles, in common with all 
the organs of the body, have their 
stages of development and decline. 
Our physical strength increases up to 
a certain age and then decreases. 
Tests of the strength of several thou- 
sands of people have been made by 
means of a dynamometer (strength 
measurer), and the following are 
given as the average figures lor the 
white race : 

The “lifting power” of a youth of 
seventeen years is 280 pounds, in 
his twentieth year this Increases to 
320 pounds, and in the thirtieth and 
thirty- first year It reaches It; height, 
356 pounds. At the end of the thirty- 
first year the strength begins to 



decline, very slowly at first. By the 
fortieth year it has decreased 8 pounds, 
and this diminution continues at a 
slightly increasing rate until the 
fiftieth year is reached, when the 
figure is 330 pounds. 

After this period the strength fails 
more and more rapidly until the weak- 
ness of old age is reached. It Is not 
possible to give statistics of the 
decline of strength after the fiftieth 
year as it varies to a large extent in 
difierent individuals .— Philadelphia 
Times. 



Frank Morrison, secretary of the 
American Federation of Labor, in a 
public communication writes : *• The 
organizers of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor have been forming 
unions as they have never done 




RKCKIPTS. MARCH, 1««. 



From the Unions, tax, etc $7,16« *5 

*• Subscribers 8 uO 

** Clearance! 2 20 

" Miscellaneous ao<I D. C 75 

•• Rent 20 00 

Balance, March 1, 1*09 20,809 3H 

Total $27,505 16 

Total expenses 5.845 38 



Cash balance, April, 1H99 $22 15« 



DRTAILF.D EXPENSES, MARCH, ls!*9. 

Printing 1000 stamped envelopes . . $ 1 25 

" l /j ream wrapping paper . . 8 75 

'* 6, 000 German Constitutions . Go CO 

" 500 postal receipts .* 1 50 

“ 5 UUO letter beads . ...... 20 00 

M 2,000 P. S. blanks 8 Ml 

'* 5.0o0 applications 7 50 

“ 25 20-page day books 22 75 

“ 100 F. S. receipt books ... 25 uO 

“ 2. (X)0 treasury remit, blanks . 5 00 



“ .VjO password circulars . • 3 25 

11 10,000 English Constitutions . 185 00 

•* 19,250 copies March Car pen- 

I . R . . M 8« 

Hxpressage on March Carfkntkr . . 75 

Printing 500 circulars 1 25 

Postage on March Cartknter .... 17 05 

Engravings for March •• .... 85 60 

Special writers tor “ “ . . • . 47 00 

Press Clipping Bureau 5 00 

Eleven telegrams 3 54 

Expresaage on supplies, etc 26 12 

Postnge M M 26 18 

1,(00 stamped envelopes 2120 

• 00 postals 5 00 

Office rent for March 25 00 

Salary and cletk hire .3*1 *x» 



Tax to A . F. of U *Ri *57 

Rubber seals and daters 8 Jo 

P J. McGuire, traveling expenses . . 27 15 

Geo. R. Edsall, in Kenney law suit . . h »0 

R. K Weaver, org. Traverse City. 

Mich 3 00 

Johu Williams, General President . . 81 25 

M “ “ . . 

Advertising commissions 131 20 

Incidentals ... 160 

Janitor, cleaning office 5(0 

A. Kaliach, attorney 40 CO 

Sturdevant and Sturderant, attorneys 20 On 

Judgment and costa in the Mrs. 6. 

Loesch claim, E. St. Louis .... 79 55 

Union 312, Los Angeles, org 51 mi 

Benefits Nos. 1170 to 4 -01 8.675 UU 

Total $5,245 33 



RECEIPTS, APRIL, 18W 
From the Unions, tax. etc. *•*... $6,81K 32 

•• Advcrti*ers 12 50 

•• Subscribers SOU 

Miscellaneous sources 4 60 

Bslance, April 1,189« $22,159 83 



Total .... $28,998 25 

Total expenses 7,619 54 



Cash balance, May 1, l^»« ...... $21,84* Jl 



DETAILED EXPENSES— APRI L, 1*6). 



Printing 500 postals 


«1 


50 


44 1,01)0 stamped envelopes • 


1 


2. 


* 4 10 label books 


7 


50 


44 .<00 advertising contracts . 


•1 


50 


44 100 Treasurers’ cash books . 


36 


no 


0 1,000 organizing circulars . 


•» 


.0 


44 5,000 membership cards . . 


12 


4) 


44 5,000 application blanks . . 


7 


fiO 


44 3,o(X) letter heads 


12 


00 



before. During March, April and 
May we have issued over double the 
number of charters that we did during 
the years of 1897 and 1898. 



A Vigorous Veteran. 



Brother Samuel S. Fawcett, of Local 
Union No. 3, living in New Alexander, 
Columbiana Co , Ohio, Is eighty-six 
years and seven months old. He has 
worked as a carpenter for sixty-eight 
years, and Is anxious to learn if there 
is an older member of the craft alive 
to day. Brother Fawcett is In excel- 
lent health. He hau been a member 
of the union for nearly eleven years, 
and la still active enough to do a 
good day’s work. 



Special writers for Tint Carpenter. 
Press Clipping Bureau ....... 

Ih telegrams 

Exprestage on supplies, etc 

Postage on supplies, etc 

1 nOu stamped envelopes and 

1,000 postals 

Quarterly rent P. O. Box 

Office rent for April 

Judgment in the Loesch c!xim. E. St. 

Louis, 111. • • 

Ham ill and Borders, attorneys .... 

Fire Insurance Premium 

Judgment in the Caldwell claim, Spring- 

fiel»!, Ill 

Salary and clerk hire 

Tax to A. F. of L. ( March) 

Magistrate Eisenbrown, warrant • • . 
Abner Kalisch attorney 

V. J McGuire, travelling expenses . • 
T. K. Heath, organising Danville 111. • 

S J. Kent, visit to Gmaha, Neb 

W G. Gredig, organizing Augusta, Gs. 
F. P. Mayfield, oiganiziog Argentine, 

Kansas 

J. Thomas, organizing work 

Advertising Commissions 

John Williams, General President, 
visits to Scranton, Philadelphia Pa >t 

and Troy, N. Y 

John Williams, attending G. K. B. . • 
James M. Lane, " M . , 

F. C. Wal “ M 

A. C. Catterraull . 

J. R. Miller, “ 44 . . 

J. R. Miller (investigating Schneider 
case) . . 

W. J. Williams, attending G. E. B. . . 
Advertising ia Philadelphia papers . . 

Stationery and incidentals 

Removing office fixtures, sup; 4 ies and 

carpenter work 

Removing office safe 

Changing safe combination 

Sign boards, lettering, etc. ••.... 

Office furniture 

office fixtures 

Hardware for office fixtures 



Staining and varnishing fixtures • . 
Carpets, etc., for general offices . . . 

Carpet sweeper and rugs 

Office desk and chairs 

Incidenthls in moving office 

Benefits Noa. 4 >U2 to 4514 



«44 CO 
5 00 

7 26 
81 06 
21 M 

26 20 
3 no 

51) UU 

79 35 
5u no 

15 an 



82 15 
304 66 
66 67 

3 50 
25 00 
17 H5 

. 5 00 

f» .V* 

6 01) 

7 50 
80 00 
100 U0 



113 21 

62 75 
61 45 

63 10 
1 IN 00 
129 75 

8 25 
129 6’» 
2 80 
2 77 

.’44 19 

12 U0 
1 UO 
:;*> (4) 
19 75 

1 U0 

2 05 
2 64 

19 80 
61 02 
8 50 



5,525 00 



Total 



$7,«r4V 54 



CUims Approved In April« 1899. 



No. 


Name. 




Union. 


Am’t. 


4502. 


Mrs. Anna Gehrig . . 


. . 




. 1 


$ 50 00 


4.5)3. 


Thomas J. Heyward . 






. 1 


200 OU 


4*04. 


Lucius Judd 






• 7 


2u0 00 


4TÄ». 


John McCambly 






. 8 


200 UO 


4'i0H. 


Mrs. Selma Homann . 






. 10 


. <0 00 


4.107. 


Frank Einhorn . . . 






. 10 


200 00 


4.5)8. 


John Gzrthe 






. 12 


*200 CO 


4.5)9. 


Mrs. Maria Franz . , 






. :m) 


50 00 


4510. 


Mrs. Sarah McGoey . 






. 42 


AO 00 


4511. 


Phillip H Karsh . . 






• 61 


200 00 


4512. 


G. A. Hit z tier 






. 62 


200 00 


4513. 


Mrs. Elizabeth Sutcliffe 




. 64 


50 00 


4514. 


Mrs. Josephine B. Limberg 


• 76 


50 00 


4515. 


Olie I. Graven .... 


. . 




. 87 


200 UU 


4516. 


Francois Gibean . . . 


. , 




. «6 


50 00 


4517. 


Mrs. Mellisa C. Patterson 




. 10« 


50 0U 


4518. 


James D. Johnston . 


. . 




. 10» 


400 UO 


1519. 


T. A. Wilson .... 


• . 




. 114 


60 00 


4520. 


Mrs. Katherine I. Bowser 




. 121 


50 UO 


4S2L 


Theodore Boon .... 






. 12.. 


•200 00 


4522. 


Mrs. Anna Dolphin . 






. 125 


60 00 


4523. 


R. T. Cullen 






. 133 


100 00 


1 .Jl 


Wm. W. Waters . . . 






. 167 


200 00 


4525. 


Chas. A. I -ndborg . . 






. 171 


100 00 


4526. 


David Scoble .... 






. 178 


200 00 


4527, 


Mrs. F. E. Reinecke . 






. 191 


50 U0 


i M. 


Mrs. Flora F.Widenbeck . 




. 198 


50 00 


4529. 


Jacob M. Stewart . . 






. 230 


200 UO 


4530. 


Margaret K. McMilleo 






. *288 


50 00 


4531. 


August Butzky .... 






. 309 


200 110 


45:12 


Friedrich PfnfT . . . 






. 809 


29U U0 


4533. 


Rudolph Hanstng . . 






. 30« 


200 00 


1534. 


Alex. Pathoczy .... 






. 809 


loo 00 


4535. 


Wm. J. Towey .... 






. 840 


2UU 00 


4536. 


Mrs. Amanda Dunlap 






. 808 


25 00 


4537. 


Andrew Hoffmann . . 






.875 


200 0) 


1538. 


John Friedel ..... 






. 375 


2U0 do 


15 .9 


Mrs. Elizabeth Wood 






;£2 


50 00 


1940. 


Daniel Clayton . . . 






. 3X2 


200 00 


1041 


Mrs. Georglsoa L. Seymour 


.3X2 


60 00 


4512 


Wm. Reid 


• . 


• 


. 127 


100 00 


4543. 


Mrs. Elise Kautz . . . 


• . 


• 


. 464 


50 00 


154». 


Mrs Emms Graf . . • 


• • 


a 


.476 


50 00 












$5,525 00 



CRACXBR SAVERS’ LABEL, 




LOGA* 

STA» 



-I 




6 





THE 



CARPENTER. 



\ 






* 








New Unions Chartered during the 
Past Three Months. 



Union 4S, Kirksville, Mo. 

Union 63, Bloomington, 111 . 

Union 75, Birmingham, Ala. 

Union 107, Pensacola, Fla. (Col ) 
Union 113, Lincoln, Neb. 

Union nS, Jersey City, N. J. (mill 
men). 

Union 132, Buffalo, N. V. (mill 
men). 

Union 145, vSayre, Pa. 

Union 153, Helena, Mont. 

Union 201, Wichita, Kan. 

Union 204, Coffeen, 111 . 

Union 205, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Union 219, Memphis, Penn. 

Union 226, Traverse City, Mich. 
Union 240, Augusta, (»a. 

Union 253, Argentine, Kan. 

Union 254. Pittsburg, Pa. (stair 
builders). 

Union 267, Diamondville, Wyo. 
Union 269, Danville, 111 . 

Union 270, Madison, 111 . 

Union 271, Bay City, Mich. 

Union 272, Wallace, Idaho. 

Union 276, Oklahoma, Ok. Ter. 
Union 27S, Watertown, N. Y. 

Union 279, South Omaha. Neb. 
Union 2S0, Mount Olive, III. 

Union 2S2, Jersey City, N. J. 

Union 2S3, Augusta, Ga. 

Union 2S4, Fort Dodge, Iowa. 
Union 2S5, Bath, Me. (ship car- 
penters). 

Union 2S9, Lockport, N. Y. 

Union 290, Lake Geneva, Wis. 
Union 292, Milwaukee, Wis. (Ge-) 
Union 293, Canton, 111 . 

Union 294, Hast Palestine, O. 
Union 296, Hnsley, Ala. 

Union 297, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Union 29S, Alamagordo, New Mex. 
Union 299, West Hoboken, N. J. 
Union 302, Milwaukee, Wis. (Ger ) 
Union 303, Detroit, Mich (Ger.) 
Union 307. So. Framingham, Mass. 
Union 308, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 
Union 385, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Union 495, Streator, 111 . 

Union 629, South Bend, Ind. 



Eight-Hour Cities. 



Below in a lift of th 
carpenters make it a 
hours a day : 

Alameda, Cal. 

Aita Louia, Tea. 
Ashland, Wis. 

Austin, 111. 
Bakers6eld, Cal. 
Bedford Park, N. Y. 
Berkeley. Cal. 
Bessemer. Col. 
Brighton Park, 111. . 

Brooklyn. N. Y. 
Caronclelet, Mo. 
Chicago. 111. 

Chicago Heighta, III. 
Cleveland, O. 

Corona, N. Y. 

Cripple Creek, Col. 
Denver, Col. 

Detroit, Mich. 

Hast St. Louis, 111. 

K1 Dora, Col. 
Klmhurat, III. 
Knglewooil, 111. 
Eureka, Cal. 
Kvanston, 111. 
Flushing. N. Y. 
Fremont, Col. 

Freano, Cal. 
Galveston, Tea. 
Gilette, Col. 

Grand Crossing, 111. 
Haughville, Ind. 
Hanford Cal. 
Highland Park, 111. 
Hitchcock. Tea. 

Hyde Park, 111. 
Independence, Col. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Irvington, N. J. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Kensin gton, 111. 
Klngsbridpe. N. Y. 

La Junta, Col. 

Lake Forest, 111. 
Leadville, Col. 

Long Island City, N. ^ 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Lynn, Mam. 

Maywood, 111. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mooreland, III. 

Mt. Vernon. N. Y. 

Mt. Vernon, Ind. 



Boulder, Colo. 
Duluth, Minn. 

Total, 



e cities and towns where 
rule to work only eight 



Murphysboro, 111. 
Newark, N J. 

New Brighton. N. Y. 
Newtowu, N. Y. 

New York. N. Y. 
Oakland, Cal. 

Oak Park, 111. 

Omaha, Neb. 

Orange, N. J. 

Ouray, Col. 

Pasadena, Cal. 

Port Richmond, N. Y. 
Pueblo, Col. 
Kand^burg, Cal. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Rogers Park, 111. 
Sacramento, Cal. 

Salt Lake, I'tah. 

San Antonio, Tea. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Sau Luia Obispo, Cal. 
San Jose, Cal. 

San Rafael, Cal. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Sheboygan. Wis. 

South Chicago, 111. 
South Denver, Col. 
South Kvanston, III. 
South Knglewood. lit 
South Omaha. Neb. 
Spokane, Wash, 
Springfield. 111. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Stapletou, N. Y. 
Stockton. Cal. 
Swampacott , Maas. 
Syracuse, N. Y- 

Town of Lake, lit 
Tremont, N. Y. 
Unionport, N. Y. 

Van Neat, N. Y. 
Venice, 111 
Victor, Col. 

Waco. Tex. 
Washington, D. C. 
Westchester, N. Y. 
Whatcom, Wash. 
Williamsbridge. N. Y. 
Woodlawn. N. Y. 
Yonkers, N. Y. 



Hoboken, N. J 
Jersey City, N. J. 
cities. 



Germany*® Anti-Strike Bill. 

A dispatch from Berlin states that 
the Reichstag has received the anti- 
strike bill and will consider it at an 
early date. The provisions of the 
bill are now less stringent than the 
P'mperor at first intended. 

The measure provides that whoever 
threatens to forcibly prevent persons 
from going to work will be sentenced 
to a maximum of a year’s imprison 
ment. Where there are extenuating 
circumstances a line of 1,000 marks 
will be imposed 

The same punishment will be meted 
out to those who threaten a boycott 
to compel employers or employees to 
desist from work, or who, during a 
lockout, try to force employers or 
employees to yield to their demands, 
or whoever threatens to maltreat or 
otherwise molest non- strikers. 

The bill is not likely to pass before 
the adjournment of the Reichstag 
and it is not likely to pass at all in 

its present shape. 

♦ » " -- 

Mall Sign Order. 

Upon complaint of the labor organ- 
izations that street car companies, 
against which there was a labor strike, 
were illegally using the words “US. 
Mail” to insure the running of their 
cars, the Postmaster- General some 
time ago prepared an order on the sub 
ject. This order was made public last 
week in the official bulletin, and reads : 

44 Order No. 225. 

“Hereafter no street car company 
having a contract for the transporta 
tion of United States mail shall dis- 
play the words 4 U S. Mail,' or their 
equivalent, upou any cars except 
those in which the mail is actually 
carried. Such companies must pro- 
vide portable signs bearing the words 
4 U. S Mail, * which shall be displayed 
on cars only when the United States 
mail is being transported therein. 

44 The sign 4 U. S. Mail ’ must not 
be painted on or displayed from cars 
having street letter boxes attached 
thereto, the boxes themselves being a 
sufficient indication that United States 
mail is carried on the cars. This order 
does not in any way affect street cars 
used exclusively for the transporta- 
tion of United States mail. 

44 Charles Emory Smith, 

44 Postmaster General.” 




From 44 Hurry Up,*' S*:. Louis. 

Sir— P lease send me the sizes and 
outline of this hole: For iron boiler 
pipe 16 Inches in diameter; nltch of 
roof, 60 degrees. 



Coal Production of Last Year. 




||hK 44 Statistics of the Pro- 
duction of Coal in the 
United Staves During 1S9S ” 
have just been completed 
by Edward W. Parker sta- 
tistician of the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey. The compilation shows 
that the total production of all kinds 
of coal in 1S9S reached the enormous 
figure of 2i9,835'993 short tons, an 
increase of nearly 10 per cent, over 
the output in 1S97, which amounted 
in round figures to 200,220,000 tons, 
and was, up to that time, the largest 
tonnage ever obtained in the United 
States. 

('treat Britain ’s product in 1S9S was 
226,287.31 2 short tons, a slight de- 
crease from 1897 Practically all of 
the increase in production in the 
United States was in bituminous coal, 
the output of anthracite coal in 1S9S 












of only a little over 7 <»o ‘»00 tons over 
1897. Of this increase 470,1100 tons 
were ; n the amount of coal consumed 
at the collieries themselves, so the 
total increase in the amount of coal 
actually marketed was only 230.000 
tons. There was a decrease in the 
selling value of anthracite coal of 
$3,872000, while the bituminous pro- 
duct increased in value $S, 01 0,000. 

There were only three states in the 
Union whose coal product in i8uS was 
less than that of 1S97. These were 
Illinois, whose production 'ell off 
1.473*459 i°ns, credited entirely to 
labor troubles, and Montana and 
Oregon, whose decrease was com- 
paratively unimportant. Among the 
bituminous coal producing states the 
largest increase was in Pennsylvania, 
where 10,557,953 tons were added to 
the 1897 bituminous product, the total 
amount mined reaching 65,155844 
tons. 

West Virginia’s product increased 
2,437.000 tons, reaching a total of 
16,835,019 short tons. Ohio, with a 
total of 14,476,500 short tons, in- 
creased 2,280,000 tons. The next 
state in importance is Alabama, with 
a total output of 6,553,000 tons in 
1898 ; an increase of 659000 short 
tons. Indiana increased 870,000 tons, 
reaching a total of a little over 5 000,. 
000 tons. 

Arkansas showed a 40 per cent, in- 
crease. Statistician Parker thus com- 
ments on the showing made : “ The 

large increase in the production of 
bituminous coal and the comparative 
stationary condition of anthracite in- 
dustry calls attention to the increased 
competition of bituminous coal and 
its products of gas and coke for 
domestic consumption with that of 
anthracite coal. For a number of 
years the anthracite producers have 
experienced a great deal of difficulty 
in keeping the production within the 
market demands and incidentally re- 
stricting the product necessarily in- 
creased the cost of mining and cor- 
respondingly necessitates higher sell- 
ing prices for the coal. Each advance 
in the selling price of this fuel makes 
customers for the coke and gas prod- 
ucts of bituminous coal. 

44 The increasing use of mechanical 
methods of mining bituminous coal 
has materially reduced the cost of 



mining, and while the anthracite 
producers are faced with a continually 
increasing cost of their own product, 
they are also obliged to meet a com 
petitor whose cost of production has 
been steadily decreasing. It apjtars 
from the general condition of the an- 
thracite and bituminous coal mining c 

industries that anthracite coal is 1*. s 

coming more and more of a luxury \ 
and it will finally be restricted to > 
markets where the price is merely 1 

incidental.” 1 

1 

Words of the Wise. 

1 

Nothing that is unjust can hoi* to , 

continue in this world Car hit, t 

** 

When labor is employed, laboT 
consumes ; when it is not employed, 
it cannot consume Daniel Wehster, 

Inequality is the source of all 
revolutions, for no compensation can 
make up for inequality — . I ristotle, 

** 

No individual life can !>e truly 
prosperous passed in the midst of 
those who sutler. To the noble soul 
it cannot be happy ; to the ignoble it 
cannot be secure -.1 fat l hew Arnold 

** 

Every man ought to stand in pri- 
mary relations with the work of the 
world, ought to do it himself, and not 
suffer the accident of his having a 
purse in his pocket, or his having 
been bred to some dishonorable craft, 
to sever him from those duties— and 
for this reason that labor is God’s 
education. — Raskin . 



Folk Lore. 



If a peahen calls, a donkey brays, 
pigs carry straw, geese flap ’their 
wings, a pot boils dry or the clouds 
move northward it will rain. 

If a silver coin or fresh-laid egg is 
placed in the hand of anew-born babe 
long life and prosperity will be assured 
to it. 

If the sun goes down behind a bank 
of clouds on Friday it will rain on 
Sunday. 

While peacock feathers are kept in 
the house sickness will never be out 
of it. 

If a person ’s two front teeth are wide 
enough apart to place a gold coin be- 
tween them he will always be rich. 

If one mends a garment while wear- 
ing it every stitch taken represents an 
enemy which will be made. 

If a pen drops and sticks in the fbor 
the owner’s lover lives in the direction 
toward which it inclines. 

A ring around the moon indicates 
bad weather, which will last as many 
days as there are stars inclosed in the 
circle. 

If a hairpin sticks out but does not 
fall the wearer will have a disappoint- 
ment, if it falls her lover is thinking 
of her. 

If a spider is found on one of your 
garments it signifies that you will 
soon have a new one of the same sort. 

Be sure that for every fog you get 
In March you will have a frost in May. 

If the thread knots while sewing 
the sewer will live to see the garment 
worn out. 



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THE CARPENTER. 



The Price oi a /lilllon. 



FRY nowand then you see 
in the newspapers an in- 
terview with some million- 
aire describing his strug- 
gles and successes. I f these 
confessions are to he believed, there 
are two methods of acquiring great 
wealth. One is genius. Jay Gould, 
who never saved a penny In his life, 
had this sort of genius. The other 
method, alone worth discussing, may 
be fairly described as “keeping your 
eye on the main chance." 

A dozen millionaires have explained 
their systems of money getting, and 
one and all may be summed up in the 
one work : “ Application.'* If you 
wish to make money you must give 
yo’jr whole mind to it. 11 It is not 
what you make, but the proportion 
you save that makes you rich," Mr. 
Sagt says. “ Accumulate, ” says Mr. 
Huntington. “ I never spent one 
cent on luxury or pleasure until I 
was p.ist fifty." 

Any young man not absolutely an 
imbecile can amass vast sums of 
money by applying his energies 
solely to that end. The beggar of 
one-and-twcnty who sets himseli 
resolutely to make as much and spend 
as little as he can is pretty sure to be 
a tolerably rich man, if he live three- 
score years. Sagacity is a good thing 
to have ; education is useful ; but the 
main thing is self denial. Mr. Sage, 
Mr. Rockefeller, Mr. Huntington and 
a dozen others all bear witness that 
self denial is the road to grtat wealth. 

Nothing could be plainer. The 
young man who wishes tobe rich has 
merely to learn the art of “doing 
without.” He must learn to strip 
himself of the unnecessary. He must 
deny himself wife, children, friends — 
deny himself social pleasures and per- 
sonal luxuries deny himself every- 
thing that does not aid him in his 
struggle to be rich A dollar saved 
is much more than a mere dollar it 
is the potentiality of wealth. A dol- 
lar saved and sent out to work for its 
master is the beginning of wealth. 

Unquestionably, the man who “ sets 
his heart " on making money must 
deny himself a great deal. He 
reaches his goal only by dropping 
on the way almost all that is worth 
living for. His life is robbed of many 
hours of happiness that should he in 
it. In that hard, self-centered game 
of getting money he loses the faculty 
of enjoyment. Friends are luxuries 
far too costly for the struggling mil- 
lionaire When he has succeeded, 
when he is • 4 past fifty," he may, to 
be sure, buy a friend or two— but 
such friends are as unsatisfactory as 
artificial flowers. It is too late for the 
pleasures of social sympathy ; too 
late for the pleasures of art. 

He may shut himself up in his 
library, with Shelley's 44 Skylark," and 
say, 41 Now I will entertain thoughts 
too deep for tears”; but it will be 
only to find his appreciations atro- 
phied. The millionaire, according to 
his confessions, pays dearly for his 
millions. His life is negative, barren, 
gray — except in so far as the accumu- 
lation of wealth repays him forgiving 
up all that men love best. 

Fifty years of exacting labor and 
rigid self denial in this country of 



abundant opportunity will make any 
man of average intelligence rich. 
Upon the truth of th.s statement the 
rich men are agreed. 

Rut i* it worth while? 

To decry wealth is as vulgar as to 
worship it. No man is willingly poor. 
Indeed, the poor man is only a man 
who wants to be rich. And that is 
well and good. He is but a fool who 
does not plant seeds of trees in his 
youth that he may have fruit and 
shade in old age. Rut on the road 
that leads to great wealth there seems 
to be far too many occasions for sacri- 
fice. You must deny yourself the 
pleasure of helping your friends, of 
enjoying the costly luxuries of good 
society and good books and good 
music ; you must deny yourself all 
those things that are worth living for, 
and that, as well, teach you howr to 
live. 

And then — 14 after fifty” — when 
life has cooled and hardened into 
habit, it is too late to bring yourself 
into touch with the ways of men who 
do not practice self denial, but spend 
and are spent in the service of hu- 
manity. 

On the whole, after hearing the evi- 
dence of the millionaires, I am in- 
clined to believe that the game of 
making millions is not worth the 
candle. There are not enough dollars 
in a million to repay one for denyine 
himself wife and children, friends and 
books, and the pleasure — reckless 
though it be — of giving a dinner to 
the tramp at the doo^ or the beggar 
in t*ie street — I f ame 7 'hom/>son in 
I'hiladtlphia livening 1 'ost . 

♦ • ♦ 

Uur Porto Rican Farm. 



If you “want something to do,” 
don’t go to Porto Rico. It is a 
pleasant place for an outing, but that 
is all. There is little enough to inter- 
est the capitalist and investor, but for 
the clerk, the workman, the position- 
hunter there is absolutely nothing. 

In time there may be something, 
but it will be at the least, many 
months before such opportunities are 
open, and even then they will be few. 
Until then the case is hopeless, and 
those who go will hut do as their pre- 
decessors have done— come home 
again poorer and wiser men. 

This seems to be the gist of Albert 
Gardner Robinson’s “The Porto Rico 
of To-Day ” (The Century Company, 
New York)— a book as sensible as it 
is entertaining. 

The native name of Porto Rico is 
Roriquen - the Land of Valiant 
Lord. The area of the it is about 
3600 square miles— half tu at of New' 
Jersey. The leading cities are San 
Juan, Ponce and Mayaguez, all sea- 
coast towns, and, as the highways are 
primitive and rough, the interior is 
almost cut off from the outside world. 

This island of the blue sea is covered 
with eternal summer. The average 
temperature is about eighty d grees. 
There is not an overcoat to be found 
on the island. Our fellow country- 
men go clad in thin cotton the year 
round, while the youngsters under 
ten wear no more clothes than an 
angle* worm. 

It is a lazy world. The Porto Rican 
heat saps the energies, both physical 
and mental. It is the sort of a place 



where one likes to lie in a hammock 
and dream of the things one is too in- 
dolent to do. The population Is a 
trifle over 8oo,ooo, and only 14 per 
cent, know how to read and write. 
About half the population is 44 white." 
In Porto Rico “white” means those 
in whom there is at most only a touch 
of negro blood. 

Mr. Robinson thinks the natives 
had little reason to complain ot Span- 
ish rule. The system of government 
was admirable. Its laws were ade- 
quate and in the main just and equit- 
able. The Spanish did not “work 
the island for all it was worth." Con- 
sidering the richness of the soil, the 
populous districts and the well to do 
little cities, the taxation was by no 
means excessive. On the whole, the 
people seem to have been happy and 
prosperous. Many of the natives are 
rich, though the majority — as the 
majority are everywhere — are poor. 
Rut in a land where life is easy and 
wants are few, poverty is a condition 
rather than an evil. Porto Rico is a 
farm and not a workshop. Its re- 
sources are almost exclusively agri- 
cultural. The main products are coffee, 
sugar and tobacco, while rum and 
molasses are important by products. 
Among the possibilities are canning 
and exporting fruit and vegetables 
and cattle raising. 



A Brief Romance. 



When the Santa Fe Railroad found 
it necessary to cut down expenses 
Will Werden was one of the men dis- 
charged. There is always material 
for a tragedy around when works shut 
down or great corporations begin to 
retrench on one side that dividends 
may pile up on the other. It looks a 
simple enough thing from the com- 
pany ’s standpoint to let one man do 
the work of two. 44 If expenses are 
too great cut them down ” is the logi- 
cal reasoning. It is plain business 
here ; on the other side alone are 
seen the colors of tragedy. 

Will Weiden was a good worker. 
He was one of the billing clerks in 
the freight department. But he was 
comparatively a new man, and it was 
considered an act of special justice to 
keep the old employees if any of the 
force must be discharged. But Werden 
had an invalid wife and a half dozen 
little children dependent upon him. 
Lines appeared in his face as his term 
of service drew to a close. His eyes 
were hollow and full of despair. He 
knew* what it wqs to be out of a job, 
and his wife’s lips trembled as she 
tried to cheer him. 

Then it was that dean Waters came 
to the rescue, like a good comrade on 
life’s hard-fought field. He was a 
fellow-workman, and his manly heart 
had ached for Will ever since he heard 
the agent ’9 instructions. He had 
nothing but his salary, but he was on 
the road to promotion, and the com- 
pany had promised to advance him 
right along. But he went to the head 
man yesterday and said : 

44 Mr. Blank, if I resign my position, 
can you keep Werden ? ” 

44 Yes " The head of the department 
looked at the boyish face wonderingly 
as he answered. 4 4 But j*ou don't want 
to resign. You have good prospects 
here." 



“Will you keep Werden in my 
place?” continued Dean, earnestly. 

44 Yes, if you want to go." 

44 All right, sir ; here is my resig- 
nation." 

It was a little late when Will got 
home to Mary last night. But his 
face was full of light again, and she 
knew that something good had hap- 
pened. He ran over to her couch with 
the step of a boy. 

44 I’m going to stay, dear," he said. 
4 4 The company will keep me in Dean 
Waters’ place." 

Then he told her all about the gen- 
erous act of the young man, and she 
whispered from a full heart; 44 God 
hles 9 him," over and over again, 
while Will patted the thin hand that 
lay within his own and sighed happily : 

14 Ah, mother, not all the heroes 
were at Santiago." — Chicago Journal. 

When Girls Wore Calico. 



There was a time, betwiit the dayi 
Of linsey woolsev, straight and pHra, 

And these when mode, with despot ways, 
Leads women captive at its whim, 

Vet not a hundred years ago. 

When girls wore simple calico. 

Within the barn, by lantern light, 

Through many a reel, with flying feet, 

The boys and maidens danced at night 
To fiddled measurea, shrilly sweet : 

Auci merry revels were they, though 
The girls were gowned in calico. 

Acr iss the flooring rough and gtay 
The gold of scattered chaff was spread. 

And long festoons of clover hay. 

That straggled from the loft o'erhead, 
.swung scented fringes to and fro 
O’er pretty girls in calico. 

They used to go a-Maying then, 

The blossoms of the Spring to seek 
In sunny glade and sheltered glen, 

L'n weighed by fashion’s latest freak 
And Robin fell in love, I know, 

With Phyllis iu her calico. 

A tuck, a frill, a bias fold, 

A hat curv.d over gypsy-wise. 

And beads of coral and of gold, 

And rr>*\ cheeks and merry eyes, 

Made lassies in that long ago 
Look charming in their calico. 

The modern knight who loves a maid 
Of gracious air and gentle grace. 

And finds her oftentimes arrayed 
In shining silk and priceless lace, 

Would love her just as well, I know, 

In pink and lilac calico. 

— Haiti e Whitney , in Af unity's Magazine. 

44 Wen a Feller is Out of a Job." 



“All nature is sick from her heels to her hair 
W en a feller is out of a job ; 

She ia all out of kilter an* out of repair 
W’en a feller is out of a job. 

Ain't no juice in the earth an' no salt iu the aea, 
Ain’t no ginger in life in this land of the free, 

An’ the universe ain’t what it’s cracked up to be 
W’en a feller is out of a job. 

“ W at’s the good of blue skiea an’ of bloasomln 
trees 

W’en a feller is out of a job, 

W en \cr boy. hes large patches on both of hla 
knees 

An' a feller is out of a job? 

Them patches, 1 say, look so big to your eye 
That they »hut'out lan’scape an’ cover the sky. 
An' the sun can't ahiue through em the beat it 
can try 

W’en a feller ia out of a iob. 

" W’en a man has no part in the work of the 
earth, 

W’en a feller ia out of a job, 

He feela the whoU bluud'rin’ mistake of his 
birth 

W”en a feller is out of a job ; 

He feela he’s no share in the whole of the plan. 
That he’s got the mitten from natur'aown hand, 
That he a rejected «ud left-over man, 

W’en a feller ia out of a jofl. 

“For you've jest lost yer holt with the rast of 
the crowd 

W’en a feller is out of a job; 

An' you feel like a dead man with many a shroud , 
W'en a feller ia out of a iob. 

You are crawlin’ arouir, but yer out of the 
game; 

You may bustle about, but yer dead just the 
same— 

Yer dead with no tombstone to puff up yer 
name, 

W'en a feller la out of a job." 

—daii Walts* Foaa. 





I 




8 



THE CARPENTER. 



* 

fli 









THE CARPENTER, 

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THB 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Published Mon’hly on the Fifteenth of each month. 

AT 

Itlpplncott Building, Philadelphia. Pa. 

P J. McGuire, Editor and Publisher 

Entered at the Post-Office nt Philadelphia, Pa , 
as second-class matter. 

Subscription Price i— Fifty cents a year, In 
advance, postpaid. 

Address nil letters and money to 

p. J. McGuire, 
Box 8RI, Philadelphia, Ta. 



PHILADELPHIA, JUNE, 1899. 



An Important Law Decision. 



An important decision has just been 
handed down by Justice Glegerick in 
the New York Supreme Court, on an 
application by the New York City 
Carpenters Union for an injunction 
against tue United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners to prevent the 
latter ordering strikes against the 
members of the former union. This 
decision settles the right of an organi- 
zation to strike against the employ- 
ment of men not members of the 




union. 

The court said : 

4 1 The principles of the decision in 
the quite recent case of Davis vs , 
United Engineers seems to me to be 
decisive of the present application. 
The complaint alleges that the mem- 
bers of the defendant District Council, 
Manhattan Borough, United Broth- 
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners ot 
America, are carpenters and joiners 
banded together chiefly to secure em- 
ployment in said trade or work for 
their members and to prevent other 
members of the same trade not mem- 
bers of said association, from procur- 
ing or retaining such employment, 
and that persons employing members 
of the plaintiff’s association were 
coerced into discharging them in order 
to avoid a general strike. 

“Mr. Thomas H. McCracken, a 
member and one of the official repre- 
sentatives of the plaintiff, in his affida- 
vit, states that owing to the persis- 
tent and wanton interference by the 
defendants and their representative 
associations with the business of 
plaintifl association the members 
thereof have found it, and are daily 
finding it, more and more difficult to 
obtain and retain employment in their 
trade in New York City and else- 
where. The plaintiff ’s further affida- 
vits are substantially to the same 
effect. 

44 These acts, according to the rules 
laid down in the case last cited, do 
not entitle the plaintiff to the relief 
sought. Justice Patterson, speaking 
for a majority of the court, then said: 
•There can be no doubt that members 
of trades unions, as well as other 
individuals, have a right to say that 
they will not work with persons who 
do not belong to their organization ; 
and whether they say it Uiemselves 
or through their organized societies 
can make no diflerence. They have 
the right by that method to secure 
employment for their own members. 
* * * It was necessary for the 

plaintiff to prove under the averments 
of his complaint # * * that he 

was the subject of a persecution based 
upon a determination to exclude him 
from working at his trade for anybody 
or under any circumstances. * 

“Applying the fjregoing principle 
to the case at bar, It is clear that the 
means used by the defendants were 
lawful, and, hence, the motion for an 
injunction pendente Hte must be de- 
nied, with $10 costs. 



Some Eight-Hour History. 



Prior to 1889 in England there was 
little demand for universal legislation 
on the subject of eight hours a day. 
Parliament had already legislated for 
a twelve and ten hour day in certain 
industries, and for the protection ot 
women and children in factories and 
workshops, but upon the question of 
the universal application of the 
eight-hour principle the old trade 
unionism and the new parted com- 
pany. Upon the latter the work of 
carrying on the agitation developed. 
It was at first proposed for all men 
employed by Government, by munici- 
palities and by other governing 
bodies ; next, the adhesion of the 
National Federation of Miners was 
secured, and finally the Trade Union 
Congress of 1890 proposed “ that 
steps should be taken to reduce the 
working hours in all trades to eight 
per day, or a maximum of forty-eight 
per week ; and while recognizing the 
power and influence of trade organi- 
zations it is of opinion that the speed- 
iest and best method to obtain this 
reduction for the workers generally is 
by Parliamentary enactments.” 

An eight-hour bill was drafted in 
1892 for the benefit of the English 
colliers, but three out of five of the 
members for coal mining electorates 
declined to support it, and it was 
abandoned From 1892 to 1894 a 
Parliamentary Commission examined 
into the question. Its investigations 
were thorough. All the difficulties 
attendant upon its universal adop- 
tion were examined into. While it 
was asserted that there were diffi- 
culties in applying the principle to 
every branch of trade, it was also 
admitted that the legal reduction of 
the excessively long hours of work of 
the previous generation had improved 
the quality of the work effected, with- 
out reducing its quantity. Nothing 
can emphasize this admission better 
than a recent statement of Mr. Arnold 
F. Hills, managing director of the 
Thames Iron Works. 

What makes this testimony the 
more valuable is that when the Brit- 
ish government was placing its con- 
tracts for warships in 1893-4 not one 
of the contracts was given to his firm 
— the contract price sent in being 
higher than those of the Tyne and 
Clyde shipbuilding companies, chiefly 
owing, it was said at the time, to the 
higher wages pai In London as com- 
pared with other places. The man- 
aging director of the Thames Iron 
Works testifies that 14 in 1892 be de- 
cided that everybody should have an 
interest in the work that he did, by 
means of a goodfellowship dividend, 
which should depend upon the real- 
ized profits of the firm In 1892 the 
amount distributed was /4,08 t, and 
in 1898 it was ,£15,390. During the 
seven years, 1892-98, it amounted to 
/42,5I9. This was in addition to 
the highest wages in the trade in this 
or any other country for an eight- 
hour day. In 1894 he decided to 
introduce an eight- hour day. In 1893 
the wages paid were ,£99,066, and in 
1898 they were ^242, 336. In seven 
years there had been an increase of 
wages paid of 145 p r cent., which 
was a very remarkable testimony to 
the working of the eight-hour day, 



and showed that the work done was 
becoming more profitable. 

"He had taken out the net cash per 
ton of five vessels built for the gov- 
ernment before the eight-hour day 
had been introduced, and the cost for 
the two Japanese battleships and a 
cruiser for the British (»overnment 
after, and he found that the latter 
were built at a cost per ton of 17 or 
iS per cent, less than the former. 
Ard during the past two months the 
Thames Iron Works had, in open 
competition, secured work at a price 
which was the lowest put in b> any 
firm. So greatly had their business 
increased that they had taken a yard 
over the river, to which they intended 
to transfer the eight-hour flag, which 
had brought nothing but blessing on 
them since it had been adopted. It 
had proved good for the men, good 
for the work and gook for the share- 
holders.* * — Brisbane {(Jueensland) 
1 1 orker. 



Sent Back to Europe. 



Last week thirty Austro-Hunga- 
rians were sent by train from Phila- 
delphia to New York, where they 
were placed on board the Red Star 
steamship Friesland, which sailed for 
Antwerp. 

The thirty are the immigrants 
brought to Philadelphia by the Red 
Star steamship Aragonia from Antwerp 
on June 2nd, and detained by United 
States Commissioner of Immigration 
Rodgers on suspicion of having been 
brought to the United States in viola- 
tion of the alien contract labor law. 
An investigation started by Commis- 
sioner Rodgers developed sufficient 
proof of the fact that the men had 
ai ranged to go to work for the Illinois 
Steel Company at Chicago immedi- 
ately upon their arrival in that city to 
warrant him in debarring them from 
landing. 



From Springfield, III. 



On May ist, Union 16, Springfield, 
111., after a short decisive contest, 
enforced its code of union rules of 
eight hours a day on house carpenter 
work and nine hours in planing 
mills, with $2 25 per day as the min- 
imum pay for house work and 28 
cents per hour the minimum in the 
mills. The card system and steward 
system also are adopted. 



Cincinnati, O. The Carpenters 
District Council has issued a spirited 
protest against the unfair discrimi- 
nation of the management of the 
Saengerfest, and has declared a strike 
on the building. The management 
began the preparations for the 44 fe^t” 
with the evident determination to 
ignore all organized labor, and if their 
present puny policy is persevered in 
the Saengerfest will be a flat financial 
failure. 

d* 

A NOVBi. “strike ” met success in 
Pittsburg last week. The pupils of 
the Twenty seventh Ward School in- 
sisted upon half-day sessions until the 
end of the school year and the direc- 
tors sat up until 1 o’clock in the morn- 
ing before they decided to acceat to 
the demand. 



Eight-hour Movement— Continued, 

The City Law Department of Col- 
umbus, Ohio, has just discovered that 
all city employees must be placed on 
an eight-hour work day basis in the 
future. It is probable that many 
employes will sue the city for over- 
time pay under this ruling. 

«.* 

The members of the Sheet Metal 
Workers’ Union of Milwaukee, \Vis., 
have been successful in securing the 
eight hour day which they demanded 
on June ist, and have been granted an 
increase of 10 per cent in wages. 

The Smelter Mills at Florence, 
Colo., have adopted the eight-hour 
day and no diflerence exists there be- 
tween employers and employees. The 
men are being paid $2 for an eight- 
hour shift, the same wages as were 
paid for a twelve-hour shift. The 
eight-hour system has been adopted 
by the El I’aso Reduction Company 
with the men working in the roasting 
room and barrel house, with a 10 per 
cent, increase in wages. The eight- 
hour system was inaugurated by the 
coal mines of the Colorado Fuel and 
Iron Company on the first of the 
month, and everything has worked 
quite satisfactorily. 

Piracy. 

have had several occasion* of late lo write 
and publish article* con« ertdng the unfair 
method* resorted to by *ome manuiacturer* id 
wrongfully appropriating device»©! other* and 
foisting upon the market good* made in ifnltu 
lion of others and selling the same aa genuine 
article* A caae in point baa recently been 
l»r ught to the attention ot the Unite«! State* 
Circuit Court for the Southern District of Ntu 
York, in a suit brought by Mrs Sarah C. Morrill, 
the successor in business of the late Mr. Charles 
Morrill. 

The saw arts manufactured by Mr Morrill 
have for many years past been well known to the 
trade and owing to the perfect manner of their 
construction and the eacellence of the material 
employed, have well deserved the reputation 
which they have earned. One of Mr. Morrill’s 
patents expired some months ago and the saw 
set manufactured under the said patent, became 
common property, and several manufacturer* 
proceeded to make saw sets on the same pattern 
covered by the expired patent. This of course 
they had the legal right to do and had they sold 
them openly without any device thereon or 
under their own name*. Mrs Morrill would have 
had no legal nor other ground for complaint. In 
order, however, to deceixe the public and to 
make them believe that the goods manufactured 
by them were genuine Morrill saw sets some ol 
these manufacturers stamped cn the saw aet 
itself the words ** Morrill Pattern No. 1 M and 
packed the saw seta In boxen of the identical 
size and make of Mrs. Morrill's boxes with 
practically the same inscription stencilled on the 
same, so that the purchasers who saw the boxes 
or the saw acts would naturally believe that they 
were buying the genuine aaw Beta. Mrs. Morrill 
was compelled to begin suit and we are glad to 
be able to report that Mr. Justice l.acornbe 
issued an injunction on February 27th, lfc0, en- 
joining the manufacture and sale of saw sets 
bearing upon the same or upon any boxes or 
packages containing the satr e the name Morrill 
or any colorab e imitation of her name, device or 
trade-mark ; or from advertising or exposing 
for sale goods which in any way or niannei 
would lead the purchasing public to believe that 
they were puichasing genuine Moriill saw seta. 
We think that this decision of Mr. Justice La- 
combe will have a good effect upon the hardware 
trade and congratulate Mrs. Morrill upon her 
r ccesstn putting n stop to this unfair competi- 
tion. 



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There were fifty three labor strikes 
in England last year, involving 13,827 
work-people. The wages of 329,900 
persons were advanced an average of 
10 cents per week. During the first 
three months 133 strikes occurred, 
involving 23,253 persons; loss of 
time, 503,500 labor days. 




THE CARPENTER. 




The Application of (ieometrical Prin- 
ciples io handrail Construction. 



HY MORRIS WILLIAMS. 

ii PKOl’OSli in these 
articles to explain the 
few geometrical prin- 
ciples which are abso- 
lutely necessary to an 
intelligent understanding of the 
science of handrailing, believing as 
we do that to propound certain meth- 
ods to obtain the face mould and 
bevels, while ignoring the principles 
whereon such methods are founded, 
la worse than useless. 

There are hundreds of excellent 
mechanics in the country whose ex- 
tent of scientific knowledge is limited 
to a few examples of curved rails ; 
when facing any other example they 
are at a loss to know how to proceed, 
owing to their want of knowledge of 
the few geometrical problems neces- 
sary to meet the specific conditions of 
auch examples. If properly posted in 
the knowledge of these principles they 
would have in their possession the 
power to overcome all difficulties. 

In these days and especially in this 
country where the educational sys- 
tem in our public schools is consid- 
ered almost perfect, it seems inexcus- 
able in any mechanic to be ignorant 
of the theory of his trade ; and in view- 
ing the handrailer as standing at the 
very top of all branches in the build- 
ing trade, it becomes doubly inex- 
cusable in him not to strive to be 
wo“ A hy of his exalted craft. 




Fig. i. 

We promise all our readers who 
will follow us intelligently to lead 
them from the . 4 , /?, C , to the most 
complex examples of handrail con- 
struction, and we urgently request, 
«specially the younger members of 
our readers, not to leave a single line 
from the beginning to the end with- 
out knowing thoroughly the full 
meaning of the same. 

The science of handrailing is 
founded on that special branch of 
geometry which is used to unfold 
sections of solids, primary the prism 
and cylinder. But before entering on 
this phase of this subject we will in this 
article confine our treatment to a few 
perspective views as object lessons. 
Fig. i Is a right-angle prism re- 



vealing a sectional cut made oblique 
to two of its sides at o, a , b , c y and 
square to the other two sides. 

Fig. 2 is a similar prism, but the 
sectional cut in this figure is oblique 
to its four sides. To have a practical 
knowledge of these sections we ad- 
vise the preparation of a piece of 
wood, say, i" 4- 1" + 4 /0 and a saw 
cut made through its sides, following 







Figs. 3 and 4. 

Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate two cylin- 
ders. Fig. 3 revealing a sectional 
cut of the same nature as the one 
made through the prism shown in 
Fig. 2. It is oblique to the axis of 
the cylinder from all points in the 
circumference of the same. 

Fig. 4 shows a sectional cut oblique 
to the axis of the cylinder in one 
direction and is of the same nature as 
the cut made through the prism 
shown in Fig t. If a saw cut is made 
oblique through a turned spindle the 
section will reveal the form of an ellipse 
as is shown in the sections of Figs. 
3 and 4 and in hand-railing, the 
contour of such elliptical sections will 
form the face mold . 

Fig 5 is introduced to illustrate the 
co-ordinate planes and their line of 
intersection, usually defined as the 
ground line , and also, the line XY. 
In this figure we have three different 
planes, a t b t c t 0, the horizontal ; b b ' 
c' c t the vertical ; and the dotted lines 



b' a and c' o t forming the oblique shown in Fig. 7, which is another re- 
plane. The ground line or the X Y is production of the same figure with the 

shown intersecting the vertical, and addition of a complete curved handrail 

the horizontal planes, which are known winding in the oblique plane and con- 

as the co ordinate planes. 9 

Fig. 6 is similar to Fig. 5 with an 
addition of a quarter circle inscribed x 



\ V L* T,cA 

V plane 



'■ HORlZ° NTAL r 
PLANE 



Fig 5. 

on the horizontal plane, and an equiva- necting to a newel on a landing of a 
lent portion of an ellipse drawn on stairway. 

the oblique plane. We trust and hope that the reader 

By assuming the quarter circle to be through the means of these perspective 



Fig. 2. 

the lines marked in these figures. 
The end of the wood after the cut is 
made, will reveal the correct form of 
the section, and the angles of the 
outlines of the section will be the 
correct angles, which in handrail con- 
struction are knowm as the angles 
between the tangents and are made 
use of to square the joints. 




Fig. 6. 

the plan of a centre line of a hand- figures, will have a clear view of the 
rail, the portion of the ellipse standing utility of making use of unfolding 
right above It will be the center line 
of the curved rail when in position on 
the oblique plane 0, a , b' } c f 



* l 'A 



if 






‘•..sLV 4 ' 



Fig 7. 

The relation of this coupound figure 
to handrail construction la clearly 



sections of solids in handrail construe* 
tion. 

In our next article we will explain 
the most simple method of unfolding 
these sections geometrically, and pro- 
duce a face mold and bevels, for the 
rail shown in Fig. 7. 



THE CARPENTER 



10 



London Letter. 



BY THOMAS REECE. 

0 RO. CHANDLER, the gen- 
eral secretary of the Amal- 
gamated Society o r Car- 
penters and Joiners is of 

the opinion that the most 

conclusive evidence of the efficacy 
of a trade union is the extent to 
which it is able to improve the 
material welfare of its members. 
Judged by this standard the efficacy 
of his own society is beyond all doubt. 
During 1898 the wages of its British 
members were increased in no fewer 
than 124 districts, some of these dis- 
tricts being as wide as Liverpool and 
the vicinity. In thirty seven instances 
the increase in wages was coupled with 
a decrease in hours. The wage- in- 
creases varied from $1.15 down to six 
cents per week, the latter figures being 
only reached in a couple of cases. The 
average increase was about fifty cents 
per week. 

Great Yarmouth and St. Alban’s 
were the towns where the biggest 
decreases in hours were achieved, each 
having eight and one-half hours per 
week knocked ofl the winter working 
week. Both of these towns now work 
only forty- eight hours per week in 
winter and fifty-six and one- half in 
summer. 

Not a single set back in wages is to 
be announced for the whole of 1898, 
and only two towns, Blackburn in 
England and Grangemouth in Scot- 
land, were compelled to increase their 
winter working hours — the former, 
one hour per week, and the latter, 
three hours. 

Small wonder is it that such a 
strenuous society ended the year with 
56,634 members in 744 branches, and 
with a cash balance of $863,560. 
These figures show a net increase for 
the year of nine branches 3,577 mem- 
bers and $182,020. Never before has 
the union saved so much cash in one 
year, although 1890, 1896 and 1897 
were rather more fruitiul in new 
members. 

During the thirty-nine years of the 
union’s vigorous existence it has paid 
to its members in out-of-work pay, 
$2,799,355; sick pay, $2,314,530; 
in superannuation, $568,830; in funeral 
grants, $416,975; in accident insurance, 
$222,350; in tool insurance, $221,250 
and in general trade protective sup- 
port, $884,605. Besides these huge 
sums the A. S. C. J. has paid away 
under special circumstances in grants 
to its own members or other trade 
unions $259,43°* 

Such of the above benefits as are 
of the nature of insurance against 
calculable risks, (tool, sickness, 
funeral and superannuation insur- 
ance,) increase year by year as the 
membership grows and the area of pro- 
tection expands. The unemployed pay 
varies tremendously. The two heaviest 
years in this section of benefit, taking 
into account the membership of the 
societyat the time, were 1879 and 1886, 
in which years the benefit amounted to 
$8 per member. The largest total in 



this benefit ever paid in one year was 
in 1894, — $205,425, an average of $5 
per head of that year’s membership. 
General trade benefit, covering as it 
does strike and lock-out pay, also 
greatly fluctuates. The relatively 
worst year was 1877 when it worked 
out at $375 per member; 1891 and 
1893 were the next worst years, over 
seventy- five thousand dollars going 
in each twelve months. 

At the end of i860, when the A. S. 
C. J. had completed its first year it 
had a roll of only twenty branches 
and 618 members. Since then it has 
gone on increasing year by year, 
making its biggest jump in 1890, when 
it added 5,023 members in one year. 
Very slight backwashes occurred in 
’71, ’78, ’86 and ’88, but the decreases 
were only of a few hundred members. 
There are 1,686 members of the A. S. 
C. J. in the United States and Canada ; 
530 in South Africa (mainly in 
Johannesburg), and 1,099 in Australia 
and New Zealand. 

Coming to current news the most 
pregnant fact is the relation of the 
Carpenters and Joiners Unions to the 
proposed General Federation of 
Trade Unions. All unions are ballot- 
ing upon the question of affiliation. 
The A. S C. J. completed its vote in 
April. Only 16,133 members took 
the trouble to vote (thus leaving a 
huge total of over 40,000 indifferent- 
ists), and the proposal was negatived 
by a plurality of 3,871. This is the 
third scheme that members of this 
union have rejected, although in 
October a majority of some thousands 
pronounced in favor of the idea of 
national trades federation. 

The action of the Master Builders’ 
Association in sending out a circular, 
in connection with the plasterer’s 
lock-out, to all the unions in the 
building trades, asking them for a 
pledge to abstain from supporting the 
plasterers, has been rightly repro- 
bated on all sides. The fact is that 
the employers have found the lock- 
out a failure. The plasterers have 
obtained work elsewhere in large 
numbers and those who are still out 
are no excessive burden to their 
union. With regard to the foolish 
circular all the unions written to 
have refused to give the required 
assurance and in return the employers 
threaten a general lock-out of all 
branches of the trade. The outlook 
is not in the least feared by the 
unions. 

Amongst small recent local trade 
disputes are the following: At 

Grimsby, eighty six carpenters and 
joiners struck for five days for an 
advance of 1 cent per hour (from 1 5 
to 16 cents). The advance was con- 
ceded. 

At Merthyr Tydvil, in Wales, sixty- 
two carpenters have concluded a 
seventeen days’ strike advanta- 
geously. Wages have been advanced 
from 15 to 16 cents per hour and the 
working week has been reduced from 
fifty- four to fifty-three hours in sum- 
mer and from fifty and one* half to 
forty-eight hours in winter. The 
Arbroath (Scotland) unionists have 
also gained, after a nine days’ strike, 



an advance from 15 to 16 cents per 
hour. The carpenters of Bishop 
Auckland, a northern town, after 
being on strike since last June have 
received 1 cent per hour rise and a 
new code of working rules. 

The Manchester carpenters and 
joiners, to the number of 3,500, have 
gained an increase from 18 to 19 
cents per hour. This means an 
increase of about 50 cents per week 
per man, exclusive of any overtime. 
In Accrington, Altrincham, Ashton 
under Lyne, Burnsley, Barrow in- 
Furness, Sheffield, Stockport, Wigan, 
Burton -on -Trent, Glossop, the Pot- 
teries, and many other places during 
the last month wages have been 
advanced, usually 1 cent per hour, 
and between four and five thousand 
carpenters and joiners participated in 
this upward movement. In three of 
the above districts decreased hours 
are also to be credited to the men ’s 
agitation. 

The strike at Edinburgh, Scotland, 
which began on April 15th, for an 
advance from 18 to 19 cent 3 per hour 
and other benefits, is still unsettled ; 
1,320 men are affected. 

Should the master builders carry 
out their threat to inaugurate a gen- 
eral retaliatory lock* out through the 
building trade it will probably start 
with a lock-out of 25 per cent, of 
their employees after the end of this 
week. 



The Law and the Laborer. 



The people who have spasms over 
the passage of the Moore eight hour 
law are respectfully referred to the 
action of a similar law in Utah, which 
is eminently successful and has not 
operated to impose a hardship upon 
either the mine operator or employes. 
These restrictive laws have been 
placed in operation through the influ- 
ence of organized labor, in almost 
every locality throughout the United 
States and have been beneficial to 
both employer and employed. They 
give employment to 25 per cent, more 
men than under the ten-hour system, 
and, no matter how the question of 
wages adjusts itself, the eight-hour 
system is certainly consistent with 
conditions existing in every part of 
the world. Eight hours for labor, 
eight Lours for recreation and eight 
hours for sleep is seemingly a correct 
and sensible division of time ; and 
since the United States has become a 
nation of hired men, there is every 
reason why the law should regulate 
these matters. 

From the stand-point of utility most 
of the large mining companies have 
adopted the eight-hour system long 
since. 

In Montana the same practice is in 
vogue in all mines employing over 
fifteen men and operates beneficially. 
This exception was made in the 
interest of the small leasers. 

In the social system every man un- 
employed is a threat, either to his 
fellow workmen or to society, and a 
law that is framed for the purpose of 
taking up 25 per cent, more labor is 
beneficial alike to employer, employee 
and society at large. 

— Leadville Miner . 




Done. 



The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America was founded in Convention 
at Chicago, August 12. 1881. At first it had only 
twelve local unions and 2,142 members. Now. in 
seventeen years, it has grown to number 428 local 
Unions in 400 cities, and has over 45,000 enrolled 
members. It is organized to protect the Carpen- 
ter Trade from the evils of low prices and botch- 
work ; its aim is to encourage a higher standard ^ 
of skill and better wages ; to re-establish an 
Apprentice System, and to aid and assist the 
members by mutual protection and benevolent 
means; it pays a Wife Funeral Benefit of from 
$25 to $50 ; a Members Funeral Benefit, $100 to 
$200; and a Disability Benefit, $100 to $100.-' In 
these General Benefits $85,000 have been ex- 
pended the past two years, and $528,700 since the 
year 1883, while $083.044 more were spent in that 
period for Sick Benefits by the local Unions. 

This is fully One and a Quarter Millions of Dol- 
lars expended for benevolent and charitable pur- 
poses. Such an organization is worth the atten- 
tion of every Carpenter. The Brotherhood is 
also a Protective Trade Union as well as a 
Benevolent Society. It has raised the wages in 
hundreds of cities, and placed fully Five and a 
Half Million Dollars more wages annually in 
the pockets of the Carpenters in those cities. It 
reduced the hours of labor to 8 hours a day in * 
105 cities, and 9 hours a day in four hun- 
dred and twenty-six cities, not to speak of 
many cities which have established the 8 and 9 
hour system on Saturdays. By this means 
15 130 more men have gained employment. 
This is the result of thorough organiza- 
tion. And yet very few strikes have occurred, 
and very little money has beeu spent on strikes 
by this society. It is not a secret oath-bound 
organization. All competent Carpenters are 
eligible to join, and this card is an invitation to 
you as an intelligent mechanic to send in your 
application for membership in the Carpenters 
Union in your city. It is a branch of the 
Brotherhood, its dues are small in comparison 
with the benefits, and it is to your interest to 
join this growing and powerful body. 

Rules Regarding Apprentices. 



At the Detroit Convention of the United Broth- 
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, 
held August 6-11, 1888, the following rules in rela- 
tion to apprentices were approved, and the Eocal 
Unions are urged to secure their enforcement: 

Whereas, The rapid influx of unskilled and in- 
competent men in the carpenter trade has had 
of late years, a very depressing and injurious 
effect upon the mechanics in the business, and 
has a tendency to degrade the standard of skill 
and to give no encouragement to young men to 
become apprentices and to master the trade 
thoroughly ; therefore, in the best interests of 
the craft, we declare ourselves in favor of the fol- 
lowing rules : 

Section 1. The indenturing of apprentices 1* 
the best means calculated to give that efficiency 
which it is desirable a carpenter should possess, 
and also to give the necessary guarantee to the 
employers that some return will be made to them 
for a proper effort to turn out competent work- 
men ; therefore, we direct that all Eocal Unions 
under our jurisdiction shall use every possible 
means, wherever practical, to introduce the sys- 
tem of indenturing apprentices. 

Sec. 2. Any boy or person hereafter engaging 
himself to learn the trade of carpentry, shall be 
required to serve a regular apprenticeship of 
four consecutive years, and shall not be consid- 
ered a journeyman unless he has complied with 
this rule, and is twenty-one years of age at the 
completion of his apprenticeship. 

Sec. 3. All boys entering the carpenter trade 
with the intention of learning the business shall 
be held by agreement, indenture or written con- 
tract for a term of four years. 

Sec. 4. When a boy shall have contracted with 
an employer to serve a certain term of years, he 
shall, on no pretense whatever, leave said em- 
ployer and contract with another, without the 
full and free consent of said first employer, 
^unless there is just cause or that such change is 
made in consequence of the death or relinquish- 
ment of business by the first employer ; any ap- 
prentice so leaving shall not be permitted to 
work under the jurisdiction of any Eocal Union 
in our Brotherhood, but shall be required to re- 
turn to his employer and serve out his appren- 
ticeship. 

Sec. 5. It is enjoined upon each Eocal Union 
to make regulations limiting the number of ap- 
prentices to be employed in each shop or mill to 
one for such number of journeymen as may 
seem to them just; and all Unions are recom- 
mended toadnitto membership apprentices in 
the last year of their apprenticeship, to the end 
that, upon the expiration of their terms of ap- 
prenticeship they may become acquainted with 
the workings of the Union, and be better fitted 
to appreciate its privileges and obligations upon 
assuming full membership. 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



Proceedings of the General Executive 
Board. 



April 10, 1899. — The G. 1$. B. met at 8 o’clock 
A. M. All the members were present. 

Appeal, Union 33, Boston, Mass., in J. Jones 
claim. Decision of G. S.-T. sustained. 

Appeal, Union 247, Brooklyn, N. Y , to Gen- 
eral Convention from the decision of D. C. 
Case referred to next Convention. 

Appeal of D. C., Galveston, Tex., vs. decision 
of G. S.-T. re Clearance Card, sustained. 
Decision of G. S.-T. in claims for funeral bene, 
of C. Buckley & I,. McKenna, St. Dorns, Mo., 

sustained. 

Appeal of R. J. Findlay, Union 119, Man- 
chester, N. H., considered and decision of Jan- 
uary loth sustained. 

Appeal of J. Steinbach et al vs. Chicago, D. C., 
sustained, but fines should be reduced to ten 
dollars in each case. 

Appeal, O. Carlson vs. Chicago, D. C. Appeal 
uot within limit prescribed by Sec. 80 of Consti- 
tution and consequently dismissed. 

April 11th.— Appeal Union 434, Kensington, 
T1 L vs. decision of Chicago, D. C. re three mem- 
*‘ ers Union 43-1 fined, not sustained, as Sec. 80 of 
Constitution has not been complied with in 
filing copy of appeal before the D. C. See deci - 
ion re Carlson vs. Chicago, D. C, 

Audit of books begun and occupied remainder 

of session. 

Appeal of J. Ramming vs. a decision of G. P. 
Action of G. P. sustained. (On Appeal vs. Chi- 
cago, D. C.) 

Appeal, Union 306, Newark, N. J. vs. G. S.-T. 
Action of G. S.-T. sustained in his decision to 
enforce the provisions of the law. G. P. in- 
»tructed to visit Union 306 and find what would 
be necessary to aid Union 306, and to report im- 
mediately to G. E.-B. 

April 12th.— Appeal, Union 125, Utica, N. Y. vs % 
decision of G. P. Action deferred until Union 
shows that it had complied with Sec. 80 of 

Constitution. 

Appeal, Union 27, Toronto vs. decision of G S.- 
t • to extend charge of $5 initiation fee to May 1, 
1890. Union 27 wants it extended to May 1, 1900. 
Request refused. 

D. C. of Philadelphia appointed a Committee 
to visit G.E.B. at their meeting. Decided that 
Committee be heard but that requests by the 
Committee should be placed before the Board in 
writing. 

Appeal, P. Kerr is. decision of Cleveland Con- 
vention, dismissed. Sec. 71 o f Constitution cover s 
ground fully and the law must be carried out. 

Report of G. P. on various matters in his 
bands for investigation and settlement, read and 
carefully examined by G. E. B. 

Decision of G. P. asking Union 375, New York, 
to return at once the #200.00 death benefit paid 
claim of J. Hirschbill, proved invalid, was sus- 
la ined by G. E. B. 

Decision of G. P. asking Union 375, New York, 
t° return at once the #200.00 in claim death bene- 
fit of F. Hanf, proved invalid, was sustained by 
G - 3. B. 

Balance of Session taken up in discussing that 
Part of G. P.’s report relating to trouble existiug 
between the U. B. and the New York City car- 
penters. 

April 13th.— /?<? succession of Union 108,Eyun, 
^ass., it was decided to send a representative to 
New England States to counteract the work 
done by the representatives of the secession 
movement. 

Appeal, of H. Meyer, Union 22, San Francisco. 
Vs > Union 22 sustained, and Union 22 instructed 
to pay sick benefit as J. B. Anders, the benefi- 
ciary had not lost his benefit on account of work- 
in g outside of the jurisdiction of Union 22. 

Re controversy between New York D. C. and 
Batavia and N. Y. Wood Working Co. Unions of 
N. Y. should handle die product ot said firm, no 
information furnished to change former deci- 
sion of G. E. B. 

Re controversy U. B. vs. N. Y. city carpenters, 
l be settlement is left in the hands of the G. P. 
and G. S.-T. 

Appeal, of D. C. Union, of New York, to 
initiate on night of application dismissed. Sec. 

74 of Constitution must be sustained. 

Application, for sanction of strike of Union 78, 
^roy, n. Y., approved, financial aid to be 
decided on after report of deputy to be appointed 
bad been received. 

Balance of session taken up in reading notices 
°f trade-movements, and applications tor assis- 
tance from different parts of the country. 

April 14th.— Communications were read per- 
taining to the refusal of Union 464, of New York, 
to comply with the law in regard to being rep- 
resented in the D. C. of the Borough of Bronx. 

G * E. B. decides that Union 464 must send dele- 
gates to the Council of the Borough of Bronx as 
Bee. 47a of the Constitution requires it. 

Request to sustain demand made by D. C. 
Pittsburg for half- holiday on Saturday and main- 
tains* nine-hour day during rest of week not 
agreed to. Pittsburg District should first exact 
tbe eight-hour day. Financial aid to be decided 
later. 

Nine-hour day asked for by Union 216, Torring- 
t°n, Conn. Union advised to stand firm for their 
demand for reduction of hours. 



Request for financial aid from Unions 177 and 
96, Springfield, Mass. Financial aid not deemed 
necessary, and they should first secure the eight- 
hour day. 

Application, for financial aid, Union 262, 
Pecksville, Pa., refused. Sec. 132 of Constitution 
makes it impossible. Trust the Union will suc- 
ceed without aid. 

Re R. J. Finley in disability claim, former de- 
cision of G. E. B. sustained. 

Financial aid for Union 42, New Rochelle, 
granted to inaugurate eight-hour day. Report 
from Deputy to be basis for aid. Movement 
sanctioned by G. E. B. 

Financial aid for demand for eight-hour day 
and increase in wages, Union, Scranton, 
promised after report from Deputy. Movement 
approved by G. E. B. 

Application for $500 from Union 490, Passaic, 
N. J., laid over, data incomplete. 

Financial aid promised if necessary to D. C. 
of Chicago, for movement for new wage scale 
and for half-holiday on Saturday. Deputy to be 
appointed if necessary by G. S.-T. 

Aid for nine-hour day, Union 102, Wilkesbarre, 
Pa., promised. Report from Deputy to be basis 
for aid. 

Aid for Unions in Jersey City and Hoboken 
promised, same as in Union 42 of New Rochelle. 

Application from D. C. of Syracuse, N. Y., for 
financial assistance. G. E. B. directs attention 
to Sec. of Constitution pages 20, 21 and 22, and 
appeal not favored. 

Aid to Union 189, Quincy, 111., promised, same 
as Uoion 42, of New Rochelle. 

Application for aid from Union 6, Amsterdam, 
N. Y., not being complete, action was deferred. 

Report from Sec. D. C., Cleveland. Referred 
to G. S.-T. to procure further information. 

Aid for Union 433, Belleville, 111., promised, 
same as Union 42. 

Sanction and financial aid to Union 167, Eliza- 
beth, N. J., held over urtil later. Most con- 
tractors have signed agreement. 

Support in the demand of Union 65, Perth 
Amboy, deemed unadvised ; recommended to 
modify demand, action deferred. 

Action on application of Union 91, Racine, 
Wis., deferred for further information. 

April. 16th.— Additional Report by the G. P. 
on matters referred to him and G. S.-T. at the 
January meeting. 

First. Plan for securing funds for better or- 
ganization of the trade. Deferred for consulta- 
tion with G. E. B. 

Second. Warrant for arrest of H. C. Schneider 
obtained. Action of G. P. and G. S.-T. approved 
and ordered to proceed with prosecution. 

Application, D. C. of Philadelphia for reduc- 
tion of initiation fee to #1.C0. D. C. referred to 
G. s:-T. 

Quarterly audit was taken up during the lat- 
ter part of the session. 

Discussion of plans for putting organizers in 
the field in all sections of the country took up 
balance of session. 

April 17th.— Application for Organizer, Union 
427, Omaha, Neb., D. C. of Milwaukee and Sta- 
pleton, S. I. G. P. and G. S.-T. instructed to 
appoint organizers. A sum not to exceed #5,000 
to be set aside for organizers, all over the country. 

Applications New York D. C. re Stairbuilders 
to be taken into the U. B. not sustained, 
information asked for not having been furnished 
as to Sec. 4 of proposed agreement, which 
appiiesto conditions on which members will be 
taken into the U. B. 

Actiou of G. P and G. S.-T. in taking offices in 
Dippincott Building endorsed. 

Appeal, Mary Maus claim taken from last 
meeting, the decision of G. S.-T. disapproving 
claim not sustained. 

Report re Schneider. Schneider could not be 
fouud at present. G. B. B. accepted the report as 
progress. 

Union 1?2 asked to prefer charges against 
Schneider, Sec. 163 and 164 of Constitution, and 
expel him in accoidance with last paragraph of 
Sec. 170. 

Fitzgerald vs. Chicago, D. C., his appeal not 
sustained. 

Balance of session taken up with Quarterly 
Audit. 

April 18th.— Audit of books was taken up and 
concluded. 

SUMMARY FOR JANUARY, FEBRUARY AND 
MARCH, 1899. 



Balance on hand, Jan. 1st #19,450 37 

Receipts : 

January 7,635 98 

February 6,359 55 

March 7,195 80 



#40,641 70 

Expenses 

January #6,490 10 

February 6,646 44 

March 5,345 33 



#18,481 87 

Balance on hand April 1, 1899 $22,159 83 



Re N. Y. D. C. and Stairbuilders of New York, 
letter received dated April 16th. G. S.-T. in- 
structed to submit matter by mail to all members 
of the Board for a vote, two members having 
gone home. 



Also, communication from Brooklyn D C. to 
enforce trade rules, May 1st, to be submitted to 
Board by mail. 

Adjourned to meet July 10, 1899. 

J. R. Miller, 

Attest : Sec. G. E B. 

P. J. McGuire, 

General Sec.-Treas. 



Demands of American Federation of 
Labor. 



1. Compulsory education. 

2. Direct legislation through the 
initiative and referendum. 

3. A legal workday of not more 
than eight hours. 

4. Sanitary inspection of workshop, 
mine and home. 

5. Liability of employers for injury 
to health, body and life. 

6. The abolition of the contract 
system in all public work. 

7. The abolition of the sweating 
system. 

8. The municipal ownership of 
street cars, water works and gas and 
electric plants for public distribution 
of light, heat and power. 

9. The nationalization of telegraph, 
telephone, railroads and mines. 

10. The abolition of the monopoly 
system of land holding, and substi- 
tuting therefor a title of occupancy 
and use only. 

11. Repeal all conspiracy and penal 
laws affecting seamen and other 
workmen incorporated in the Federal 
and state laws of the United States. 

12. The abolition of the monopoly 
privilege pf issuing money and sub- 
stituting therefor a system of direct 
issuance to and by the people. 



English Pluck. 



Maybe it was at Isandula, with 
Lord Chelmsford’s army, or it may 
have been elsewhere in Africa, but, 
at any rate, during the Zulu War, 
says Collier's Weekly , after an engage- 
ment in which the British troops were 
defeated by Cetewayo’s black warriors, 
and were compelled to fly for their 
lives, an English cavalrymail, whose 
scraggy little pony limped from an 
assegai slash, detached himself from 
the retreat and galloped back upon 
the charging Zulus. A glance over 
his shoulder had shown him a dis- 
mounted comrade, stumbling pain- 
fully along trying to jam some cart- 
ridges into his clogged revolver. 
When the trooper’s pony trotted up 
the Zulus were almost upon the two 
soldiers ; fortunately they had dis- 
carded their spears and were mishand- 
ling captured carbines. Now, in a 
melodrama, or in a realistic novel edi- 
fying to schoolgirls, the language of 
these two gallant soldiers, one to the 
other, there amid the squealing Zulu 
bullets, would have been noble, lofty, 
inspiring and godlike. This is what 
they really said : 

“ Get out o’ this, Bill, ye bloomin’ 
ijit — the black beggars’ll skewer 
you ! ” gasped the wounded man. 

“ You climb up on this ’orse or I’ll 
punch your d — n head off ! ” was the 
reply from the trooper. 

And it is delightful to be able to 
say that he did climb up, and they 
both escaped from the “black beg- 
gars, ” and the trooper got the Vic- 
toria Cross. 




( Insertions under this head cost ten cents a line.) 



Union 158, Topeka, Kans. 

Whereas, It has pleased Almighty God, the 
Builder of this great Universe, to remove from 
our midst Brother William H. Trump. 

Whereas, The members of Eocal Union No. 
158 feel the loss of a faithful Brother and an 
earnest promoter of unionism, therefore be it 

Resolved , That we drape our charter for thirty 
days, and express our sincere sympathy to the 
bereaved family of our deceased brother. Also 
be it 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be 
spread on the minutes of our meeting, that a 
copy be presented to the family, and that they 
be sent for publication in the official paper. 

M. J. Easlbr, % 

William Fry, l Committee . 

S. B. Weaver. J 

Union 490, Passaic, N. J. 

Whereas, It has pleased the Almighty God in 
His infinite wisdom, to remove from our Brother- 
hood, our esteemed Brother, Einford Van 
Winkle, who departed this life May 5, 1899. 
Therefore, 

Be it Resolved , That we drape our Charter for 
Thirty days, and that we express our sympathy 
to the bereaved family of our deceased Brother. 
Also be it 

Resolved , That a copy of these resolutions be 
spread on the minute of our meeting, also a copy 
be presented to the family, also a copy be pub- 
lished in our official Journal, The Carpenter, 
also a copy be published in a local paper. 
John Quadland, 4 
H. W. Bodinb, l Committee. 

D. J. Morrison J 

Union 7, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Whereas, It has pleased the Master Builder 
of the universe to remove from our midst our 
late respected Brother Andrew Christenson, 
therefore be it 

Resolved , That the brothers of E. U. No. 7, 
of Minneapolis, mourn the loss of Brother 
Andrew Christenson, and extend its sym- 
pathy to the bereaved widow and children in 
their hour of affliction, and we trust that the 
severity of the blow may be mitigated by the 
remembrance that we will all meet again in the 
Celestial Home above, and be it further 

Resolved, That our charter be draped for thirty 
days, and that these resolutions be spread upon 
the minutes, a copy presented to the widow and 
childreu, and also published in our official 
organ, The Carpenter. 

THOS. SETNAN, \ 

JOHN WAEQUIST, L Committee. 
CHAS. SETTGAST, J 

Whereas, It has pleased Almighty God to call 
away from earth the wife of our Brother, Gust. 
Earson. Therefore, be it 

Resolved , That we, members of Carpenters 
Union No. 7, of Minneapolis, teuder our sincere 
sympathy to the bereaved husband and chil- 
dren. And be it further 

Resolved , That a copy of these resolutions be 
presented to the husband, and also published in 
our official paper, The Carpenter. 

Signed, 

THOMAS SETNAN, ^ 

JOHN WAEQUIST, [ Committee. 

CHARGES SETTGAST. j 



The consumption of beer per head 
of population is as follows : Bavaria, 
55 gallons ; German Empire, 25^ gal- 
lons ; Belgium, 44 gallons ; United 
Kingdom, 31 ; Western Australia, 25 ; 
Denmark, 20 ; Switzerland, 14 ; the 
United States, Austria, Qdeensland 
Victoria, 12 gallons; Sweden, 9 gal- 
lons. * 

We have been reliably informed 
that the trade on Lane’s steel jack 
has been steadily increasing and it is 
now generally recognized as standard. 
The new size known as No. o, we are 
told is available for a great amount of 
light work. It can be sold at such a 
price that it is believed it will find a 
large sale where previously cheap 
wooden affairs have been used or no 
jack at all. All sizes are now also 
offered galvanized. The makers are 
Lane Brothers Company, Poughkeep- 
sie, N. Y. Advertisement in another 
column. 



12 



THE CARPENTER. 




1 I 






Bevels, Splays and Hopper Cuts. — i. 



BY l-REI). T. HODGSON. 

D N taking up the above sub- 
jects, it is my intention to 
deal with them pretty thor- 
oughly, and to tell my 
readers pretty much all that 
is to be found in the various works on 
construction about them. In doing 
so I will be obliged to quote from 
many authors and from many fugitive 
writings, but in every case where I 
borrow from others, I will, when 
possible, give due credit for same. 
Indeed, the subjects have been so pro- 
fusely discussed during the last cen- 
tury. that very little is left for me, or 
any one else to add much that can 
properly be called original. The 
same may be said of the alphabet, for 
while it can not be called oiiginal, in 
a true sense, yet, it is original or new 
to the mind of every child that 
wrestles with it So with bevels, 
splays and hopper cuts ; each genera- 
tion as it falls into line as a worker 
and world improver must wrestle with 
these subjects, and to its uiembtrs the 
problems and their solutions are as 
new and original as though they had 
never been heard or spoken of before 
the day the new workers require to 
know of them. In all trades the be- 
ginner must start at the lowest rung 
of the ladder— there is no commencing 
where our fathers left off— the a, b, c, 
of carpentry and joinery must be 
learned by the would be workman just 
as surely as the a, b, c, of scholarship 
must be learned by the literary 
student before atiy headway can be 
made in expert workmanship or in 
literary science ; and, in the noble art 
of wood construction, success can only 
be won by continual effort and a thor- 
ough mastering of the intricate prob- 
lems that are sure to beset the path 
of the aspiring craftsman. 

While, as stated above, it is almost 
impossible to present anything that 
will be entirely new, it may be pos- 
sible to present the old old problems 
and their solutions in such a dress as 
to make their recognition much 
easier and the work of digesting 
them, a source of pleasure rather 
than one of painful labor and effort. 

In order to make myself clear on 
the various subjects under discussion, 

I think it meet to first give such 
definitions of the subjects that any- 
thing I may say hereafter will not 
conflict with any preconceived ideas 
the reader may have imbibed from 
custom or false phraseology. 

Bevel is described by Century 
Dictionary as “The obliquity or in- 
clination of a particular surface of a 
soiid body to another surface of the 
same body ; the angle curtained by 
two adjacent sides of anything, as of 
a timber used in shipbuilding. When 
this angle is acute it is called an 
under bevel (or beveling ), and when 
obtuse a standing bevel." 

Knight says 44 a bevel is any angle 
except of 90 0 . 1 4 The words slope and 
chamfer are synonymous with bevel in 
many of their applications. 

Splay: spread, flare. In building 
a sloped surface, or a surface which 
makes an oblique angle with another, 
as when the opening through a wall 



for a door or a window widens from 
the position of the door or window 
proper toward the face of the wall. A 
large chamfer is called a splay. The 
term splay cut is often used by brick- 
layers for cutting off the angles of 
bricks in making beveled work in 
bricks. To splay, means to spread 
out as the sides of a hopper or the 
back of a pew seat and similar work. 
A splay is always a bevel, but a bevel 
is not always a splay. Sometimes 
the word flare is used for splay, blare 
in this sense actually means a spread- 
ing out, an expansion, blaring out, 
means any figure having less area at 
the bottom than at the top, as an in- 
verted pyramid, or an upright flower 
pot. A box with flared sides means 
that the box has all its sides inclined 
outward, no matter how many sides 
the box may have A box with 
splayed sides may have one or more 
of its sides splaytd. blare, while 
being almost synonymous with splay, 
when used in this sense, has its dif- 
ferences. In my opinion, it is much 
better to make use of the word splay , 
than of flare . A better understand- 
ing may be gleaned of what is re 
quired by the expression of “ a hopper 
with all sides splayed, 11 or “with 
three, 44 or 44 two sides ,4 splayed, than 
to say a “hopper w’ith all sides 
flared, 4 ’ etc., etc. I shall not make 
use of the word flare in what follows 
in these papers, 

IIOPP8R CUTS, 

while not being either a correct 
geometrical expression, or classical 
Knglish, has, or should have, a dis- 
tinct meaning for the carpenter. The 
term includes all the angles and lines 
necessary to form an inverted or reg- 
ular pyiamid. by the use of boards, 
planks or timber. The term hopper- 
cut, is perhaps rather an unhappy 
one, as it conveys the impression that 
the term means “ doing the work of 
cutting, 44 instead of laying out or 
finding out the lines of guidance for 
the cutting ; but the term has become 
such a fixture in technical phraseol- 
ogy that we must accept it just as we 
find it. In the formation of a hopper, 
nearly all the lines employed, except 
possibly base lines, are bevels. The 
angle points are not usually mitres, 
and with the exception of base lines, 
there are no right angles obtainable 
on horizontal or perpendicular lines. 
Right angles are only obtainable from 
lines of inclination ; true mitres, or 
angles of 45 0 , can only be obtained 
from a horizontal plane taken from 
some fixed point in the pyramid. 

Hoppers may have one side or all 
sides splaytd. Hip and valley roofs 
are in whole or in part, inverted hop- 
pers, and saddle roofs are inverted 
hoppers with two splayed and two 
perpendicular sides. 

Having explained this much, I 
think the reader will fully understand, 
if he keeps these explanations in 
mind, all that I purpose saying and 
showing in these papers. 

As a first example I offer a very in- 
teresting study of a pyramid having 
a square base, and which will help 
the young student very much to un- 
derstand the principles that underlie 
the proper construction of hoppers in 
general : — Let 2 in thei««agram shown 
at Flj. I represent the base of a pyra- 
mid ; erect on one of its sides the tri- 



angle A, B, V, draw’ from A, and B, 
through V, the perpendicular dotted 
line V, L, then from V, and parallel 
with A, B, draw* V, b, then continue B, 
V, toS. Make F,S, same length as A, 
F, or F, V. Continue A, V.toH, joinS, 
H,and the fout sides of the pyramid are 
spread out, and these, when bent over 
into position, inclose and terminate 
in point V, as may be clearly shown 
by having the drawing made on card- 
board and cut Before this is done, 
however, some important points 
should be made manifest to the reader ; 
namely, the slant or splay and the 
perpendicular height of sides ; these 
are found by squaring up from B to 
K ; then take L as a centre and V as 
radius, make the curve cutting B, K, at 
K ; draw’ from it through I, ; then IS, 
L, is the splay or inclination of the 
sides, and B, IS, their perpendicular 
heights. Now suppose the sides are 
to be mitred at each angle ; this will 
require a bevel, which is found by 
making B, C, equal to B, L , take B, as 
a centre and for radius a line touching 
L, K, cutting at D ; join this to C, and 
you have the bevel for mitring as 
shown. 

If the corners are not to be mitred 
but finished with butt joints for which 
a bevel must be found, w’e simply 
square up from L, to K, from the line 
L IS The bevel is then obtained by 
taking any point, say R, in line A, B, 
and square down from it cutting the 



To accomplish this, make slight 
cuts on the lines V, S, V, b, and 
V, A. These cuts form hinges; lift 
the piece and fold the sides in the 
ba e, and the result is a complete 
model of a pyramid, having a square 
base, with its sides slanting, and ter- 
minating in a point V. 

bxamples of this sort, that may be 
set up before ihe student ’s eyes and 
explained as this one may be, form 
object lessons that are readily under- 
stood, and that can be grasped by the 
ordinary mind with very little effort. 

These diagrams are left large so 
that they may be easily copied and 
transferred to caid board for practical 
instruction. 

This method of developing the pyr- 
amid, though old as the hills, is now 
presented in a somewhat different 
manner than ever before, and, I be- 
lieve, in a way that will be easily un- 
derstood. 

( To be continued ) 



A COMBINATION of the engineering 
trades of Great Britain is in progress 
on a basis of $50. 001 »,000. 

An osciM.oc.RAi'it, for tracing 
alternate current w’ave forms of 
potential difleience, gives results 
which arc extremely interesting and 
records the extremely short j>eriodic 
time of 1 io, oooth of a second. 

H 




'< 



\ 



\ 





/ 



! / 



N 



A / J K 

' Vj 

% 






z 



kK 




Ji 



* 



L — X 

Phi. r. — DEVELOPMENT OP 



line K, I«, at P. Take K, as a centre, 
and for radios a circle touching L, K, 
cutting A, B, at J : join J, I», and this 
line will be the bevel desired. 

If this figure be drawn on cardboard 
and the three sides X, X, X, of the 
square base be cut away and a slight 
cut made on A, B, so as to form a 
hinge and then cut clear through B, 
V, H, and all outer Hues from H, 
down to A, the sides of the pyramid 
will be ready to place in position- 



TIIE PYRAMID. 

A double rope trainway is being 
built in San Prancisco for Alaska. 

The tendency and the necessities 
of the hour call for still heavier rails 
-80 pound sections are now common. 
The heavier the rail the less the eflect 
of stress of the train. At present 105 
and 1 07. pound rails are the heaviest 
used in this country, but i20*pound 
rails are coming in. 





THE CARPENTER. 



13 



t 

i 



The Lively Ooat. 



BOUT 2 o’clock the other 
morning Colonel Wink- 
ler, who resides in W^st 
End, was awakened by 
his wife, says the Atlanta 
Constitution . 

lie turned over, rubbed bis eyes, 
yawned and inquired : 

“What’s matter, wife? What’s 
matter ? ” 

“ Matter enough ' ” replied the lady 
who was wide awake “That cow, 
man ! She’s just eating up all my rose 
bushes— the yard— don’t you hear 
her? Get up, man, and run her out 
— quick ? Winkler— now, please do 

go at once ! ” 

The Colonel aiose languidly, and 
slipping on his slippers made his im- 
mediate exit at the front entrance in 
his night robe. Picking his way 
cautiously upon the lawn and peering 
into the darkness, he heard a peculiar 
aniiile. 

And the next moment the dim out- 
lines of a large white male goat 
appeared before him. Without the 
slightest hesitation the goat reared 
on his hind legs and made a lunge at 
the Colonel, who just had time to 
throw up both hands and grab the 
animal by the horns. 

The goat pulled back, swayed for. 
ward, threw his body in the air, 
sniilled and snorted, and finally began 
a series of jerks which made Winkler 
dance around with intense alacrity. 
The unhappy Colonel tightened his 
grip at every jerk, which made hi9 
hands tingle and burn as though 
clasping a live wire. 

“ Ye gods ! ” muttered Winkler 
beneath his teeth, “but ain’t this the 
devil of a fix ? I'm afraid to turn him 
loose. He’d stab me in the back with 
his horns before I could make the 
door. Guess I’ll have to hold him 

At times the animal would become 
quiet. He then reared back and 
jumped forward in such a rough and 
reckless way that Wiukler kicked his 
slippers off in the effort to hold him 
down and was finally landed in his 
bare feet on the gravelled walk, puf- 
fing and blowing, while the goat stood 
at bay, his horns still firmly clutched. 

Just then the voice of his wife called 
from the house : 

1 Why, man, haven’t you driven 
that cow out yet?” 

“Cow, the very devil ! It’s no cow 
at all! It's an infernal goat, and we 

are having a of a ue out here 

- but I’ll conquer him >et— see if I 
don’t!" 

Here the goat landed his hind legs 
In mid air and tried to stand on his 
head on I he Colonel's bosom. 

“Conquer him!” responded his 
wife in high soprano, “why don’t 
you run him into the street ?’’ 

“Shucks, woman "’yelled Winkler, 
“ you must be wild ! Run him into 
the street, the devil! Just come out 
here and look at us !” 

Mrs. Winkler at this time poked 
her head out of the window, and, 
holding a lamp to the front, looked. 

“ Well !” she cried,” if that don’t 
beat the— Kh ! eh ! Why don’t you let 
the brute go and kick him out of the 
gate?” 

“ 1 say it, woman ! Do you think 




I want to be murdered in my own 
yard f ’ 1 

Here the goat bellowed and shoved 
Winkler about ten feet over the sharp 
gravels. 

41 But you can outrun the old ras- 
cal !” suggested the lady. 

44 I tell you I can’t I wouldn’t risk 
turning him loose for a million dol- 
lars! Dress quick and come out 
here and throw something over me. 
I’m about to freeze to death, and 
besides it will soon be daylight, and 
people will be passing ” 

Mrs. Winkler said 44 All right.” 
She spent a little lifetime adjusting 
her apparel, and meantime Winkler 
had his hands full, for as day began 
to break the goat, sniffing the fresh 
morning air, became friskier than 
ever, and in addition to pul’ing and 
pushing the old man up and down the 
gravel walk, began to bellow. 

This attracted the attention of a 
policeman, who walked leisurely up 
to the fence, and, after spitting on the 
sidewalk, looked over. 

44 You see my position?” said 
Winkler. 

“’.Ms, I see it - but posishun, old 
mon, is ivery thing, an‘ I guess you’ll 
have ter hole yer base, e/. yer can’t 
make er home run ? Good mownin,” 
and the policeman walked off. 

Presently a tall man riding a pony 
came up. He stopped. 

44 My friend, *’ said Winklei, 4 can’t 
you give me a lift ?” 

44 1 guess not,” replied the tall 
man 44 the goat will do that. Be- 
sides, I’m a temperance man, and 
cannot take a horn"' and he rode 
on. 

Then three boys tode up *n a milk 
wagon They stopped. 

44 What, oh, what shall I do?” 
whined Winkle*. 

One of them yelled : 

44 Go in the house and get a gun 
and shoot the white-whiskered old 
rascal ! ” 

Another suggested : 

44 Butt him square between the eyes 
and kill him ! ’ 

The third boy advised the Colonel 
to throw the goat on his back and 
skin him alive. 

44 If that don’t go — ” 

44 Lynch ’im!” screamed the trio in 
chorus, and drove off laughing. 

After a while, when poor Winkler 
was on the point of losing his mind, 
and likewise his grip, an awkward 
negro man ambled up to the fence 
and exclaimed : 

44 Dah he now ! Dah dat goat ’ 
Kum here. Billy, Willy, Billy ! 
Whut you doin’ wid ?ry goat, white 
man ? Whut make you does dat good 
goat dat way— dat ’s whut I say.” 

44 Oh, I’m just playing with him,” 
said Winkler with deep irony. “ But 
I’m tired now, and you can have 
him.” 

“Yaas, an' what's more, um 
gwinter hab ’im. Here, Billy, Willy, 
Billy!” and with this the negro 
reached over the fence with a long 
fishing pole and tickled the end of 
the goat’s tail. 

The animal sprang high in the air 
and as he came down gave a supreme 
twist, wrenching his horns from 
Winkler’s hand, and throwing him 
sprawling up*>n the graveled ground, 
cleared the fence at a bound and fol- 



lowed the negro out Gordon street as 
if nothing unusual had happened. 

Just as Winkler arose painfully from 
the walk and slowly pulled himself 
together his wife, who was now 
dressed appeared upon the scene. 

And as they walked back into the 
hr use she was begging the Colonel to 
tell her how he had got rid of the goat, 
and he was swearing that he would 
not gratify her curiosity for 20<> oco 
goats of so' id gold. 



Interesting Items. 



A German iron and steel trust is in 
process of formation against Ameri- 
can competition. 

Last year 500 000 serpents were 
killed in India, on which a bounty of 
$100,000 w’as paid. 

Two new lines of freight steamers 
are to be established between Norfolk, 
Va., and European ports. 

The better industrial conditions in 
Europe have created a heavier demand 
for fine American leather. 

Solid mail trains of six to eight 
cars now run from New’ York to Chi- 
cago in twenty four hours. 

The Strache patent, for making 
hydrogen light, threatens tobe a new’ 
competitor with gas and electricity. 

There is twice as much timber in 
Canada as in the United States. Rus- 
sia is next to Canada, with 300,001» 000 
acres. 

The Cascade Tunnel Railway, 
which will be 13,000 feet long when 
completed, will be finished in eighteen 
months. 

Provision is now being made by 
railroad managers to equip portions 
of the road to allow of a speed of 100 
miles an hour. 

* 

Switzerland built forty seven of 
its 105 miles of electric road last year 
and waterfalls furnish the power of 
one half the mMeage. 

In 1891 there were 541 coal cutting 
machines in the United States ; in 
1897 there were 1198 machines with 
an output of 22,649,000. 

M. Dtcretet is erecting poles at 
Nmcy and Maxeville, France, from 
which to experiment on wireless teleg- 
raphy across the Atlantic. 

The temperature of the soil one 
foot below the surface is slightly 
higher than that of air in Summer 
and about the same in winter. 

The fact that 264 persons were 
killed in one year and 667 persona 
injured on th* Prussian railways, has 
led to a movement to use automatic 
couplers. 



The upward rush of prices for manu- 
facture 1 products in England has 
scared many consumers and merchants 
out of the markets of England, except 
for absolutely necessary purchases. 

& 

Railway improvements in Syria 
promise great results in the develop- 
ment of trade. In two years Damascus 
will have a standard gauges road, 
which will tap the Ilauran wheat 
fields. 

SixTY-thousand pound capacity 
freight cars are being supplanted by 
80000 pound cars as fast as they can 
be turned out. Those roads that are 
using 100,000 pound cars are forcing 
other roads to adopt this standard. 
There is a steady increase of static 
wheel loads and speed of trains. 

& 

The world’s wine production in 
1897 (latest report), 2,363,393000, of 
which France produced the largest 
percentage, viz., 29.64 ; Italy followed 
with 2368 per cent ; Spain is third 
with 17 Do; the United States comes 
seventeenth in the list, producing 
only 1 03 per cent. Spring frosts 
have greatly reduced the French vint- 
age this year. 

The great serviceability of gas 
engines over steam engines is shown 
in the conduct of a 65 h^rse pow’er 
engine in a New York company's 
pow’er house. In four and a half 
months it ran 3 05S hours out of a 
possible 3,28s hours, or an average of 
22 hours per day. The average 
consumption of gas is from ioyi to 12 
cubic feet of natural gas per brake 
horse power hour. 

Alcoholic beverages in Great Bri- 
tain contribute about 36 per cent, of the 
net imperial revenue. The same per- 
centage is realized in Germany ; in 
the United States 28 per cent, comes 
from this source ; England makes 
none of the wine consumed, but 
France produces So per cent. ; Ger- 
many manufactures 7S per cent, of 
her alcoholic beverages and the United 
States SS per cent. 

& 

A new scheme is being evolved in 
some London shipyards aiming at 
greater harmony between employers 
and workmen, and is based on a 
division of extra pay for extra good 
work In proportion to the wages paid 
each workman. Each trade elects 
one representative from each twenty 
workmen, and these, with their fore- 
man, constitute a trade committee 
from which one is selected for the 
general council. It is an experiment. 

& 

So popular have become American 
electrical equipments and appliances 
inGreal Britain that a company made 
up of Ameiicans has been established 
with a capital of $1.000 000 to make 
American equipment. Eleven acres 
of ground have been puichased at 
Preston. 1 ne main machine shop will 
be 900 feet long by 120 feet wide; 
foundry, 500 feet by 80 feet It will, 
of course, be operated by electricity, 
and orders for $200 000 worth of ma- 
chinery has been placed on this side. 
The present capacity will be 1,200 car 
equipments per annum and 1,000 men 
will be employed. 



1* 



\ 

* 







I 

i 




14 



THE CARPENTER. 



SPIRIT OH THE LABOR PRESS. 

Think and Act Too. 

Increasing poverty of opportunity 
demands the eight hour day. The 
wealth of the country is increasing at 
a marvelous rate, but the income of 
the poor is increased or held station- 
ary only where good organization ia 
maintained. In these centers of 
industry where organizations have 
shortened hours, wages are at the 
highest point and idleness less preva- 
lent than where long hours are in 
vogue. 

A delicate half* fed body is no match 
for disease. Strengthen up your 
union, nourish it as you would a true 
friend, and it will repay you many 
times. 

Just think of it, you Americans, 
the conditions in this glorious 
country have come to a point where 
women are obliged to seek employ- 
ment in iron mills. — The Toiler . 

Don’t Be Killed Outright. 

Should the scaffold you had worked 
upon fall, be careful not to die in- 
stantly. For if you do your depend- 
ents will get no more damages thau 
a ten dollar bill. Die slow ; let your 
agony be excruciating and long drawn 
out. 

Ten dollars represents the value of 
a laborer’s life, destroyed through the 
negligence of his employer, when 
death comes with merciful quickness. 
When death is not instantaneous the 
sum is tobe increased according to the 
intensity and length of the agony 
suffered. 

This is in substance the decision of 
Judge Robinson of the Connecticut 
Superior Court. An employee had 
been killed by a train upon the Con- 
solidated Railroad. It seemed that he 
died instantly. The heirs sued for 
$5,000 damages, the limit allowed by 
Connecticut law. 

The plea of contributory negligence 
was not resorted to, strange to say. 
The counsel for the railway company 
raised the novel point that the man 
killed had not been made to suffer. 
He was killed instantly and therefore 
his heirs could not legally claim sub- 
stantial damages. “Unless, 1 * he 
argued, “ it could be proved that death 
was not instantaneous, no more than 
nominal damages could be recovered. ” 

The lawyer who appeared for the 
heirs urged that the mangled condi- 
i tion of the body made suffering pre- 
Isumptive. The judge invited him to 
' prove that death was not instantane- 
ous, but this was necessarily impos- 
sible. So he fixed the damages at 
ten dollars ! 

What a travesty upon justice ! 
What an outrage upon humanity ! It 
costs less to kill a laborer in Con- 
necticut than it does to kill your 
neighbor ’s dog ! Orders may now be 
issued to engineers when running 
through a fog in the vicinity of track 
gangs to put on all steam and kill 
outright. Then the victim will suffer 
no pain, and that factor determinative 
of damages in the event of a suit, 
shall have been precluded. 

That such men can reach the bench 
is a sad commentary upon political 
preferment as it obtains in this 
country. 

The people of Connecticut should 



hold mass meetings condemnatory' oi 
this violent decision. Humanity cries 
out against it. It ravages every sense 
of decency. It must be reversed ! 
The stain it places upon the fair 
name of the state must be removed. 
To allow ii to remain would be to 
deserve the reproach of all lovers of 
justice. Political judges and juries 
must be made impossibilities, or soon 
shall we see justice writhing in their 
coils--a Laocoon. 

The wanton sacrifice of life, and the 
comparative immunity from punish- 
ment enjoyed by corporations will 
never end till the day that witnesses 

“ The freeman casting with un pur- 
chased hand 

The rote that shakes the turrets of the 
land .” — 1 Irick layer and Mason . 

Thk Journeymen Stonecutters' 
Association, of New York, is over 
seventy-two years old. At its meet- 
ing rooms at Brevoort Hall, is a ban- 
ner which was carried in parades in 
1832. It was the first trades union 
in this country to make a fight for 
the eight-hour work day in 1809, 
which it won after being on strike 
seventeen weeks. It ha., maintained 
it ever since. 

British Labor Notes. 

Kditor Carpenter. 

The eight-hour question is being 
discussed by many inlluential trades 
councils in Scotland, and there seems 
to be a growing determination to push 
it vigorously to a definite issue. 

Signs are not wanting to convince 
the most casual observer that another 
of those disa. 4 trous struggles that are 
so very injurious to the building trades 
commenced on the 6th inst., when 
the plasterers were locked out. The 
exact number of men affected cannot 
be ascertained for several days, as the 
returns from distant branches have 
not yet come to hand. The struggle 
will surely be a fight to the bitter end, 
as both sides are well organized and 
determined not to give in. The affi- 
liated trades will contributed to the 
suppoit of the plasterers by means of a 
general levy. Some of the trades 
union leaders are confident that the 
men can beat the bosses hands down. 

I am not so sure that they will, for 
this reason : The employers in the 
different branches of the building 
trades are forming a federation on 
similar lines to that of the employers 
in the engineering trade. I would 
feel more sanguine as to the outcome 
of the strike If the much talked of 
federation of trades unions had been 
an accomplished fact, but I greatly 
fear that the prejudices and petty 
jealousies existing will not speedily 
conduce to that desirable end. 

The relative strength and wealth of 
the trades unions In the building 
trades in England, according to the last 
annual report, has been made known, 
but it would take up too much space to 
particularize. The number of mem- 
bers is given as 176,329, and the 
amount of funds is $1,6^1,025. 

A strike in the cotton trade is likely 
to take place at an early date. Notice 
has been given by the Operatives’ 
Associations for an advance of 7^ 
per * .. and it appears to be more 

than probable that the demand will 
be resisted by the employers 
Horwich , England . Justitia, 



Blind Broom Makers Strike. 

The blind broom makers who were 
locked out of the workshop at the 
Pennsylvania Working Home for 
Blind Men, Philadelphia, last Week, 
because they demanded an increase of 
10 cents per hundred brooms sized, 
have made the following statement : 

“We, the employees of the Penn- 
sylvania Working Home for Blind 
Men, desire to submit the follow ing : 

44 In the history of the institution, 
which extends over a period of more 
than twenty-four years, it has never 
before been necessary to close the 
home, although frequently from 12,000 
to 15,000 dozen brooms have been in 
stock. Therefore the statement made 
by Superintendent II. L. Hall, that he 
was obliged to close the shop on 
account of there being a large stock on 
hand, consisting of 6000 dozen brooms, 
is erroneous. 

44 The true source of the trouble is 
that division of broom manufacturing 
known as 4 sizing. ' For years the 
sizers have been meagerly paid, and 
the superintendent has taken to him- 
self the right to draft men from the 
winding and sewing dapartments, 
where the w’ages are much higher, 
into the sizing department, any time 
he thought fit. This we objected to, 
and at the same time we demanded 
higher pay for sizers. At present not 
more than >3 a week can be made ly 
the best sizers, and this is not living 
wages. 

“ It may be interesting to the public 
to know* that the increase was refused, 
despite the fact that the institution 
purchased its corn at half the present 
market price. It may also be interest- 
ing to know that, notwithstanding 
the claim that the institution has been 
obliged to close down on account of 
surplus stock, it has frequently been 
obliged in years past, with twice the 
amount of the present stock on hand, 
to refuse orders when the trade opened. 

44 It is to be remembered that there 
are 150 men, forty of whom are married 
and have families dependent upon 
them, depending on the home for em- 
ployment. 

St my Away From. 

Helena, Montana. — The city is 
crowded with unemployed. Give no 
heed to advertisements calling for 
carpenters and joiners. 

Jh 

Seattle, Wash. — Carpenters are 
urged to keep away from this section, 
as it is overrun with idle men repre- 
senting all branches of the building 
trades. 

jh 

Oklahoma City, O. T.- Carpen- 
ters and joiners are requested to stay 
away from this territory as it is 
crowded with idle men. The wages 
paid are small and the hours ol labor 
are long. 

Jh 

Kansas City, Mo. — Carpenters are 
requested to stay away from this city. 
Do not be misled by boom articles in 
the newspapers. Very little building 
being done and plenty of idle men 
around. 

jh 

Sceanton, Pa. — Work has stopped 
on all building operations in this city, 
except on those where tue contractors 
have granted the demands of the 
union men. Carpenters are advised 
to stay away from Scranton. There 
is a general strike on at present* 




28 a liest lit Wenuag ' 

Le ©erarmung ber Utaffcn maty 
grauenhafte ftortfehritte. Tie 
Wücfwirfung ber weiteren (Snt* 
nmfelung ber prioatfapitaufti* 
f<h*n Probuftion erfaßt unb 
rüttelt gewaltig an ben Weiijni 
bet mute l ft an beb. Tie fteigernbe Arbeit«, 
lofigfeit laflet auch lebroer auf bem Kleinge. 
roeibetreibenben. 28ohin man työxt unb 
blieft, tönen einem auch au« biefen Weihen 
bie Klagen über ben allgemeinen flechten 
(MeidjäfUgang entgegen. Kein Klemgeichäft 
will mehr gefctn, auch bie laffimrtefte We. 
flame lieht nicht mehr, bie ©roß»@efchafte 
oertreiben immer mehr bie Meinen. Sage« 
ficht« bev fich ooUüehenben Thatfachm 
tnüfjen wir eb al« eine Treifligfeit bezeichnen, 
wenn 2eute, bie fogar Anfprucß erheben, al* 
Sozialpolitifer zu gelten, bie (Sntwicfelungo. 
gefeje ber pnoatfapitaliflifchen ©robuftion 
zu leugnen wagen, fie ignoriren, al« garnicht 
oorhanben anfehen. 

21>er buch nur feben will, ben fann man mit 
ber ©brafe, bie bürgerliche ©ffeUfißaft«orb* 
nung fei bie befte, bie ouUfommenfte. bie 
unübertroffenste, nicht mehr föbern. Schon 
im regelmäßigen ©erlauf ber fapitalifchen 
fntwnfelung wirb bie fcage ber Arbeiter eine 
imntn unterere, eine oerz®eifeltere, unb 
fortan werben Konflifte zwilchen Arbeitern 
unb Arbeitgebern gemelbet ; gebenfen wir 
ber großen Streife« ber le|ten 3<*h*en, unb 
befonber« was ft<h ie|t im füeften, in 28ar* 
ben, ^baßo, abfpielt. Ta leben wir fchneU 
bao militär ben Kapitalien zur Seite ftehen. 
Tann ben Ufa«, ben (Menetal merriam, 
bem Jyührer ber Bunbeololbateofe unb bem 
Beauftragten be« ameufanifchen Kapttalit* 
mu« üt lar^e. J$ür b xt amenfanifeben Ar* 
beiter liegt Die Mahnung in biefen ©orfällen 
mit aller ihnen zur ©erfiigung ftehenben 
©nergie an bie Eroberung ber politifchen 
macht für fich felbft, für bic flaffenbewußte 
Irbeiterfchaft bet ^anbet zu geben. Tenn 
nur bann, bo m allem liegt für fie bie mög* 
lichfeit, biefem Ichrotphertifchen ©ebaßren 
ber AusbeuterMaffe eine Carole zu bieten. 

2üenn in feiten fo großer ©rofperität, wie 
wir un« berfelben angeblich ]eht erfreuen, 
gedieht, wa« fleh in biefem ÄugenMicf tm 
28eften abfpielt— wa« foil erft werben, wenn 
bie rücfflutbenbe 28eUe bet wirthfchaUlnhen 
Mieberganget, bie früher ober fpäter fällig 
ift, ft<h über unter ^anb ergießen wirb ? ! 

Tie prioatfapitaliftJche ©robuftion fann 
unb will nicht ftehen bleiben. Sie brängt 
unb jagt nach immer größerem profit, fie ift 
unerfättlich tn ber Weiththumeßäufung. Tie 
3agb nach ©rojit, bie ©ter nach Weichthum 
fann nur befriebigt werben burch bat lieber* 
flampfen zahlreicher bi« babm gefieberter 
iSjiftenzen. Tie ©etroffenen, bie ©efcßäbig* 
ten fmb bie Arbeiter unb Kleingewerbetreib* 
enben. Tem Arbeiter hat bie prioatfapital* 
iftifcße ©robuftion bie Arbeitsmittel, ffierf* 
Zeuge, Wuhmaterialien, u. f. w., fchon au« 
ber £anb geRblagen, be«gleichen auch f<ßon 
einer großen Anzahl felbftftänbiger $anb* 
werter, unb biejenigen berfelben, bie noch 
glauben, fehlten zu fönnen, erhalten fo 
empfinblnhe Schläge, baß fie fl<h barunter 
trümmen unb wtnben, baß man nerfucht wer» 
ben fönnte, mitleib mit ben armen Tröpfen 
ZU empfinben, geritten fie fi# nicht gerate 
al« bie bomirteften Arbeiterfeinbe. Seit* 
bem ber menfcßliche ®eift fuh Me Waturfcäfte 
bienftbar gemacht hat, fleht bie ©ntroicfelung 
btr ©efeüfcßaft unter bem Reichen ber 
maffenprobuftion. An bie Stelle be« Jüerf* 
Zeuges ift bie ®af chine getreten. Ter $n* 
buftrialitmu« beherrfcht unbeftritten fchon 
bie meiften Arbeitsgebiete. £ange wirb e« 
nicht mehr bauern, fo fann fich fein Arbeit«« 
gebiet mehr feiner Dberherrfchaft entziehen. 

Tie nie ber Waft bebürftigen, bie nie er* 
lahmenbe mafchtnc hat ben Arbeiter erfeßt, 
hat ihn )um beflßlofen Proletarier gemacht 
unb fchlägt auch bem le|ten feeder non 
S&erfzeug felbigei au« ber $anb, brüeft ihn 
in bie Weihen ber öep|lofen hinab. Ter 
Arbeiter ift |um Knecht ber SUfchine gewor* 
ben, er ift oon berfelben abhängig unb un* 
barmherzig läßt fie ihn ihr Uebergewcht 





THE CARPENTER 



15 



fühlen. ^nftinftio erfannten bie Arbeiter 
Iti Cinfüljcung ber MUajchine in bemfelben 
thr«»n fteinb. Sie fügten, bafc Tu ttbetftüffig 
würben, bu& fie non ben ctf*rnen, nie er« 
lafcmenben Atmen erbiücfc würben. Hod) 
fatten bie ATbeitei ben inneren 3ufammen« 
baiiq be« oerwicfelten ^robuftion#pro|effe« 
nicht etfauit nub be«balb rubtete fich th* 
3orti flehen ben erftanbenen Konfurrenten 
unb äufcerte fid) oielfad) in ber ^etftorung 
bet Aiafdjinr. 

lie Vethörten haben ihre Unflugheit ferner 
büfecn müffen. War tl)ie Unflughut aber 
nicht eine oeneiblichtp eine enUdjulbbare ? 
Das wup bie 'ili beiter bei Ginfübrung be« 
SJnbufinuliemu« nur inft.nfuo fuhren, bun» 
fei ahnten, ift in uoUftem, überreichem iWafje 
eingetreten. Cu* finb übetflüjfiq Geworben 
in eilchrecfenbem Wabe unb mit Rittern nnb 
3«gen üernehmen fie heute bie ^eitunq«na<h* 
rieht, welcbe bie Jtunbe non einet ne len Uta« 
ferine ober ber oeibefferten Stonftruftion einer 
funfnonirenben bringt. Xbiffen ue buch, bafj 
iebe folche neue Runbe bem Xobeourthetl 
tauienber fleißiger, arbei:«roiUiqer Arbeiter 
gUuh ifl. 

Xtofc bieder UtuffenfaltfteUang ruhtet ftch 
bet ;fotn unb bie Qtnpöcung ber Arbeiter 
nicht mehr gegen b<rit fic$:bav uermeintlichen 
& inb, bie Vßaichtne. Airgenb« fommt m*hr 
eine ^etfiorunq berfelben, tote fofehe oor 
finem halben Jahrhunbert an ber Xageeorb« 
nun# roar, mehr oor. Xie Arbeiter habm 
§nm Xh^il ben unfiebtbaren Jvfinb, welcher 
bie Via djme erft gegen fte in« X reffen führt, 
erfar.r.t, unb ihn au« feinem Sdjlupfroiufel 
heir nc<»ugen unb oor alle Welt Mofegefteät. 

X u Arbeiter muffen aber erfennen, unb fic h 
flat weioen bafr es nur bie pnoaifapitaliftifche 
JBirth'chaftöform tfi, ber ^rioutbefi^ an ben 
^robufiion&mitteln, welche bie < Xl^ätic;feit ber 
Äa'chine nicht §um Segen aller AUnfrhen 
getnehen läfct, fonbern bie Hci<htbu!iu>auT* 
u-tg ber Wenigen geftatt et, währenb bie 
grobe iKeh‘tahl be« C.'if:« allaemetnei Jloih 
unb Verltumtung entgegengeführt witb. 

Gm Untecfomnen finoen bie A*rmftm faft 
niigenb«, benn in ieber anberen Branche uoü« 
lieht iid) faft ber gleiche ba* Alle* 

w«iH ber benlfähige Arbeiter. ^ber er ntufc 
auJi wiffen, bag, wenn bie Witfung ber 
ptioatfapitaliftifchen ^robuftiort aufhörtn 
folile, oiele felber von ber Vtlbfläche ver« 
füjiüi.ibtn niufi, ba foUen oie Verheerungen 
welche bie ie|ige Wirihf^afttotbnung unter 
ben Arbeitern anrichtet, auibören, befeitigt 
werben, bieie Vhrthfcha'iÄocbnung feibft ba« 
9tlb täumen, Der fojialiftifcf)»r. ©eielifdjaft 
V©* maiften muft. 

Von Xaq zu X«q erweitert fid) Da* <*Jebiet 
aut Dem bie Muidjme btt Arbeit 

oevMar.qi, nuifij'nbi. 2Dtt iteljrn an rintm 
Srnbtpur.ft. Xu lin'TUui'Iunq b<i »rioat« 
{av'.tahitd4tn 1i;obu(ttmi maebt au<b ibrt 
itAnnftm Bettbrti icbUrbli^ ftu|iq. S djun 
fint) tt m<bt btoft btt iKrbttttr, mflrtit an bie 
Uiri-benben «laflen bie ,>raqc rieten : ,/Ä>o 
foD oa« hinauf?" Mucf) anbei:, ber herr» 
Mb'nben Rlafje anqtbijtiqett tinf(4»tiqe Ätn* 
ftbeu erheben ihre toarnenbe ®timme, unb 
mahnen, ben 'Arbeitern einen qröfeeren Kn» 
th« it am «rbeitfertraq m« qeroähren. 

Jüan fiebt hterau«. bah. iobalb nur ^(e< 
ntanb ben tbtlnben SUiUeu h 3 ^ ben ®i| befi 
Uebel* ber ibtiavmunq ber IHaifen tu crltn» 
nen, er bei qrünbltcber 'Jiachtoriihunq tu bem 
Xeiuttat qelanqt, baft bem Arbeitet ber Ar» 
feeilsertraq norenthalten tutrb. &o qut ber 
Bortchlug jioar qemetnt fein maq, ben Ar» 
beitem einen qtöfeeren Amheil am Arbeite» 
«ttrag, an ber S8}aarenerjeti|iing )ti qeiräh» 
ten, fo »ft bieterftorf«bIaq in Oer bürgerlichen 
©efellfchaft nicht burdinibrbav fo lange bie 
CetDoUfommnung ber Wafchinentechmf outu 
gebraucht mirb, einen Xheil unb itroar einen 
betiächtlichtn 2h<ti» bei arbeitenben Volle« 
non ber 30aarener)eugung oollflänbig au« ju« 
|d)liefcen. 

hierin liegt ber franthafle ,>fuq ber prioat» 
lapitaliftifchen ^irubuttion, bie felber ba« 
tobtliche ©ift in taujeub Ranälen btm©efell» 
fchafUförper fortmährenb emfpci|t, eine ©e» 
funbuug beffelben nicht ju Staube fommen 
|äfit.- Xit ©efunbung ber gefeP'ibaftltcben 
Berhaltniife ^dngt baoon ab, buf> alle Wen« 



^chen jur Arbeit jugelaffen, Reiner ba»on 
au«gefch(offen mirb, unb baft Alle ben (Ertrag 
ihrer gefellfchaftltch ju (eiftenben Arbeit un» 
terltü|t erhalten. 

Xarum liegt bte Weitung be« arbeitenben 
Volte« aus ber ihm brohenben Verelenbung 
einjig unb allein in ber fotialiftifchm ©efetl» 
fchaft. 'Jtur fte braucht nicht »u jittern baft 
Hu oiel probuiirt müroe, benn ie mehr bie 
Vtobuftion gefteigert mtrben fann, umfomehr 
nurb ber Verbrauch tunebmen, ber Sebenige» 
nuft bee ©inteluen in fCLtohlbehagen auSIauftn. 

'Jtur in ber fo)ialiftifchen ©efettfehaft mirb 
unb lann bie Vtafcbine bie menfchltche Arbeit«» 
traft entlaften, ohne ben ©ntlafteten jum 
fluche )u gereichen. Jtur in bet fojialifti» 
leben ©efetl<4)aft gehören alle Arbeitlmittel 
ber ©efellfchaft, beren b*<hft't 3beal barin 
befteht, unter ber meitgthenbft’n Venuffung 
ooUtommener JJtafchinentechmt unb nur bet 
notbmenbigflen Venuyung menfchlicher Ar» 
beitotcaft aller itenfehen einen gleiihmüftigen 
©enuft an ben erfeugten Gütermengen hu ge» 
flatten. Jtur in ber fojialiftifchen 0efeUf©aft 
liegt bi* Jtettung, benn fie ift nicht* Anbere* 
als bie Verförperung barmonifih«3nt*™ff«'‘ 
gemeint »h a ft. 

D., Wtitglieb ber 
Ü o f a l Union 375, 
Jtero 'flott. 



(fine mnhtige ffntfd)eibung. 



genben ^aü aumenbet, ift e« liar, baft bie 
oon ben Verflagten angeroanbten Vtitteln 
buvehau* gefeytich roaren, unb oeehalb ift ber 
Antrag auf ©rlaft eine* ©inhaltebefeht* mit 
#10 Jtoften abqeroiefen." 



Rupf unb Dtagen. 



Go f<h»K*rHlich e« für bie ©antibealen auch 
fein mag, e« läftt ftch nicht beftteiteu, baft 
ber JRentch einen JJtagen hat, baft er effen 
unb perbauen muft. Xer ^bealfte foqat fühlt 
ftch mit einem leeren JJtagen nicht befonbet« 
ftart baju aufgelegt, ben Sieg be« ©eifte« 
übev ben ftörper ju beftngen. Xer gtnialfie 
ft opf roirb fchmachoollermeife in feinen Juni» 
tionen geftört, trenn ber JJtaqeu allnu prole» 
tarifch, ooltltüchenhaft behanbelt mirb, ober 
gar menn eine §ungerfur burchgemacht tuet» 
ben in ift. Xie bleichen ©enie«, bie im eit« 
falten JJtanfarbenfiübchen, in ber leftten }<t« 
rtffenen ^ufe ftecfenb, beim le|ten Xalgltcht» 
ftümpfchen, an ber leftten troefenen Cvobfrufte 
nagen, babei aber bie „berrltöften ftunft» 
roerfe für einige 3 € » ten fthaffen/* biefe 
©jrifteu jbebingungen be« ©enie« müffeti in 
ba« ©ebiet ber Fabeleien oetroiefen roerben. 
JLtohm mimmelt bie @ef<hi<hie bet Xenter, 
Xichter, Jtünftler, tStftaber unb ©ntbeefer oon 
£ungerleibem, pon bleichen JJlärtprern ber 
^bee unb be« ©ebanten«, aber man laffe fich 
ja nicht ju bem ©lauben oerleiten, baft ihr 
JJtartprium bie Vorbebingung unb nicht bie 
Solqe ihre« ©enie« mar. Sie litten nicht» 
um ©roftea leiften ju tonnen, thr Seiben mar 
pielmehr bie ^olge ihrer Ueberlegenheit übet 
ben Xurchfchmtt Unb oiele finb barum ju 
©runbe gegangen unb Anbere hat ba« ©lenb 
untermorfen, fte unfähig gemacht, thr Vefie« 
geben iu tonnen. 

Xie Vh*lo^Ph>* oa« öer Gntbehrlichteit 
be« materiellen JDohlbefinben« ift eine Gr» 
finbung ber Satten unb Jüohlgcfütterten. 
Sie ärgern ftch, öaft fte nach jebent auSgiebi» 
gen iyraft «erbauen muffen unb bann roerben 
fte fentimental unb reben oon bem Problem» 
atifchen ber törpetlichen (Jenüffe. 

G» bleibt beftehen, baft eine uoeefntäftige 
Grnährung unb Vehanblung be« ftörpete bie 
nothmenbige Vorauofeftung für eine nolle 
Gntfaltung unb Auebtlbung auch ber ©eiftee» 
gaben ift. Au« biefem ©runbe fann uns ber 
oft erhobene Ginmanb gegen ber. Sojiali«» 
tnti«, er pflege -. t ben Vauch, nicht im ©e« 
rtngften tmponiren. Xiefet Ginmanb jeugt 
oon nicht« Anberetn al« uon ber ©ebanten- 
lofigteit berer, bie ihn erheben. 

Auf Schritt unb Xritt fieften mir ja beute 
auf bie Xhatfache. baft bie materielle Jiotft 
bie Urfache ber ©eifte«trägheit nicht nur, 
tonoern au»h ber @emüih«Derroilbetung ift. 
Viele Xaufenbe ftnb in galliger öejiehung 
al« ni<ht«nuyiger VaQaft ju betrachten, meil 
fte auf bie tieffte Stufe be» materiellen Glenb« 
htnabgefunfen finb. 3h««n lanti feine ibeale 
®?ltanf<hauung etoac helfen, a6er menn fte 
au» ihren $>öhlen be« Jammer« befreit roür» 
ben, menn ihnen bte ©efeUichaft qefunbe 
JUohnungen, qenügenbe 'Währung, Jteinlich» 
teit, iluft unb ^icht gönnen mürbe, fo höbe 
ft© bamit nicht nur ihr törperliche* JUohlbe» 
finoen, auch ihr ©«ift mürbe bie Stufe ber 
©ntivicfelung erreichen, oie feinem ?Befen 
enttpricht. Xie Armutb tnechtet nicht nur 
ben ftörper, fte unteriocht auch ben ©etft. 
unb baher fämpfen mir feinetmeg« nur für 
bie Befriebigung be« Vauch««, mit unlerer 
ftorberung eine oemünfttge ©efeUichaft«» 
Organifation )u etabliren, bie allen ©liebem 
ber ©efeUfcbaft bie JJtittel gur Befriebigung 
ihrer materiellen Vebüifniffe befriebigt. — 
„Süechfel. Blatt." 



Omagtnärt Freiheit unb thatfaiftluhe 
ftnechtfehaft. 



Xiefe* Jßort tonnte man alo JJtoito über 
eine Abhanblung über bie Freiheit be» mo» 
bernen Lohnarbeiter« feften. Xa« JLort 
Freiheit tann nicht bemagogifcher angemanöt 
roerben, al« menn e« in Vejug auf bie 
foyiale Stellung be« Arbeiter« gebraucht 
wtrb. 



Xa ber Arbeiter nicht« beftftt, auch fein 
Vrobuttionimittel, fo ift et für feinen Leben«» 
unterhalt auf ben ftapitaliften angeroiefen 
unb eben baburch gebt ihm feine perfönliebe 
Freiheit oerloren Gr arbeitet ia einjtg unb 
allein für ben Vorteil be« Vefiyer« ber 
VtobufcionSmittel. Sein LebenSjmecf in 
biefer fog. JBeltoronuug beftebt barin, Vrofite 
für Anbere ju fchaffen. Gr ift SBerfjeug, 
fein „Sroogeber" ber $ert. Groig fteht ber 
„freie Arbetier" oor ber Alternatioe, ent» 
roeber ftch bienenb ju fügen, ober ju uerhun» 
gern. G* liegt ein blutiger $obn in ben 
„politifeben Wechten unb Sr<ih<>t<>t", bie ber 
moberne Staat auch ö*m Arbeiter garantirt 
bat. Xiefe Wechte unb Freiheiten ftnb ein 
Spott auf bie JBirtlichfeit, baffeibe, al« menn 
bie Sdaoenbaltcr gu ihren S^roarjen egniieh 
gefagt hätten : ihr fetb frei, unb um Guch 

ba« $u oemonftriren, roerbe ich bem Auffeher 
fofort ben Auftrag geben, eure Wahrung«» 
mittel ju oertingetn. 

SeibftbiftimmungSrecht unb perf5nli<he 
Freiheit fallen gufammen mit roirthfchaftlichtr 
Unabhängigfeit. Xiefe raubt ber Arbeiter» 
daffe ba« bettehenbe Lohn» unb Veutefqftem. 
Sie mirb ©r auch nicht geilend, burch (ein 
Xefret (ann fte ihr oerliehen roerben, fte muft 
erfämpft roerben. Xie Gigenthumlprtoilegim 
einet ftlaffe an ben Vrobuftionsmitteln unb 
bie Lohnarbeit müffen fallen, ehe bie Freih ( tt 
triuinphiren (ann. 



Xer 3tnerf ber me»fd)lid)fn Arbeit. 



Xer ^roeef ber menfchlicben Arbeit, bet 
Vtobuftion, (ann oernünftigermeife nur bann 
eiblitft roerben, ben JXenfchen ba« |U)ufü|reii, 
roa« fie jur Vefriebtgunq ihrer Bebürfniffe 
brauchen. Xu heutige Art ber Vrobuftion 
läftt tiefen 3 ,ue< * völlig auger Acht. Xie 
Grgeugung oon JJtehrroerth ift ba« 3**1» öem 
bte (apitaltftifchen Beherrfcher ber Vrobuftion 
juftreben. Wach bem, ma« oie JJtenfchheit 
braucht, roi« ibr bie Vrobude jur Grhöhunq 
ihrer XafeinSfreube zugänglich gemacht mtr» 
ben foUen, mirb ni0t gefragt. Xen 3 ne <( 
be« gegenwärtigen Vrobudion« > Silit emo 
•lönnte man bahin befiairen, baft ffienige 
burch batfelbe bereichert, bie Sielen auSge» 
beutet unb unterjocht roerben. 

Xiefer V'.obuttionSfoim fe|en tuir bie ge» 
noffenfchaftliche entgegen. 3ht Kriterium 
beftebt barin, baft bie $rrftfllung ber Vto» 
bufte nicht mehr bem 3roecf bient, JBenige tu 
bereichern, fonbern bem. Allen bie Grgebniffe 
ber Vrobudion zugänglich zu machen. Grft 
bie Gntmonopoltfirunq ber Vrobudion *" ; - k 
bie Flüchte echter Kultur unb Humanität zur 
Weife bringen.— Ghicagoer „Vorbote". 



— Xie 3üri<her „Arbeiterftimme" fchteibt 
treffenb tu bem Zbema: „Xie Bebeutung 
ber Arbeiterpteffe" : „Xie befte SUaffe im 
Kampfe ber Verbefferung be« Xafein«, jur 
Gthohung ber Lebenshaltung, jurGrringung 
einer menfehentoürbigen G{iftenj hat bie At< 
beiterfchaft in ihrer Vteffe, bie rücfftchtSlo« 
alle ltebelftcl..be aufbeeft, bie Gnterbten unb 
Bebrücftrn aufruft unb fammelt, fte aufdärt 
unb roeiterbilbct, unb fo ben roirtunnSoollften 
Kampf gegen ben Gtbfcinb ber JRenfchen, 
ba« ift, gegen bie Xummheit ber JKenfchm 
felber." 



— Gincinnati, D. Xie an bem Bau 
ber F'fdJJlIe für ba« fominenbe grofte San» 
gerfeft befchäftigten 3> mm erleute haben bie 
Arbeit eingeftellt, roeil bie Bau»Gontra(toren 
ftch toeigerten, bie tägliche Arbeittjeit oon 10 
auf 0 Stunben hetabjufeyrn. 



Friends of LaLor. 

'*11 i.s with pleasure i hat we receive I he renewal 
contract of Cleveland & Wlitiehill Company, of 
Newhurteh, N. V , for Hnolher term of advertiaiuK 
of their '* Keyntoae M Overalls and Panta, and 
are requested l>y them to thank the members of 
our organization and nil Union men for their 
liberal patronage in the past, which haa insured 
a continuance of their advertising. This ia 
strictly a Union houae with a record of nineteen 
ycara in buaiaaaa without a strike. ” 



Von iüufctiflfeit für bie Arbeiter* Drflcinif 
fauun ift natbfte^enbe öntidjeibunft, welche 
Winter (Mieqeric^ in ber oupreme Souri in 
ber itlafle ber s Jtew I)oxl GUp Carpenter« 
Union fl'ßün bie Umteb iörotberboob of Gats 
pentcre \ 3°i n? ^ abaab. Xie Wew ?)or! 
Gilp Carpenter« (eine Meine „6plit' # *Drfta* 
nifation) b^tien otrlan^t, ber ^tietter folle 
^eqen bit Violl)tr!;oob einen Gin^alt«bcM)l 
erlaffen, urn ft e baran ,^u oetbinbent. fleften 
Witfllieber ber Jt 2). G. G» U ju ftreifen. 
2ev Siebter faqte nun in feiner Gntfcbet* 
bun^ ; 

# ,2a« bet fürUid) i n ^ro^efe oon 
Xaoih fte^en bie Uruleb Guqineer« abqegebe« 
nenGnti^eibunq (Mcunbe Itenenbe iJrin|ip 
(beult mir ami) auf ben oorliegenben $aUf 
anwenbbar ju fein. Xie Äla^er behaupten, 
bie IVitalieber bto Manhattan Sorougb 
Xiftrifti»4«uncilf ber oerflaflten Uniteb 
Vrotherfcoob of Garpenter# ^oinexi feien 
(Carpenter* weldjc ficb b^upttachlul) )u bem 
3wecf netbunben höben, um für ft(f) feibft 
Äibeit tu oer'ebaffen unb anbere Garpenter* 
baran tu peibmbent, unb bafe ^Jerftnen, 
welche l!Uti)tieber ber Affoaation ber ftlager 
b^ichäfti^en, ge^wunflett würben, biefelben ju 
entlaffen, um einen aliaenteinen Streif ju 
oernteiben. 

2homa* 2RcGracfen, ein Witalieb unb offi* 
Reflet Vertreter ber fldßeiUchen Union, bat 
beicbworcn, bafe, infolge be* tjartnacfigeu 
unb ungere(|iferti|ten Ginfchretten* ber An* 
geflagten unb ber mit ihnen affocirtcn Dr« 
ganifation gegen bie Bemühungen ber Pld* 
get, ftcb At belt $u oerf^aff en, e* ben Xldgern 
in ^iew flotf unb anber*wn täglid) febwieti« 
ger wirb, ©efc^Äftigung ^u erlangen unb bie« 
fr (be §u behalten. Unb bie Anlagen anberer 
Utitglieber ber flftgerifchen Union beft&ttgen 
bie*. 

Xao Verfahren ber Verflagten berechtigt 
bie ftläger, nach ben auf (Brunb ber angefübr* 
ten Gntfcheibnng bargelegten Regeln, su 
feiner ^ilft be* (geruht*, dichter Vatterfon, 
welcher ferner Gntftheibung im tarnen ber 
Waiorität be* Oerichte* abgab, hat auch ge« 
fagt : ift nicht ju be jmetfe ln, bag bie 

utitglieber ber (^ewerffchaften fowohl, wie 
^nbioibuen, berechtigt ftnb, |u fagen, baf* 
fte nicht mit V^fonen sufammenarbeiten 
wollen, bie nicht s u ihter Organifation ge« 
hören. Unb, ob fte bit* nun feibft tagen, 
ober e* burch ihre Organifation tagen laffen, 
ift qan§ einerlei* Sie haben ba* Hecht, ftch 
auf biefe Seife Vefchäftigung §u ftchetn. 
Xie Kläger hätten beweifen müffen, bah fte 
auf (grunb einer Uebereitifunft Anberer fte 
pon ber Arbeit au ^'chliefeen, ber Verfolg« 
uvig au*|efegt werben feien. 

„Senn man ba* Vft*au> auf ben oorli^# 



; 






I 



iS 




16 



THE CARPENTER 




ALABAMA. 

75. Birmingham. 

296. Knsley — 

89. Mobile — D. French, 601 Charleston st. 

92. “ (Col.) W. G. Lewis, 751 St. Louis st. 

ARKANSAS. 

248. Fayetteville— R. M. Gaut. 

86. Ft. Smith— H. G. Reed, Cor. 9th and Q st. 

CALIFORNIA. 

194. Alameda- C. H. Thrane, 2975 Johnson ave. 
332. Los Angeles— S. Gray, Box 224. 

36. Oakland— Clias. J. Jacobs, 1767 Grove st. 
235. Riverside— Chas. Hamilton, 277 5th st. 
San Francisco— Secretary of Dist. Council, 
Wm. J. Kidd, 220 3d st 

22. N. L. Wandel 1, 1133% Mission st, Sta. B. 

95. (Latin) L. Masarie, 44% Erie st. 

304. (Ger.) Wm. Jilge, 405 Ellsworth st. 

483. Guy Lathrop, 915J4 Market st. 

316. San Jose— W. J. Wilcox. 525 W. Julian st. 
35. San Rafael— J. J. Sheils. Box 194. 

ISO. Vallejo— 

CANADA. 

14. Brantford— I. W. Taylor, 158 Terrace Hill. 
83. Halifax, N. S.— Geo. Browue, 12 Willow st. 
18. Hamilton — W. J. Frtd, 25 Nelson st. 

131. Montreal— (Fr.) E. Frechette, 1736 St. 
Catherine. 

376. “ Allan Ramsay, 157 Quesnel st 

255. Rat Portage, Ont.— Jas. T. Marzetti. 

38. St. Catherines— James Hindson, Henry st. 
27. Toronto— D. D. McNeill. 288 Hamburg ave. 
617. Vancouver, B. C. — Alfred E. Coflin, 1213 
Richard st. 

343. Winnipeg, Man. — R. Bell, 76 Schultz st. 

COLORADO. 

264. Boulder— E. Liudboig. 

515. Colo. Springs— F rank Sawyer, Elk Hotel. 
Cripple Creek — Sec. of D C., Box 5, Macon 
P. O , Independence, Col. 

547. Cripple Creek— Will. Smith, 569 E. Myers. 
55. Denver— L. B. Reeder, 1332 California st. 
244. El Dora — J. H. Rehm. 

178. Independence— T. W. Reid, Macon, P. O. 
Box 5. 

234. Ouray— P. H. Shue. Box 549. 

584. Victor — C. E. Palmer, Box 384. 

CONNECTICUT. 

115. Bridgeport — Aug. Mullins, 72 Williams st. 
127. Derby — Geo. H. Lampert, 36 Bank st. 

43. Hartford— Alex. McKay, 57 Wooster st. 

97. New Britain— A. 1,. Johnson, 114 Franklin. 

79. New Haven — Wm. Wilson, 508 Chapel st. 
183. New London -a. G. Keenev, 1 W. Coit st. 
137. Norwich— F. S Edmonds, 293 Central ave. 
746. Norwalk— William A. Kellogg, Box 391. 
210. Stamford— R. B. McMillin, 176 Pacific st. 
216. Torrington— Cbas. Stewart, 47 Forest st. 

260. Waterbury— Jos. E. Sandiford, 27 N. Vine. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

190. Washington— J. T. Kenyon, 1415 Rhode 
Island ave., N. W. 

FLORIDA. 

22*1. Jacksonville— (Col.) J. A. Sampson, 26 W. 

Union st. 

005. “ A. C. MacNeit, 815 E. Church st 

74. Pensacola— J. A. Lyle, 316% W. Zawagossa 
107. (Colo.) 

096. Tampa- C. B. Hester, 2407 Tampa st. 

GEORGIA. 

439. Atlanta— T. H. J. Miller, 16 Venable st. 

136. Augusta— (Col.) T. P. Lewis. 1309 Philip st. 

240. “ W. M. Hare, 1927 Watkins st. 

283. “ George Derst, 1580 McDonald st. 

144. Macon— G. S. Bolton, 520 Elmst. 

261. Valdosta— S. W. Booker. 

IDAHO. 

V72. Wallace. 

ILLINOIS. 

433. Belleville— Henry Steiner, 605 S. Illinois 

fctreet. 

63. Bloomington— S. G. Cunningham, 601 E. 
Mill street. 

70. Brighton Park— O. Gratton, 3809 S. 
Albany Ave. 

293. Canton— J. C. Otto, 563 South 2nd ave. 

4L Champaign— J as. M. Armingtou, 204 W. 
Healyst. 

Chicago— Secretary of District Council, 
Thos. Neale, 187 E. Wash st., Room 7. 

I. W. G. Schardt, 189 E. Washingt’nst., Room 2. 
10. J. H. Stevens, 6029 Peoria st. 

13. T. J. Lelivelt, 1710 Fillmore st. 

21. (French) P. Hudon, 207 S. Center ave. 

54. (Bohem.) John Dlouhy, 1222 W. 21 PI. 

58. 'William W. Bennette. 1041 Roscoe st. 

181. (Scan.) J.C. Johnson, 895 N.Washtenaw ave. * 
242. (Ger.) Hermann Voell, 5114 Paulina st. 

416. Jas. Bell, 1310 W. 18th PI. 

419. (Ger.) John Suckrau, 8253 S. Oakley ave. 

521. (Stairs) Gust. Hansen, 732 N. Rockwell st. 

204. Coffeen — Jas. Morgan. 

295. Collinsville— Jos. Vujtech, Lock Box 471. 

269. Danville— E. A. Rogers, 9 Columbus st. 

169. East St. Louis— K. Wendling, 512 111. ave. 
62. Englewood — A. Wistrom, 6150 Aberdeen st. 

300. Galesburg— C. J. Johnson, 879 Wash’n ave. 
141. Grd. Crossing— J. Murray, 1299 E. 7Jst st. 

174. Joliet— G D. Kanagy. 305 Richmond st. 

434. Kensington — (Fr.) Ed. Lapolice, 214 W. 

116th st. 

159. Kewanf.e— Chas. Winquist, Box 1 1. 

250. Lake Forest— Chas. Dean, Box 65. 

270. Madison— J. P. Farley, Box 1 14. 

241. Moline— John Carlson, 1203 7th ave. 

80. Moreland— Jas. M. Parnie, 2011 Monroe st. 

Chicago. 

280. Mt. Olive— John Shreier. 

183. Peoria— J. H. Rice, 405 Behrends ave. 

195. Peru— H. J. Baldeschnieler. Box 550. 

189. Quincy— F. W. Euscher, 933 S. 8th st. 

166. Rock Island— W m. Krueger, Jr., 1101 4th. 
199. South Chicago— J. C. Grantham, 8023 Ed- 
wards ave., Sta. S, Chicago. 

16. Springfield— T. M.Blankenship, 724 S. 14th 

156. STAXJNtON — 

495. Strkator— Edw. Keaske, 1112 S. Blooming- 
ton st. 

448. Waukegan— J. Demerest, 719 County st. 

INDIANA. 

352. Anderson — Geo. Woodmauser, 1808 S. Mad. 

ave. 

652. Klwood — W. H. Shaw, 1350 S. A. st. 

90. Evansville — F. W. Klein, 513 Edgar st. 

160, Gas City- 

213. Hartford City— I. O. Bault. 

60. Indianapolis— tGer ) Jno. Eiscr, 1824 Sin- 
gleton st. 

281. ** J. T. Goode, 308 W. Maryland st. 
21 ö! LAFAYKTTfc— H. G. Cole, 2113 South st. 



365 Marion— J. M. Simons. 609 E. Sherman st. 
592. Muncie— H. P. Baker, 412 S. Franklin st. 
629, South Bend— G eo. W. Givin. 

205. Terre Haute— R. W. Floyd, 1618 3d ave. 
658. Vincennes— Levi Taylor, 1205 Perry st. 

220. Washington— J as. Ramsey, Jr. . 8 S.E. 7th st 

INDIAN TERRITORY. 

162. Muskogee— J. P. Hosmer. 

IOWA. 

315 Boone— G. L. McElroy. 

534. Burlington— J. Hackman, 905 S. Central ar. 
308. Cedar Rapids. 

551. Davenport— H. W. Schweider,1427 Mitchel 
106. Des Moines— U. S. G. Badgley, 1303 21st st. 
678. Dubuque— M. R. Hogan, 299 7th st. 

284. Fort Dodge.— A. S Jenkins 

767. Ottumwa— J.W. Morrison, 313 W. Fifth st, 

KANSAS. 

253. Argentine— M. Murphy, Box 347. 

138. Kansas City— G. McMulliu, 836 Muncie 
Boulevard. 

499. Leavenworth— Jno. E. Crcssley, 9th and 
Sherman. 

158. Topeka— A. M. H. Claudv, 408 Tyler st. 

201. Wichita— J. L- Taylor, 520 S. Osage st. 

KENTUCKY. 

712. Covington— C. Glatting, 1502 Kavanaugh st. 
785. 44 (Ger.) B. Kampsen, 262 W. 13th st. 

442. Hopkinsville— W. O Hall. 

103. Louisville— H. S. Huffman. 1737 Gallagher. 
214. “ (Ger.) J. Schneider. 1136 E. Jacob av. 

698. Newport — 5V. E. Wing, 622 Central ave 

LOUISIANA. 

New Orleans— S ecretary of Dist. Council 
F. G. Wetter, 2220 Josephine st. 

76. Aug. Limberg. 714 Foucher st. 

704. F. Duhrkop, 617 Cadiz st. 

739. M. Joaquin, 1304 St. Roche ave. 

85. Shreveport- L. Malkus, Box 261. 

MAINE. 

285. Batii— E. C. Plummer 97 Drummer St. 

407. Lewiston— C. F. Tinker, 19 Turner st. , 

Auburn. 

MARYLAND. 

29. Baltimore— W. H. Keenan, 1519 W. Mul- 
berry st. 

44. “ (Ger.) H B. Schroeder, 2308 Canton ave. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston— Secretary of Dist. Council, C. M. 
Dempsey, 272 Meridian St. 

33. “ C. J. Gallagher, 8 Rand PI., Roxbury. 

218. E. Boston— C. M. Dempsey. 272 Meridian st. 
323. Fall River— Isiah Dion, 162 Suffolk st. 

82. Haverhill— R. A. Clark, 36 Dudley st. 

424. Hingham — H. E. Wlierity, Box 113. 

123. Holyoke — F. Marchand, 46 Cabot st. 

490. Hudson— Geo. E. Bryant, Box 125. 

111. Lawrence— W m, C. Gemmel. 17 Crosby st. 
370. Lenox — P. H. Can na van. Box 27. 

19. Lowell — Frank A. Kappler, 291 Lincoln st. 

221. Marblehead— R. H. Roach, 9 Elm ct. 

151. Marlboro — J. O. Douohue, 37 School st. 

409. New Bedford — C.G. Francis, 216 North st. 
275. Newton- C. L. Connors, 82 West st. 

193. North Adams— G. W. Houghton, 1 Ryon’s 
Lane. 

444. Pittsfield— Chas Hvde, 16 Booth’s Place. 
67. Roxbury — H. M. Taylor, 116 Whitfield st., 
Dorchester. 

307. So. Framingham- 

96. Springfield— (French) P. Provost, Jr., Box 
485, Merrick. 

177. " P. J. Collins. 1365 State st. 

222. Westfield— H. G. Pomeroy, 30 Chestnut st. 

23. Worcester- W.A. Rossley, 5 City View ave. 

MICHIGAN. 

105. Alpena— B. D. Kelly , 410 Tawas st. 

116. Bay City— E. G. Gates, 218 N. Birney st. 

271. “ Chas. A. Richter, 1811 2d st. 

19. Detroit — T. S. Jordan, 427 Beaufaitave. 

308. 

190. Grand Rapids— A. Van Dyke, 61 Quimhyst. 
130. Hancock— Louis Verville, Box 116. 

297. Kalamazoo — Genet Van Eck, Burr Oak PI. 
173. Munising— A. L. Johnson. 

100. Muskegon— H arley W. Starke, 11 Marshall 
59. Saginaw— P. Frisch, 503 Ward st., E. S. 

334. “ Jacob Spindler, 1323 MacKmaw st. 

40. SaultSt. Marie— A.Stowell, 512 Cedar St. 
226. Traverse City— John J. Tisdale, 3187th st. 

MINNESOTA. 

361. Duluth— J ohn Knox. Box 283, W. Duluth. 

7. Minneapolis— Henning Stubee, 2303 E. 22d 
266. Red Lake Falls— N. Holberg. 

87. St. Paul — Nels Tohnson, 707 Martin st. 

MISSOURI. 

1. Kansas City— J. E. Chaffin, 2600 Park av. 

48. - Kirksville— 

110. St. Joseph— Wm. Zimmerman, 1223 N. 13th 
St. Louis— Secretary of District Council, 

R. Fuelle, 604 Market st. 

5. (Ger.) Wm. Limmert, 1910 Lami st. 

45. (Ger.) W. Wamhoff, 1416 Montgomery st. 

47. (Ger.) A. Hoffmann, 2121 Victor st. 

73. Geo. C. Newman. 7«)3 N. 15th st. 

257. J. A. Steininger, 3635 Lucky st. 

578. (Stair Bldrs.) Edw. Bruggemann, 2624 Madi- 
son st. 

MONTANA. 

88. Anaconda— C. W. Starr, box 238. 

256. Belt— Andrue Eckerson. 

112. Butte City— C. F. Nugent, Box 623. 

286 Great Falls— O. M. Lambert, Box 923. 

153 Helena— H. F. Smith, Ul9 5th ave. 

28. Missoula— M. C. Pepple. 

NEBRASKA. 

113. Lincoln- 

427. Omaha— J. H. Maus, 831 S. 28th st. 

279. S. Omaha— P. M. Connell, 511 N. 17th st. 

NEW JERSEY. 

7.50. Asbury Park— Wra. H. Carr, Box 897. 

486. Bayonne— P. A. Miller, 13 E 53d st. 

121. Bridgeton— J. H. Reeves, 145 Fayette st. 

20. Camden— T. E. Peterson, 430 Walnut st. 

217. E. Orange— L. P. Sherrer, 34 Bedford st. 

167. Elizabeth— H Zimmerman 240 South st. 

687. 44 (Ger.) John Kuhn, 11 Spencer st. 

265. Hackensack— T. Heath. 312 Union st. 

391. Hoboken — A. Crothers, 131 Jackson st. 

407. 44 (Ger.) H. Sievers, 400 Monroe st. 

57. Irvington — Chas. Van Wert. 

118. (Mill) John Hunt, 551 Grand st. 

157. (Stairs). 

139. Jersey City— Jos. G. Hunt, 440 Communi- 
paw ave. 

282. ‘ Tno. Johnson, 131 Broadway. 

282. 44 (Framers) Herman Paap, 90 

Willow ave., Hoboken. 
482. “ L.F. Ryan, 181 Ninth st. 

564. (J. C. Heights) John Handorf, North st. and 
Boulevard. 

151. Long Branch— C has. E. Brown, Box 241, 
Long Branch City. 

232. Milbürn— J H. White, Short Hills. 

305. MiLLViLLE-Jas. McNeal. 622 W. Main st. 
429. Montclair— J as. McLeod, 141 Forest st. 

638. Morristown— C. V. Deats, Lock Box 163. 
Newark— Secretary "of District Council, W. 
M. Shaw, 415 Plane st. 



119. H. G. Long, 10 Davis st., E. Newark. 

120. (Ger.) Fred. Tebe, 639 S. 18th st. 

143. Herrn. Henri, 287 Waverly st. 

306. A. L. Beegle, 120 N. 2d st. 

723. (Ger.) G. Arendt, 584 Springfield ave. 

319. Orange — M. Morlock, 17 Parkinson Ter. 
325. Paterson— P. E. Van Houten, 713 E. 27th st. 
49). Passaic— Geo. A. Quimby, 326 Montgomeiy 
85. Perth Amboy— W. H. Bath, 33 Lewis. st. 

399. Phillipsburg- W. S. Garrison, 8 Fayette st. 
155. Plainfield— Wm. H. Lunger, 94 Wester 
velt ave., N. Plainfield. 

31. Trenton — J. J. Rourke, 25 Market st. 

612. Union Hill— (Ger.) J. Worischek, 721 Adam 
st.. Hoboken. 

299. West Hoboken— 

NEW MEXICO. 

298. Alamogordo— G. S. Griffiths, Box 47. 

NEW YORK. 

274. Albany— L. B. Harvey, 492 3d st. 

659. 44 (Ger.) Wm. J. Franklin. 450 Elk st. 

6 Amsterdam— Lester Covey, 20 Milton st. 
453. ’Auburn— E. B. Koon, 116 Franklin st. 

24. Batavia— F. S. Booth. 142 Harvester ave. 
233. Binghampton— F. W. Sicklor, 23 High st. 
Bronx— Secretary of District Council, A. F. 

Roth, 18% South st., Mt Vernon. 
Brooklyn — Secretary of District Council, 
E. P. Mossein, 372 12th st. 

12. Otto Zeibig, 1432 De Kalb ave. 

32. (Ger.Cab.Mkrs.) Abraham Baumgartner, 157 

Hamburg ave. 

109. Edw. Tobin, 502 Schenck ave., Sub*Sta. 43. 
126. M. J. Casey, 85 Newell st. 

147. C. K. Brown, 272 Howard ave. 

175. W. F. Bostwick, 833 Roebling st. 

217. Chas. D. Monroe, 42 St. Mark’s ave. 

258. M. Spence, 342 Madison st., Brooklyn. 

291. (Ger) F. Kramer, 96 Hamburg ave. 

3SL. S. E Elliott, 1295 St. Mark’s ave. 

45L Wm. Carroll, 792 Bergen st. 

471. H. S. Thurber. 318a 15th st. 

639. Jos. Mitchell, 31 L 53d st. 

Buffalo— Secretary of District Council, 
Miles Little, 17 Pooley st. 

9. W. H. Wreggitt, 78 Edward st. 

132. (Mill.) 

355. (Ger.) Jno. Groele, 536 Doat st. 

374. E. O. Yokom, 19 Ferguson ave. 

410. J. H. Myers, 83 Landon st. 

99. Cohoes — A. Van Arnam, 22 George st. 

610. College Point— G. A. Pickel, 5th ave and 
11th st. 

81. Far Rockaway — Robt. Mulvey, Box 236. 
323. Fishkill-on-Hudson— W.W.Rowe, Box 215. 

714. Flushing— F. S. Field, 154 New Locust st. 
187. Geneva— G.W. Dadson, 26 Hollenbeck ave. 
229. cl lens Falls— K. J. White, 10 Gage ave. 

65. Hempstead— S. B. Chester. Box 82. 

149. Irvington— R obert Brown, Hastings-on- 
Hudson. 

603. Ithaca— E. A. Whiting, 8 Auburn st. 

66. Jamestown — O. D. Smith, 794 E. Second st. 
40. Kingsbridge— John K. Forshay, 861 Union 

ave.. New York City. 

251. Kingston— E. C. Peterson, 15 Sub Station. 
591. Little Falls— T. R. Mangan, 142 W. Mon- 
roe. 

289. Lock port, N.Y.— Wm.Crouthers. 91 Park av 
34. Long Island City— W. Fir man, 531 Jamaica 
ave. 

212. Mt. Vernon— A. H. Parker, 273 W. Lincoln 
avenue. 

493. 44 Jas. Beardsley, 11« N. 9th ave. 

301. Newburg — John Templeton. 159 Reuwick. 
42. New Rochelle — J. V. Gahan, 30 Birch st 
507. Newtown, L. I.— Peter A. Anderson, Box 13, 
Corona, N. Y. 

New York— Secretary of District Council, 
D. F. Featherston. 309 W. 143d st. 

51. J. J. Hewitt, 595 E. 183d st. CareNeilan. 

56. (Floor Layers) J. Hefner, 411 Steinway ave., 
L. I. City. 

6». Thos. P. J. Coleman , 7886th ave. , Care Molle. 
200. (Jewish) John Goldfarb, 84 P:. 113th st. 

309. (Ger. Cab. Makers) Simon Kuehl, 224 1st av. 

310. D. Vanderbeek, 13$ W. 133d st. 

375. (Ger.) F. W. Mueller, 537 E. 152d st. 

382. H. Seymour. 166 E. 67th. 

457. (Scan.) O. Wallin, 24 W. 118th st. 

461. (Ger.) Vincent Sauter, 677 Courtland ave. 

468. Jas. Maguire, 223 Delancev st. 

473. Wm. Trotter, 358 W. 48th st. 

476. Wm. E. P. Schwartz, 2 Brown’s Point, 
Astoria, L. I. 

47S. J. J. Plaeger, 3*117 3d ave. 

497. (Ger.) Geo. Bertliold, 321 K. 12th st. 

509. John McGrail, 174 E- 82nd st. 

513. (Ger.) Jno. H. Borrs, 1571 ave. A. 

707. (Fr Canadian) Geo. Menard, 218 E. 74th st. 

715. Chas. Camp, 223 W. 148th st. 

786. (Ger. Millwrights and Millers) Henry Maak, 
357 Linden st., Brooklyn. 

474. Nyack— R. F. Wool, Box 493. 

101. Oneonta — C. W. Burnside, 9 Walling ave. 
163. Peekskill— C. T. Powell, 306 Simpson pi. 
77. Portchester— Frank Stephen, 213 Madi- 
son ave. 

203. Poughkeepsie— J. P. Jacobson, Box 32. 

72. Rochester— H. M. Fletcher, 5 Snyder st. 
179. “ (Ger.) Frank Schwind, 4 May PI. 

231. 44 John Buehrle, 30 Buchan Park. 

146. Schenectady — Henry Bain, 326 Craig st. 
Staten Island— Secretary Dist. Council, 

J. W. Sheehan, 174 Broadway, West New 
Brighton. 

606. Port Richmond— J. Keenan, 238 Jersey st. , 
New Brighton. 

567. Stapleton— P. J. Klee Box 545. 

Syracuse — Secretary of District Council, 

D C. Parke, 537 Renwick ave. 

15. (Ger.) J. R. Rvan, 125 Gebhardt ave.* 

26. E. E Battey, 517 E. Genesee st. 

192. Chas. Silvernaii, 626 Vine st. 

78 Troy— David King. Box 65. 

125. Utica — G. W. Griffiths, 240 Dudley ave. 

580. Watertown— W. J. Mullen, 121 A. Main st. 
278. “ Robt. Parham. 

172. Westchester— Frank Vanderpool, Blon- 
dell ave. 

128. Whitestone— Geo. Belton, Box 8. 

593. Williams Bridge — John Edgley, White 
Plains ave , bet. 1st and 2nd sts. 

273. Yonkers — E. C. Hulse, 47 Maple st. 

726. “ F. M. Tallmadge, 216 Elm st. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

384. Asheville— G. C. Lumley, 51 Blanton st. 

OHIO. 

84. Akron— A. H. Bates, Flowers’ Court. 

17. Bellaire— G. W. Curtis, 3638 Harrison st. 
170. Bridgeport— John D Glenn, Box 41. 

140. Bucyrus— Wm. Rein, 622 E. Rensselaer st. 
215 Cambridge— V. C. Ferguson, 937 E. Stuben- 
ville ave. 

143. Canton— Chas. A. Rimuiel, 525 N. McKinley 
ave. 

Cincinnati— Secretary of District Council, 
J. H. Meyer, 23 Mercer st. 

2. J. E. Overbecke, 2622 Hackberry st., Walnut 
Hills. 

209. (Ger.) August Weiss, 969 Gest st. 

327. (Mill) H. Brink worth, 1315 Spring st. 

628. A. Berger, 4229 Fergus st. 

667. D. J. Jones, 2228 Kenton st.. Station D. 

676. Jos. Lang, Box 301, Carthage. 



692. J. P. Luckey, 2427 Bloom st. 

Cleveland— Secretary of District Council. 
W. H. Schultz, Room 1, Arch Hall. 393 
Ontario st. 

11. H. L. Lepole, 18 Poe ave. 

39. (Bohem.) V. Plechaty, 45 Jewett st. 

393 (Ger ) Theo. Welhrich, 16 Parker ave. 

449. (Ger.) Albert Karp. 953 Clark ave. 

61. Columbus— A. C. Welch, 1127 Highland st. 
104. Dayton- W. C. Smith, 132 S. La Bellest. E. 

B Gregg, pro tem.,34 Herman ave 
3*6. (Ger.) Jos. Wirth, 234 Hawker st. 

328. E. Liverpool— R. M. Newell, 5th st. 

294. E. Palestine— E. H. Maruer. 

637. Hamilton— W. C. Musch, 529 Heaton st. 

182. Lima— D. E. Speer, 114 E. Second st. 

703. Lockl and- Charles E. Hertel. Box 182. 

3)6. Marietta— J. W. Forester, 2Wosterlane. 
650. Pomeroy— E. D. Will. 

437. Portsmouth— C. Thoman, 110 Campbell 
ave. 

186. Steubenville — D. H. Peterson, 706 Adam*. 
213. Tiffin — R. S Dysinger, Hedges st. 

2o. Toledo— Martin Terwilliger, 526 Norwood 
ave. 

188* “ (Ger.) P. Goetz, 236 Palmer st. 

171. Youngstown— W. S. Stoyer, 715 Augusta st. 

716. Zanesville— Fred. Kappes, Central ave., 

10th Ward. 

OKLAHOMA TER. 

276. Oklahoma— F. F. Bland, 22J4 E. Main st. 

OREGON. 

50. Portland — David Henderson, Portland 
Heights. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

ALLEGHENY CITY— 

211. J. W. Pitts, 181 Washington ave. 

‘237. (Ger.) A. Weizman. 66 Troy Hill road. 

135. Allentown— A. M. Moyer, 136 N. 5th st. 
246. Beaver Falls— A. Barry, Box 611, New 
Brighton. 

406. Bethlehem— I. M. Swinker 412 Broadway, 
S. Bethlehem. 

124. Bradford — W. H. McQuown, 3 Charlotte 
ave. 

207. Chester— Eber S. Rigby, 316 E. Fifth st. 
239. Easton — Frank P. Horn, 914 Butler st. 

122. Germantown— J. E. Martin, 126 K. Duval. 
162. Greensburg— J H. B. Rowe, 236 Concord. 

287. Harrisburg— W. Bohner. 222 Peffer st. 

129. Hazleton — Wm.Kimmel 118 S. Laurel st. 

288. Homestead — Edwin Row?, fr., L. Box 527. 

208. Lancaster— Jos. Smith, 229 Chester st. 

206. New Castle— W. E. Kramer, 9 Lee ave. 

ington st. 

333. New' Kensington — C. S. Aulenbach. 

202. Peckville-W. J. McKelvy. 

Philadelphia— Sec. District Council, John 
Watson, 2618 Jasper st., Station K. 

8. W. C. Hall, 1433 S. Nineteenth .«t. 

227. (Kensington) John Watson, 2618 Jasper at. 

Station K. 

238. (Ger.) Joseph Oyen, 814 N. Fourth st. 

359. (Mill) J. Dueringer, Jr., 1909 K. Huntingdon. 
Pittsburgh— Secretary of District Council, 
J. G. Snyder, 412 Grant st. 

142. H. G. Schomaker, 126 Sherman ave., Alleg. 

164. (Ger.) P. Geek, 9 Lookout Alley. 

165. (E. End) H. Robertson. C112 Station st. E.K. 
202. G. W. McCausland, 130 Lambert st., K. E. 
230. W. J. Richey, 1601 Carson st. 

254. J. M. Richard, 159 Mayflower st. 

385. 

402. (Ger.) Louis Pauker. 18*4 Industry st., 31st 
Ward. 

150. Plymouth— G. H. Edwards, Box 1040. 

145. Sayre— Benton House. 

563. Scranton— H. C. Scott. 737 Lee C-urt. 

484. S. Scranton— (Ger.) T. Straub, 608 Alder at. 
37. Shamokin— H. A. L. Smink,510 K. Cameron. 
208. Sharon— S. B. Craig. 

757. Taylor— G eorge Wicks. Box 45. 

93. Wilkes-Barre— D A. Post, 17 Cinderella at. 

102. 44 A. H. Ayers, 63 Penn st. 

191. York— C. Snydeman, 301 N. West st. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

176. Newport— P. B. Dawley. 18 Levin st. 

342. Pawtccket— J. B. Parquet, Box 183, Valley 
Falls. 

94. Providence — P. Dolan, 9 Lawn st. 

117. Woonsocket— J. A. Praray, 84 Orchard st. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

52 Charleston— (Col ) John Plnckney,36 44 st. 
69. Columbia— (Col.) C. A. Thompson, 1523 K. 
Taylor st. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

197. Lead City — W. E. McGimans, Box 794. 

TENNESSEE. 

259. Jackson— D. K. Holland, 303 Long st. 

225 Knoxville — W. W. Ramsey, 310 Fousha st. 
152. Memphis — (Col.) D. H. Harris, cor. Laras and 
Austin ave. 

219. “ Chas. Miller, 148 Daine st. 

394. “ J E. Wright, 82 Manassas at. 

TEXAS. 

300. Austin— J. B. Webb, 505 W. 11th st. 

185. Cleburne— J. C. Green, L. Box 300. 

198. Dallas— Wm. Watkins, Box 299. 

371. Denison— W. W. Neighbour, 1315 W. 

Gandy st. 

Galveston— Secretary of District Council, 
H. L. Weinberg, 1221 Ave. A. 
520. J. E Proctor, 1414 19th st. 

611. (Ger.) Charles L. Walter. 2116 Ave. M 
114. Houston— E Shoop, 710 Capitol ave. 

53. Orange— C. B. Payne. 

460. San Antonio— (Ger.) Aug. Ries. 302 Plum. 

717. 44 “ A G. Wietzel, 135 Centre st. 

022. Waco — A. E. Widmer, Labor Hall. 

UTAH. 

184. Salt Lake City— A. Tracy, 976 Liberty ave 

VERMONT. 

263. St. Albans — Geo. W. Bromson, 12 Lower 
Weiden st. 

WASHINGTON. 

131. Seattle— F red. Bleukins, Preniont. 

98. Spokane— J. A. Andtrberg, 1929 Gardner ave 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

236. Clarksburg— J. W. Stealey. 

428. Fairmount— W. R. Hickman, 428 Benoir. 
ave. 

3. Wheeling— A. L. Bauer, 1619 Jacob st. 

WISCONSIN. 

588. Green Bay— H. Meister, 1128Cherrv st. 
161. Kenosha— H. C. Goseline, 7 Park Court. 

290. Lake Geneva— Ed. Rowland. 

Milwaukee— Secretary of District Council. 
Charles Heuer, 501 Twenty- fifth »-t. 

30. (Ger.) John Dettman. 1069 Maiden Lane. 

71. (Millwrs.) W. Trautmann, 1221 Vliet st. 

188. Aug. J. Hagen, 781 34th st. 

292. South Milwaukee— (Ger.) Harry Von 
Hatten. 

302. (Ger.) 

228. (Ger.) R. Meyers. 622 Union st. 

522. (Ger.) Chas. 'Runge. 1219 Garfield Ave. 

252. OsiiKOSH-Casper Fluor. 69 Grove st. 

91. Racine — M. G King. 1517 Phillipsave 

WYOMING. 

267. Diamondville— F. J. McGann. 



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THIS TRADE MARK IS **** 

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SAW SETS AND OTHER 
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specialties New York 

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V. B. C. & J. of America Society Good«. 
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S CHAS SVENDSEN, 

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Send for our Tool Catalotue. 

LOUIS ERNST & SONS 

129 & 131 East Main 3t 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



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Hundreds r * Cu r ;»et»teni praUe the beet book** 
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BOW TO FRAME A HOUSE, 

or House ent* Koo» framing 
ByCWF* B. .TaGINNIS 

It la • prmctfi s’ treatise ou the Isbit end best 
methods of laying out, fiauilng end reiste g tim- 
ber for boueee, t )gether with s complete end 
«silly understood system of Hoof Premlng, the 
whole makes u bendy a ad easily applied book 
for carpenters, both foremen ard Journeymen. 

CON TENTH.— Pari I. 

Chapter I. General desert ptlon of Balloon 
Frames, Framed Hills and their on ns traction. 

Chapter 11 Firs! Floor Beams or Joists, Story 
Sections. Second Floor Beams. Studding. Fram- 
ing of £>oor and Window Openings, Wall Plate« 
and Roof Timbers. 

Chapter IK. Laying oat and Working Bal- 
loon Frames, Girders, Sills, Posts and Studding 

Chapter IV. Laying out Flrat and Beoond 
Floor moists or Beams, Celling Joists and Wall 
! pla*««. 

Chapter V. Laying out and Framing the 
Roof. 

Chapter VI. Raising. 

PART. II Hoof- Framing.’ * 

Chapter I. Simple Rooffc. 

Chapter II. Hip and Valley Hoof*. 

Chapter III. Roofs of Irregular Plan. 

Chapter IV. Pyramidal Root«. 

Chapter V. Hexagonal Roofs. 

Chapter VI. Conical or Circular Koofii, etc , etc, 
FAKT III. 

How to Frame the Tiüj^ers for a Brick House. 

Chapter I. General Description Pl»*t Story 
Fireproof Floors, Studding snd Wood Floor 

Beams. 

Chapter II. Be >nd and Upper Story Beam-, 
Partitions, Hiidgtna and Angula« Framing. 

Chapter III. Fireproofing Wood Floor-, 
Partitions and Doora. 

Chapter IV. Roots, Bulkheads and Fronts. 

Chapter V Wood snd Iron Construction. 

Chapter VI. Heavy Beams and Girders and 
Hslslog Same. 

Chapter VII. low to Frsme a Ix>g Cabin 

The work Is Illustrated and explained by over 
HO large engravings of houses, roofs, sic., and 
bound in cloth. 



The above label printed on blue paper will be 
found on all plug tobacco snd on the wrappers 
ef chewing tobacco manufacturer« in union 
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Warranted the Best inthe World 



HAND MADE. 



PI ICK Ü.NLV 



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Fend Cash or Post Oftlcu Order t«» 

OWEN B. HAQINNI5, 

.lie Wut ia8tb St., New York City. 



ECLIPSE ADJUSTABLE FOLDING SQUARE 



The three illustrations ol the Kclipse 
v ' Adjustable Folding Square shown here 
, with, exhibits the square open, partially 
nosed or art for «ogles, and shut. I >»•- 
: Improvement In making Folding Kqimres 
‘ consists In securing the short blade by 
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onuare It also forma s locking device 
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can be adjusted at right angles ready for 
inotant use when required. It does away 
with cutting hole« Id th- ton or sides of 
small cheats and la protected from being 
bent or rusted when ieft standing or 
exposed to the weather Further infor- 
mation may be obtained from the 

Hanwfaeturera, SUCK 4k LARK 
Cleveland, Ohio. 







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PRINCIPLES 
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Get your dealer to buy the»e good» he'll do it lor the aflking and you'll help the ON IO.N 
oauRe or we'll send you tape meaaure. samples and nod! iiieaniireinent blank, with « 
daiuty gilt edged Russia leather pocket memorandum book free 

HAMILTON CARHARTT & COMPANV, DETROIT, MICHI8AN, 

The dim that ia making UNION MADE Clothing popular. 



the ATHA TOOL m newark^n 

Makers of Highest Grade Hammers 



C 3 KTS. 




WILL PULL A WIRK KRAI) 

Best Material, Best Shape, Best Finish 



P. C. ECKHARDT 

General Contractor $ Builder 

693 Ninth Avenue 





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ANCHOR BRAND 
Adze Eye Nail Hammers. 



LARGEST MANUFACTURERS IN THE WOBLB. 

FayBttB R. Plumb, Fhila., 

IriCOKPOM&TBD. 



Between 47th end 48th Streets 



TELEPHONE 1090-38 



NEW YORK 




S “TRUE AS A DIE." 

WROUGHT STEEL LOCKS 

OROIDE FINISH 

Strong, Durable, Inexpensive 

For Sale by all Hardware Dealers 

Carpenters will appieciate the feet that the 
measurement« of these locks are ami Must be 
e*act, as true as a die can make them. No 
. trouble and vexation in fitting 

Cats log us of Wrought „>,d Lo«k 

_ W MU, 00 appllmtlon 

RUSSELL & ERWIN M’F’G CO. 

Britain, Oonn. Ohloago. Now York. 

Philadelphia Baltimore. 



JESSE COX 
Attorney at Law 
HOWARD M. COX 
Mechanical Engineer 

I »AT K NTS 

6 iv 6 .)l Stock Excbuugc 



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wood , 

Him 



We will make you to order a penknife 
like cut «hove, with your picture and 
name thereon, w ith chamois case, lor ore 
dollar, or a big two-bladed Car} »enter \ 
Knife with German silver cap, black 
handle. 75 cents, or tortoise shell handle, 



ojyon Stock Exchange handle 75 cents, or tortoise shell handle 

one dollar. Blades warranted to stand 
/«* Salic and